Wernigerode is a town in the district of Harz, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Until 2007, it was the capital of the district of Wernigerode, its population was 35,041 in 2012. Wernigerode is located southwest of Halberstadt, is picturesquely situated on the Holtemme river, on the north slopes of the Harz Mountains. Wernigerode is located on the German Timber-Frame Road; the town lies at about 250 metres above sea level on the northeastern flank of the Harz Mountains in central Germany, at the foot of their highest peak, the Brocken, on the B 6 and B 244 federal highways and on the railway line from Halberstadt to Vienenburg that links the cities of Halle and Hanover. The River Holtemme flows through the town and, not far from its western gate, it is joined by the Zillierbach stream, known as the Flutrenne near its mouth. North of the town the Barrenbach flows through several ponds and empties into the Holtemme in the village of Minsleben; the historic town centre consists of a new town. The town's borough includes Hasserode, Nöschenrode, the residential estates of Stadtfeld and Harzblick as well as the villages of Benzingerode, Silstedt and Reddeber.
The borough measures 9.5 km from west to 6 km from north to south. Its highest point is the Brocken, at 1,141 metres above NN, its lowest is at 215 metres; the town lies on the German-Dutch holiday road known as the Orange Route. The Northern Harz Boundary Fault crosses the borough along which runs the watershed between the Weser and Elbe rivers. To the north precipitation flows into the Weser, to the southeast northeast, waters flow into the Elbe; this fault line runs through the suburb of Hasserode to the west south west of the city centre and forms the town's castle hill to the south east of the city centre. The borough of Wernigrode is divided into the town itself, including the villages of Hasserode and Nöschenrode incorporated before 1994 and five villages with their own parish councils that were integrated in 1994: Benzingerode, Reddeber and Silstedt. Wernigerode is located in the Central European transition subzone of the temperate climatic zone, its average annual temperature is 9.5 °C.
The warmest months are June to August with average temperatures of 16.0 to 18.3 °C and the coldest are December to February at 1.1 to 2.1 °C. The most rain falls in July, on average 54 millimetres, the least in February, with 30 millimetres on average; the climate, more the amounts of precipitation and temperatures, are influenced by the orographic rainfall caused by the Harz Mountains. Because the town lies in the rain shadow of the Harz, less precipitation falls here than in similar temperate regions without the protection of a mountain range. In addition the occasional föhn winds that occur result in an increase in temperatures. Wernigerode has a snow load class of 3 according to the German industrial standard, DIN 1055. Wernigerode was the capital of the medieval County of Stolberg-Wernigerode. In 1815, after the Napoleonic Wars, it became part of the Prussian Province of Saxony; the Hasseröder brewery was founded in Wernigerode in 1872. After World War II, Wernigerode was included in the new state Saxony-Anhalt within the Soviet occupation zone.
During the Communist years, the town was close to the inner German border. Wernigerode became part of the restored state of Saxony-Anhalt in 1990 after German reunification. There are no written sources confirming when the town was established. According to the latest research – for example, by Eduard Jacobs and Walther Grosse – there were no early relations with the Abbey at Corvey and the abbot there, instead the town name suggests it was a protected clearance settlement; the first area to be settle was the Klint, where there was a lowland castle, the so-called Schnakenburg. In 1805 the ruins of this castle site were demolished; the only part remaining is Haus Gadenstedt at Oberpfarrkirchhof 12 which dates to the year 1582. At the time of the first settlelement there was still ancient forest, typical of the Harz, on the heights of the Klint, which had first to be cleared, hence the suffix -rode in the town name which means "clearing"; the town was first mentioned in the records in 1121 in connexion with Count Adalbert of Haimar who had moved here from the region near Hildesheim and henceforth was titled the Count of Wernigerode.
On 17 April 1229 the settlement was granted town rights along the lines of that for Goslar. In 2004 Wernigerode celebrated the 775th anniversary of that occasion; as a result of the immigration of new townsfolk from the surrounding villages a new settlement called Neustadt, grew up on the northeastern edge of the old town. It was a farming settlement. St. John's Church was built as the parish church of Wernigerode's Neustadt in the last third of the 13th century in the Romanesque style. Runden, circa 1640 Ludwig Gepel, 7 January 1921 to 6 January 1933 Ulrich von Fresenius, 10 January 1933 to 20 April 1945 Max Otto, SPD/SED, 20 April 1945 to 1951 Gustav Strahl, 1951 to 1962 Martin Kilian, SED, 24 October 1962 to 1990 Herbert Teubner, CDU, 1990 to 1991 Horst-Dieter Weyrauch, CDU, 1991 to 1994 Ludwig Hoffmann, SPD, 1994 to 31 July 2008 Peter Gaffert, since 1 August 2008 Wernigerode contains several interesting Gothic buildings, including a fine town hall with a timber facade from 1498; some of the quaint old houses which have escaped the numerous fires through the years are elaborately adorned w
A crossword is a word puzzle that takes the form of a square or a rectangular grid of white-and black-shaded squares. The game's goal is to fill the white squares with letters, forming words or phrases, by solving clues, which lead to the answers. In languages that are written left-to-right, the answer words and phrases are placed in the grid from left to right and from top to bottom; the shaded squares are used to separate the phrases. Crossword grids such as those appearing in most North American newspapers and magazines feature solid areas of white squares; every letter is checked and each answer must contain at least three letters. In such puzzles shaded squares are limited to about one-sixth of the total. Crossword grids elsewhere, such as in Britain, South Africa and Australia, have a lattice-like structure, with a higher percentage of shaded squares, leaving about half the letters in an answer unchecked. For example, if the top row has an answer running all the way across, there will be no across answers in the second row.
Another tradition in puzzle design is that the grid should have 180-degree rotational symmetry, so that its pattern appears the same if the paper is turned upside down. Most puzzle designs require that all white cells be orthogonally contiguous; the design of Japanese crossword grids follows two additional rules: that shaded cells may not share a side and that the corner squares must be white. The "Swedish-style" grid uses no clue numbers, as the clues are contained in the cells which do not contain answers. Arrows indicate in which direction the clues have to be answered: horizontal; this style of grid is used in several countries other than Sweden in magazines, but in daily newspapers. The grid has one or more photos replacing a block of squares as a clue to one or several answers, for example, the name of a pop star, or some kind of rhyme or phrase that can be associated with the photo; these puzzles have no symmetry in the grid but instead have a common theme Substantial variants from the usual forms exist.
Two of the common ones are barred crosswords, which use bold lines between squares to separate answers, circular designs, with answers entered either radially or in concentric circles. "Free form" crosswords, which have simple, asymmetric designs, are seen on school worksheets, children's menus, other entertainment for children. Grids forming shapes other than squares are occasionally used. Puzzles are one of several standard sizes. For example, many weekday newspaper puzzles are 15×15 squares, while weekend puzzles may be 21×21, 23×23, or 25×25; the New York Times puzzles set a common pattern for American crosswords by increasing in difficulty throughout the week: their Monday puzzles are the easiest and the puzzles get harder each day until Saturday. Their larger Sunday puzzle is about the same level of difficulty as a weekday-size Thursday puzzle; this has led U. S. solvers to use the day of the week as a shorthand when describing how hard a puzzle is: e.g. an easy puzzle may be referred to as a "Monday" or a "Tuesday", a medium-difficulty puzzle as a "Wednesday", a difficult puzzle as a "Saturday".
One of the smallest crosswords in general distribution is a 4×4 crossword compiled daily by John Wilmes, distributed online by USA Today as "QuickCross" and by Universal Uclick as "PlayFour". Clues appear outside the grid, divided into an Across list and a Down list. For example, the answer to a clue labeled "17 Down" is entered with the first letter in the cell numbered "17", proceeding down from there. Numbers are never repeated; some Japanese crosswords are numbered from top to bottom down each column, starting with the leftmost column and proceeding right. Capitalization of answer letters is conventionally ignored; this ensures a proper name can have its initial capital letter checked with a non-capitalizable letter in the intersecting clue. Diacritical markings in foreign loanwords are ignored for similar reasons; some crossword clues, called straight or quick clues, are simple definitions of the answers. Some clues may feature anagrams, these are explicitly described as such. A straight clue is not in itself sufficient to distinguish between several possible answers, either because multiple synonymous answers may fit or because the clue itself is a homonym, so the solver must make use of checks to establish the correct answer with certainty.
For example, the answer to the clue "PC key" for a three-letter answer could be ESC, ALT, TAB, DEL, or INS, so until a check is filled in, giving at least one of the letters, the correct answer cannot be determined. In most American-style crosswords, the majority of the clues in the puzzle are straight clues, with the remainder being one of the other types described be
A combination puzzle known as a sequential move puzzle, is a puzzle which consists of a set of pieces which can be manipulated into different combinations by a group of operations. The puzzle is solved by achieving a particular combination starting from a random combination; the solution is required to be some recognisable pattern such as'all like colours together' or'all numbers in order'. The most famous of these puzzles is the original Rubik's Cube, a cubic puzzle in which each of the six faces can be independently rotated; each of the six faces is a different colour, but each of the nine pieces on a face is identical in colour, in the solved condition. In the unsolved condition colours are distributed amongst the pieces of the cube. Puzzles like the Rubik's Cube which are manipulated by rotating a layer of pieces are popularly called twisty puzzles; the mechanical construction of the puzzle will define the rules by which the combination of pieces can be altered. This leads to some limitations.
For instance, in the case of the Rubik's Cube, there are a large number of combinations that can be achieved by randomly placing the coloured stickers on the cube, but not all of these can be achieved by manipulating the cube rotations. Not all the combinations that are mechanically possible from a disassembled cube are possible by manipulation of the puzzle. Since neither unpeeling the stickers nor disassembling the cube is an allowed operation, the possible operations of rotating various faces limit what can be achieved. Although a mechanical realization of the puzzle is usual, it is not necessary, it is only necessary. The puzzle can be realized in virtual space or as a set of mathematical statements. In fact, there are some puzzles. An example is the 4-dimensional 3×3×3×3 tesseract puzzle, simulated by the MagicCube4D software. There have been many different shapes of Rubik type puzzles constructed; as well as cubes, all of the regular polyhedra and many of the semi-regular and stellated polyhedra have been made.
A cuboid is a rectilinear polyhedron. That is. Or in other words, a box shape. A regular cuboid, in the context of this article, is a cuboid puzzle where all the pieces are the same size in edge length. Pieces are referred to as "cubies". There are many puzzles which are mechanically identical to the regular cuboids listed above but have variations in the pattern and colour of design; some of these are custom made in small numbers, sometimes for promotional events. The ones listed in the table below are included because the pattern in some way affects the difficulty of the solution or is notable in some other way. An irregular cuboid, in the context of this article, is a cuboid puzzle where not all the pieces are the same size in edge length; this category of puzzle is made by taking a larger regular cuboid puzzle and fusing together some of the pieces to make larger pieces. In the formulae for piece configuration, the configuration of the fused pieces is given in brackets. Thus, a 2x2x2 is a 2 × 2 × 2 puzzle.
Puzzles which are constructed in this way are called "bandaged" cubes. However, there are many irregular cuboids. N-dimensional sequential move puzzles Puck puzzle WOWCube A large database of twisty puzzles The Puzzle Museum The Magic Polyhedra Patent Page
Puzzle video game
Puzzle video games make up a unique genre of video games that emphasize puzzle solving. The types of puzzles can test many problem-solving skills including logic, pattern recognition, sequence solving, word completion; the player may have unlimited time or infinite attempts to solve a puzzle, or there may be a time limit, or simpler puzzles may be made difficult by having to complete them in real time, as in Tetris. The genre is broad, but it involves some level of abstraction and may make use of colors, numbers, physics, or complex rules. Unlike many video games, puzzle video games do make use of "lives" that challenge a player by limiting the number of tries. In puzzle video games, players try for a high score or to progress to the next level by getting to a certain place or achieving some criteria. Puzzle games focus on logical and conceptual challenges the possibility of a zero sum game is present, although the games add time-pressure or other action-elements. Although many action games and adventure games involve puzzles such as obtaining inaccessible objects, a true puzzle game focuses on puzzle solving as the primary gameplay activity.
Games involve shapes, colors, or symbols, the player must directly or indirectly manipulate them into a specific pattern. Rather than presenting a random collection of puzzles to solve, puzzle games offer a series of related puzzles that are a variation on a single theme; this theme could involve logic, or understanding a process. These games have a simple set of rules, where players manipulate game pieces on a grid, network or other interaction space. Players must unravel clues in order to achieve some victory condition, which will allow them to advance to the next level. Completing each puzzle will lead to a more difficult challenge, although some games avoid exhausting the player by offering easier levels between more difficult ones. In adventure games, some stages require solving puzzles as a way to advance the story. There is a large variety of puzzle game types; some feed to the player a random assortment of blocks or pieces that they must organize in the correct manner, such as Tetris and Lumines.
Others present a preset game board or pieces and challenge the player to solve the puzzle by achieving a goal. Puzzle games are easy to develop and adapt, being implemented on dedicated arcade units, home video game consoles, personal digital assistants, mobile phones. An action puzzle or arcade puzzle requires that the player manipulates game pieces in a real-time environment on a single screen and with a time limit, to solve the puzzle or clear the level; this is a broad term, used to describe several subsets of puzzle game. Firstly, it includes falling-block puzzles such as Tetris and KLAX, it includes games with characters moving through an environment, controlled either directly or indirectly. This can cross-over with other action genres: a platform game which requires a novel mechanic to complete levels might be a "puzzle platformer", such as manipulating time in Braid, it includes other action games that require timing and accuracy with pattern-matching or logic skills, such as the first-person Portal and The Talos Principle.
Other notable action puzzle games include Team Ico's Ico, a linear, story driven game with puzzles based around traversing puzzle environments while protecting a helpless companion. Made by Team Ico is Shadow of the Colossus, a game in which the player solves puzzles that involve finding and exploiting the weaknesses of giant beasts in combat. Nintendo's The Legend of Zelda: Breath of the Wild is another example of an action puzzle game, the primary objective being to seek out and solve physics-based puzzles which offer helpful upgrades for defeating the final boss. A hidden object game is a genre of puzzle video game in which the player must find items from a list that are hidden within a picture. Hidden object games are a popular trend in casual gaming, are comparatively inexpensive to buy. Time-limited trial versions of these games are available for download. An early hidden object game was Alice: An Interactive Museum. Computer Gaming World reported in 1993 that "one disadvantage of searching through screen after screen for'switches' is that after a while one develops a case of'clickitus' of the fingers as one punches that mouse button like a chicken pecking at a farmyard".
Other early incarnations are the video game adaptations of the I Spy books published by Scholastic Corporation since 1997. Publishers of hidden object games include Sandlot Games, Big Fish Games, Awem Studio, SpinTop Games, Codeminion. Examples of hidden object game series include Awakening, Antique Road Trip, Dream Chronicles, Mortimer Beckett, Mystery Trackers, Hidden Expedition and Mystery Case Files. A reveal the picture game is a type of puzzle game that features piece-by-piece revealing of a photo or picture. A free online example is PicTAPr. A physics game is a type of puzzle video game wherein the player must use the game's physics to complete each puzzle. Physics games use realistic physics to make games more challenging; the genre is popular in online flash games and mobile games. Educators have used these games to demonstrate principles of physics. Popular physics games include The Incredible Machine, World of Goo, Crayon Physics Deluxe, Angry Birds, Cut the Rope, Portal, Portal 2, Monster Strike and The Talos Principle.
In tile-matching video games, the player manipulates tiles in o
Disentanglement puzzles are a type of mechanical puzzle that involves disentangling one piece or set of pieces from another piece or set of pieces. The reverse problem of reassembling the puzzle can be as hard as—or harder than—disentanglement. There are several different kinds of disentanglement puzzles, though a single puzzle may incorporate several of these features. Wire-and-string puzzles consist of: one piece of string, ribbon or similar, which may form a closed loop or which may have other pieces like balls fixed to its end. One or several pieces of stiff wire sometimes additional pieces like wooden ball through which the string is threaded. One can distinguish three subgroups of wire-and-string puzzles: Closed string subgroup: The pieces of string consist of one closed loop, as in the Baguenaudier puzzle; the string has to be disentangled from the wire. Unclosed loose string subgroup: The pieces of string are not closed, are not attached to the wire. In this case the ends of the string are fitted with a ball, cube or similar which stops the string from slipping out too easily.
The string has to be disentangled from the wire. Sometimes other tasks have to be completed instead, such as shifting a ring or ball from one end of the string to another end. Unclosed fixed string subgroup: The pieces of string are not closed, but are somewhere on its length attached to the wire. In these puzzles the string is not to be disentangled from the wire. One possible task may be to shift a ball from one end of the string to another end. One difficult puzzle was designed by R. Boomhower in 1966 and has been modified into different designs. Different versions include a paddle-shaped design, a vertical beam on a wood support, two vertical beams on a wood support. Variations have the string passing through the slot once or two times. Names have included the Boomhower puzzle, T-Bar puzzle, Wit's End puzzle, the Mini Rope Bridge puzzle; some sources identify a topologically-equivalent puzzle called the Mystery Key issued by the Peter Pan company in the 1950s. Wire puzzles consist of more entangled pieces of more or less stiff wire.
The pieces may not be closed loops. The closed pieces might have more complex shapes; the puzzle must be solved by disentangling the two pieces without bending or cutting the wires. Early wire puzzles were made from similar material. A plate-and-ring puzzle consists of three pieces: one plate or similar displaying many holes and/or indentations a closed or nearly closed ring or a similar item; the plate as well as the ring are made from metal. The ring has to be disentangled from the plate; some puzzles have been created which may appear deceptively simple, but are impossible to solve. One such puzzle is the "Notorious Figure Eight Puzzle", it is sometimes sold with instructions giving hints as to its level of difficulty, a "solution" is provided but is vague and impossible to follow, but the puzzle is impossible to solve. Most puzzle solvers try to solve such puzzles by mechanical manipulation, but some branches of mathematics can be used to create a model of disentanglement puzzles. Applying a configuration space with a topological framework is an analytical method to gain insight into the properties and solution of some disentanglement puzzles.
However, some mathematicians have stated that capturing the important aspects of many such puzzles can be difficult, there is no universal algorithm that will provide the solution to such puzzles. Borromean rings, a method of linking three closed loops, found in some disentanglement puzzles Human knot Unknotting problem Unlink
Oskar van Deventer
Oskar van Deventer is a Dutch puzzle maker. He prototypes puzzles using 3D printing, his work combines mathematics and design, he collaborates at academic institutions. Many of his combination puzzles are in mass production by Uwe WitEden. Oskar van Deventer has designed puzzles for Hanayama. Committee members of Nob Yoshigahara Puzzle Design Competition He was a Guinness World Record holder for his 17×17×17 "Over the Top Cube" Rubik's cube-style puzzle from 2012 to 2016, when it was beaten by a 22×22×22 cube. In addition to being a puzzle maker, Oskar is a research scientist in the area of media networking and holds a Ph. D. in optics. He has over 100 publications, over 80 patents applications, hundreds of standardization contributions. Gear cube: Previously named "Caution Cube" because there was a big chance to pinch your fingers with the gears, it was mass-produced by Mèffert's in 2010, but over time it appeared as several copies and shape mods of the same design. Gear Cube Extreme: A bandaged version of the Gear cube, where 4 gears are replaced for 4 standard edges, making the puzzle harder.
It was mass-produced by Mèffert's in 2010, was copied by other companies. Gear Shift: It was mass-produced by Mèffert's in 2011. David Gear Cube: Previously called "Polo cube" in reference to Alex Polonsky, it was mass-produced By Mèffert's in 2013. Geared Mixup: A variant of the gear cube where all faces can perform 90° rotations, allowing centers to be interchanged with edges, hence the term "mixup", it was mass-produced by Mèffert's in 2014. Geared 5×5×5: An unknown Chinese company mass-produced this puzzle in 2015 using a 3D printed sample, without the permission of Oskar. An agreement was met to please both sides. Gear Ball: A mass-produced spherical Gear cube made by Mèffert's. Mosaic cube: Previously called "Fadi cube", it is a corner turning puzzle with two cut depths similar to Okamoto and Greg's "Lattice Cube", it was mass-produced by Mèffert's in 2010. Planets puzzle: Four balls in a frame. Craters on the balls unblock movement on the adjacent balls. Rob's Pyraminx: It was mass-produced by Mèffert's in 2014.
Rob's Octahedron: It was mass-produced by Mèffert's in 2015. Mixup Cube: a 3×3×3 Rubik's cube that can perform 45° rotations on the middle layers, allowing centers interchange with edges, it was mass-produced by WitEden. Treasure chest: A 3 × 3 × 3 puzzle that when solved, can be opened, it was mass-produced by Mèffert's. Icosaix: A face turning icosahedron with jumbling movements, it was mass-produced by MF8 in 2015. Crazy Comet: Was mass-produced by LanLan without Oskar's permission in 2016 but a deal was archived later. Redi Cube: A corner turning puzzle mass produced by Moyu in 2017. Http://oskarvandeventer.nl/meffert.html Oskar van Deventer's list of his own puzzles https://www.youtube.com/user/OskarPuzzle His YouTube channel Bram Cohen