A teacher is a person who helps others to acquire knowledge, competences or values. Informally the role of teacher may be taken on by anyone. In some countries, teaching young people of school age may be carried out in an informal setting, such as within the family, rather than in a formal setting such as a school or college; some other professions may involve a significant amount of teaching. In most countries, formal teaching of students is carried out by paid professional teachers; this article focuses on those who are employed, as their main role, to teach others in a formal education context, such as at a school or other place of initial formal education or training. A teacher's role may vary among cultures. Teachers may provide instruction in literacy and numeracy, craftsmanship or vocational training, the arts, civics, community roles, or life skills. Formal teaching tasks include preparing lessons according to agreed curricula, giving lessons, assessing pupil progress. A teacher's professional duties may extend beyond formal teaching.
Outside of the classroom teachers may accompany students on field trips, supervise study halls, help with the organization of school functions, serve as supervisors for extracurricular activities. In some education systems, teachers may have responsibility for student discipline. Teaching is a complex activity; this is in part because teaching is a social practice, that takes place in a specific context and therefore reflects the values of that specific context. Factors that influence what is expected of teachers include history and tradition, social views about the purpose of education, accepted theories about learning, etc; the competencies required by a teacher are affected by the different ways in which the role is understood around the world. Broadly, there seem to be four models: the teacher as manager of instruction; the OECD has argued that it is necessary to develop a shared definition of the skills and knowledge required by teachers, in order to guide teachers' career-long education and professional development.
Some evidence-based international discussions have tried to reach such a common understanding. For example, the European Union has identified three broad areas of competences that teachers require: Working with others Working with knowledge and information, Working in and with society. Scholarly consensus is emerging that what is required of teachers can be grouped under three headings: knowledge craft skills and dispositions, it has been found that teachers who showed enthusiasm towards the course materials and students can create a positive learning experience. These teachers do not teach by rote but attempt to find new invigoration for the course materials on a daily basis. One of the challenges facing teachers is that they may have covered a curriculum until they begin to feel bored with the subject, their attitude may in turn bore the students. Students who had enthusiastic teachers tend to rate them higher than teachers who didn't show much enthusiasm for the course materials. Teachers that exhibit enthusiasm can lead to students who are more to be engaged, interested and curious about learning the subject matter.
Recent research has found a correlation between teacher enthusiasm and students' intrinsic motivation to learn and vitality in the classroom. Controlled, experimental studies exploring intrinsic motivation of college students has shown that nonverbal expressions of enthusiasm, such as demonstrative gesturing, dramatic movements which are varied, emotional facial expressions, result in college students reporting higher levels of intrinsic motivation to learn, but while a teacher's enthusiasm has been shown to improve motivation and increase task engagement, it does not improve learning outcomes or memory for the material. There are various mechanisms by which teacher enthusiasm may facilitate higher levels of intrinsic motivation. Teacher enthusiasm may contribute to a classroom atmosphere of energy and enthusiasm which feeds student interest and excitement in learning the subject matter. Enthusiastic teachers may lead to students becoming more self-determined in their own learning process; the concept of mere exposure indicates that the teacher's enthusiasm may contribute to the student's expectations about intrinsic motivation in the context of learning.
Enthusiasm may act as a "motivational embellishment", increasing a student's interest by the variety and surprise of the enthusiastic teacher's presentation of the material. The concept of emotional contagion, may apply. Research shows that student motivation and attitudes towards school are linked to student-teacher relationships. Enthusiastic teachers are good at creating beneficial relations with their students, their ability to create effective learning environments that foster student achievement depends on the kind of relationship they build with their students. Useful teacher-to-studen
Helena Třeštíková is a Czech documentary film director, member of the European Film Academy, the Czech Republic's Culture Minister. She resigned from the position in January 2007 after serving less than three weeks. Helena Třeštíková on IMDb
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia, was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the Czech Republic and Slovakia on 1 January 1993. From 1939 to 1945, following its forced division and partial incorporation into Nazi Germany, the state did not de facto exist but its government-in-exile continued to operate. From 1948 to 1990, Czechoslovakia was part of the Eastern Bloc with a command economy, its economic status was formalized in membership of Comecon from 1949 and its defense status in the Warsaw Pact of May 1955. A period of political liberalization in 1968, known as the Prague Spring, was forcibly ended when the Soviet Union, assisted by several other Warsaw Pact countries, invaded. In 1989, as Marxist–Leninist governments and communism were ending all over Europe, Czechoslovaks peacefully deposed their government in the Velvet Revolution. In 1993, Czechoslovakia split into the two sovereign states of Slovakia.
Form of state1918 – 1938: A democratic republic championed by Tomáš Masaryk. 1938 – 1939: After annexation of Sudetenland by Nazi Germany in 1938, the region turned into a state with loosened connections among the Czech and Ruthenian parts. A large strip of southern Slovakia and Carpatho-Ukraine was annexed by Hungary, the Zaolzie region was annexed by Poland. 1939 – 1945: The region was split into the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia and the Slovak Republic. A government-in-exile continued to exist in London, supported by the United Kingdom, United States and their Allies. Czechoslovakia adhered to the Declaration by United Nations and was a founding member of the United Nations. 1946 – 1948: The country was governed by a coalition government with communist ministers, including the prime minister and the minister of interior. Carpathian Ruthenia was ceded to the Soviet Union. 1948 – 1989: The country became a socialist state under Soviet domination with a centrally planned economy. In 1960, the country became a socialist republic, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic.
It was a satellite state of the Soviet Union. 1969 – 1990: The federal republic consisted of the Czech Socialist Republic and the Slovak Socialist Republic. 1990 – 1992: Following the Velvet Revolution, the state was renamed the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, consisting of the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic, reverted to a democratic republic. NeighboursAustria 1918 – 1938, 1945 – 1992 Germany Hungary Poland Romania 1918 – 1938 Soviet Union 1945 – 1991 Ukraine 1991 – 1992 TopographyThe country was of irregular terrain; the western area was part of the north-central European uplands. The eastern region was composed of the northern reaches of the Carpathian Mountains and lands of the Danube River basin. ClimateThe weather is mild summers. Influenced by the Atlantic Ocean from the west, Baltic Sea from the north, Mediterranean Sea from the south. There is no continental weather. 1918–1920: Republic of Czechoslovakia /Czecho-Slovak State, or Czecho-Slovakia/Czechoslovakia 1920–1938: Czechoslovak Republic, or Czechoslovakia 1938–1939: Czecho-Slovak Republic, or Czecho-Slovakia 1945–1960: Czechoslovak Republic, or Czechoslovakia 1960–1990: Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, or Czechoslovakia April 1990: Czechoslovak Federative Republic and Czecho-Slovak Federative Republic The country subsequently became the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic, or Československo and Česko-Slovensko.
The area was long a part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the empire collapsed at the end of World War I. The new state was founded by Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, who served as its first president from 14 November 1918 to 14 December 1935, he was succeeded by his close ally, Edvard Beneš. The roots of Czech nationalism go back to the 19th century, when philologists and educators, influenced by Romanticism, promoted the Czech language and pride in the Czech people. Nationalism became a mass movement in the second half of the 19th century. Taking advantage of the limited opportunities for participation in political life under Austrian rule, Czech leaders such as historian František Palacký founded many patriotic, self-help organizations which provided a chance for many of their compatriots to participate in communal life prior to independence. Palacký supported Austro-Slavism and worked for a reorganized and federal Austrian Empire, which would protect the Slavic speaking peoples of Central Europe against Russian and German threats.
An advocate of democratic reform and Czech autonomy within Austria-Hungary, Masaryk was elected twice to the Reichsrat, first from 1891 to 1893 for the Young Czech Party, again from 1907 to 1914 for the Czech Realist Party, which he had founded in 1889 with Karel Kramář and Josef Kaizl. During World War I small numbers of Czechs, the Czechoslovak Legions, fought with the Allies in France and Italy, while large numbers deserted to Russia in exchange for its support for the independence of Czechoslovakia from the Austrian Empire. With the outbreak of World War I, Masaryk began working for Czech independence in a union with Slovakia. With Edvard Beneš and Milan Rastislav Štefánik, Masaryk visited several Western countries and won support from influential publicists. Bohemia and Moravi
Lubomír Zaorálek is a Czech politician who served as the Minister of Foreign Affairs under Prime Minister Bohuslav Sobotka from 2014 to 2017. He has been the Member of the Chamber of Deputies since 1996. Zaorálek unsuccessfully ran for the premiership in the 2017 election but his Social Democratic Party received only 7% of the vote, he was born on 6 September 1956 in Ostrava, graduated from Jan Evangelista Purkyně University in Brno in 1982. He worked as a dramaturge at Czechoslovak Television in Ostrava. During the Velvet Revolution in November 1989 he participated in Civic Forum. Zaorálek was first elected to the Chamber of Deputies in 1996 as a member of the Czech Social Democratic Party, becoming the party's vice chairman in 2009. From 2002 to 2006, he was the Speaker of the Chamber of Deputies, he served as Minister of Foreign Affairs from 2014 to 2017 in the Cabinet of Prime Minister Bohuslav Sobotka. Official Chamber of Deputies website Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic official profile List of foreign ministers in 2017 List of current foreign ministers
Senate of the Czech Republic
The Senate of the Parliament of the Czech Republic referred to as Senate, is the upper chamber of the Parliament of the Czech Republic. The seat of the Senate is Wallenstein Palace in Prague; the Senate has 81 members, elected for six years, every two years one third of them, in one-seat constituencies through two rounds majority system. A candidate for the Senate does not need to be on a political party's ticket; the senate has four Vice-presidents. Its members participate in specialised commissions; the Senate Chancellery has been created to provide professional and technical services. The Senate occupies several historical palaces in centre of Prague, in Malá Strana quarter. In 2005 its budget was 561.2 million CZK. The Senate can delay a proposed law, approved by the Chamber of Deputies but this veto can be overridden by an absolute majority of the Chamber of Deputies in a repeated vote; the Senate, cannot be overridden when it votes on electoral law, constitutional law and on international treaties.
Senate decides on confirmation of judges of the Constitutional Court, proposed by the President. It uses this power to block unacceptable nominants and may propose new laws. However, the Senate does not get to vote on the country's budget or on confidence in the government, unlike the Chamber of Deputies; the President of the Senate is the second-highest official of the Czech Republic for ceremonial purposes, after the President of the Republic, but without much real political power. The Senate was established in constitutional law of the Czech National Council No. 1/1993 on 16 December 1992. The immediate reason for its creation was a need to find a place for members of the Federal Assembly, dissolved together with Czechoslovakia. Other reasons given were the positioning of the Senate as a safety device correcting laws endorsed by lower chamber and as a power balancing tool against the dominance of a single party regarding constitution and electoral law. Due to opposition by the Civic Democratic Alliance and those politicians fearing dilution of power the Senate was not set up.
The first elections were held in 1996, with voter turnout around 35%. Further elections were held in accordance with the Constitution every two years after that; the Senate has received criticism for being powerless and unnecessary for a country of the size of the Czech Republic. However, the most prominent critic of Czech Senate, prime minister Andrej Babiš, has expressed his plan to change the electoral into Chamber of Deputies into First-past-the-post voting, something that cannot be done without consent of the Senate, plus the Czech constitution prohibits such system for lower chamber. Results of the Czech Senate election, 2018 President of the Senate of the Czech Republic List of Presidents of the Senate of the Parliament of the Czech Republic Official website History and perspective of bicameral system in the Czech Republic
Martin Stropnický is a Czech politician and diplomat who served as Minister of Foreign Affairs from December 2017 to June 2018, was Minister of Defence from 2014 to 2017. From 2 January 1998 to 22 July 1998 he served as Minister of Culture. Before entering politics, he was an actor, songwriter and director. Stropnický graduated from the Theatre Faculty of the Academy of Performing Arts in Prague in 1980, worked in different theatres in Prague over the next decade including the Prague Municipal Theatre and the Vinohrady Theatre. In 1990 he began working at the Czechoslovak Ministry of Foreign Affairs, he graduated from the Diplomatic Academy of Vienna in 1991, subsequently served as the Czech Ambassador to Portugal and Italy. For a six-month period from January to July 1998, Stropnický was appointed Czech Minister of Culture in the caretaker government of Josef Tošovský, he subsequently returned to the diplomatic service, serving as Czech Ambassador to the Vatican from 1999 to 2003, before returning to the Vinohrady Theatre as artistic director.
He was elected to the Chamber of Deputies in 2013 and served as Minister of Defence in Bohuslav Sobotka's Cabinet. Following the 2017 legislative election, which saw Andrej Babiš taking over as Prime Minister, Stropnický became Minister for Foreign Affairs, as well as Deputy Prime Minister, assuming both positions on 13 December 2017. However, Babiš' government lost a confidence vote in the Chamber of Deputies, Stropnický was succeeded on 27 June 2018 by Jan Hamáček. On 1 October 2018, Stropnický resigned from Parliament to return to the diplomatic service as Czech Ambassador to Israel. Stropnický is married. In addition to Czech, he speaks English and Italian, with a passive knowledge of Portuguese and German. Stropnický is the father of Green Party councillor Matěj Stropnický. Media related to Martin Stropnický at Wikimedia Commons
Domažlice is a town in the Plzeň Region of the Czech Republic. Domažlice is a Municipality with Extended Competence and a Municipality with Commissioned Local Authority within the same borders. Domažlice was first recorded as a town in 1231. Přemysl Otakar II of Bohemia ordered the city to be fortified for the purpose of protecting the border with Bavaria, it would remain fortified from 1262 to 1265. Border guards were recruited from the Chodové; the city was mortgaged to Bavaria in 1331, lasting until 1419. Under Hussite rule, German citizens were expelled from the city, since the population has been predominantly Czech. In 1431, Prokop the Bald defeated the crusaders of the Holy Roman Empire near Domažlice; the 15th and 16th century saw Domažlice change hands but its importance diminished following the end of the Thirty Years' War. It was not until 1770 that it recovered due to innovations in the textile industry; until 1918 the town was part of the Austrian monarchy, finding itself on the Austrian side of the Austro-Hungarian internal frontier following the 1867 "Ausgleich".
It was the district capital of the district with the same name, being one of the 94 Bezirkshauptmannschaften in Bohemia. Within the context of the Czech National Revival, Domažlice became a central place during the 19th century. At the time, it was the most western ethnic Czech town close to the border with the Kingdom of Bavaria. In the city, a pilgrimage took place on August 13, 1939, which developed into a large Czech protest demonstration against the German occupation and control of the ethnic Czech Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia; the German population was expelled in 1945 according to the Potsdam Agreement. In 2005 a mass grave was discovered on the outskirts of the town, holding 54 Germans members of the local SA, executed by the Czech resistance after the end of the war, around May 8, 1945. Furth im Wald, Germany Furth bei Göttweig, Austria Ludres, France Media related to Domažlice at Wikimedia Commons http://www.domazlice.info - Official site of Domažlice Domažlice http://www.idomazlice.cz - Information service of Domazlice