Pavel Šporcl is a Czech violinist. He was a notable pupil of Václav Snítil, he combines a talent for classical music with a rather unorthodox presence, with a characteristic headscarf.Šporcl is married to actress Barbora Kodetová. They have three daughters: Lily Marie and Sophie. Website
A musical ensemble known as a music group or musical group, is a group of people who perform instrumental or vocal music, with the ensemble known by a distinct name. Some music ensembles consist of instruments, such as the jazz quartet or the orchestra; some music ensembles consist of singers, such as choirs and doo wop groups. In both popular music and classical music, there are ensembles in which both instrumentalists and singers perform, such as the rock band or the Baroque chamber group for basso continuo and one or more singers. In classical music, trios or quartets either blend the sounds of musical instrument families or group together instruments from the same instrument family, such as string ensembles or wind ensembles; some ensembles blend the sounds of a variety of instrument families, such as the orchestra, which uses a string section, brass instruments and percussion instruments, or the concert band, which uses brass and percussion. In jazz ensembles or combos, the instruments include wind instruments, one or two chordal "comping" instruments, a bass instrument, a drummer or percussionist.
Jazz ensembles may be instrumental, or they may consist of a group of instruments accompanying one or more singers. In rock and pop ensembles called rock bands or pop bands, there are guitars and keyboards, one or more singers, a rhythm section made up of a bass guitar and drum kit. Music ensembles have a leader. In jazz bands and pop groups and similar ensembles, this is the band leader. In classical music, concert bands and choirs are led by a conductor. In orchestra, the concertmaster is the instrumentalist leader of the orchestra. In orchestras, the individual sections have leaders called the "principal" of the section. Conductors are used in jazz big bands and in some large rock or pop ensembles. In Western classical music, smaller ensembles are called chamber music ensembles; the terms duet, quartet, sextet, octet and dectet describe groups of two up to ten musicians, respectively. A group of eleven musicians, such as found in The Carnival of the Animals, is called either a hendectet or an undectet.
A soloist playing unaccompanied is not an ensemble. A string quartet consists of a viola and a cello. There is a vast body of music written for string quartets, as it is seen as an important genre in classical music. A woodwind quartet features a flute, an oboe, a clarinet and a bassoon. A brass quartet features a trombone and a tuba. A saxophone quartet consists of a soprano saxophone, an alto saxophone, a tenor saxophone, a baritone saxophone; the string quintet is a common type of group. It is similar to the string quartet, but with an additional viola, cello, or more the addition of a double bass. Terms such as "piano quintet" or "clarinet quintet" refer to a string quartet plus a fifth instrument. Mozart's Clarinet Quintet is a piece written for an ensemble consisting of two violins, a viola, a cello and a clarinet, the last being the exceptional addition to a "normal" string quartet; some other quintets in classical music are the wind quintet consisting of flute, clarinet and horn. Classical chamber ensembles of six, seven, or eight musicians are common.
In most cases, a larger classical group is referred to as an orchestra of some type or a concert band. A small orchestra with fifteen to thirty members is called a chamber orchestra. A sinfonietta denotes a somewhat smaller orchestra. Larger orchestras are called philharmonic orchestras. A pops orchestra is an orchestra that performs light classical music and orchestral arrangements and medleys of popular jazz, music theater, or pop music songs. A string orchestra has only string instruments, i.e. violins, violas and double basses. A symphony orchestra is an ensemble comprising at least thirty musicians. A symphony orchestra is divided into families of instruments. In the string family, there are sections of violins, violas and basses; the standard woodwind section consists of flutes, soprano clarinets, bassoons. The standard brass section consists of horns, trumpets and tuba; the percussion section includes the timpani, bass drum, snare drum, a
The Czech Republic known by its short-form name, Czechia, is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast. The Czech Republic covers an area of 78,866 square kilometres with a temperate continental climate and oceanic climate, it is a unitary parliamentary republic, with 10.6 million inhabitants. Other major cities are Brno, Ostrava and Pilsen; the Czech Republic is a member of the European Union, NATO, the OECD, the United Nations, the OSCE, the Council of Europe. It is a developed country with an advanced, high income export-oriented social market economy based in services and innovation; the UNDP ranks the country 14th in inequality-adjusted human development. The Czech Republic is a welfare state with a "continental" European social model, a universal health care system, tuition-free university education and is ranked 14th in the Human Capital Index, it ranks as the 6th safest or most peaceful country and is one of the most non-religious countries in the world, while achieving strong performance in democratic governance.
The Czech Republic includes the historical territories of Bohemia and Czech Silesia. The Czech state was formed in the late 9th century as the Duchy of Bohemia under the Great Moravian Empire. After the fall of the Empire in 907, the centre of power transferred from Moravia to Bohemia under the Přemyslid dynasty. In 1002, the duchy was formally recognized as an Imperial State of the Holy Roman Empire along with the Kingdom of Germany, the Kingdom of Burgundy, the Kingdom of Italy, numerous other territories, becoming the Kingdom of Bohemia in 1198 and reaching its greatest territorial extent in the 14th century. Beside Bohemia itself, the King of Bohemia ruled the lands of the Bohemian Crown, holding a vote in the election of the Holy Roman Emperor. In the Hussite Wars of the 15th century driven by the Protestant Bohemian Reformation, the kingdom faced economic embargoes and defeated five consecutive crusades proclaimed by the leaders of the Catholic Church. Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, the whole Crown of Bohemia was integrated into the Habsburg Monarchy alongside the Archduchy of Austria and the Kingdom of Hungary.
The Protestant Bohemian Revolt against the Catholic Habsburgs led to the Thirty Years' War. After the Battle of the White Mountain, the Habsburgs consolidated their rule, eradicated Protestantism and reimposed Catholicism, adopted a policy of gradual Germanization; this contributed to the anti-Habsburg sentiment. A long history of resentment of the Catholic Church followed and still continues. With the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the Bohemian Kingdom became part of the German Confederation 1815-1866 as part of Austrian Empire and the Czech language experienced a revival as a consequence of widespread romantic nationalism. In the 19th century, the Czech lands became the industrial powerhouse of the monarchy and were subsequently the core of the Republic of Czechoslovakia, formed in 1918 following the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire after World War I. Czechoslovakia remained the only democracy in this part of Europe in the interwar period. However, the Czech part of Czechoslovakia was occupied by Germany in World War II, while the Slovak region became the Slovak Republic.
Most of the three millions of the German-speaking minority were expelled following the war. The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia won the 1946 elections and after the 1948 coup d'état, Czechoslovakia became a one-party communist state under Soviet influence. In 1968, increasing dissatisfaction with the regime culminated in a reform movement known as the Prague Spring, which ended in a Soviet-led invasion. Czechoslovakia remained occupied until the 1989 Velvet Revolution, when the communist regime collapsed and market economy was reintroduced. On 1 January 1993, Czechoslovakia peacefully dissolved, with its constituent states becoming the independent states of the Czech Republic and Slovakia; the Czech Republic joined NATO in 1999 and the EU in 2004. The traditional English name "Bohemia" derives from Latin "Boiohaemum", which means "home of the Boii"; the current English name comes from the Polish ethnonym associated with the area, which comes from the Czech word Čech. The name comes from the Slavic tribe and, according to legend, their leader Čech, who brought them to Bohemia, to settle on Říp Mountain.
The etymology of the word Čech can be traced back to the Proto-Slavic root *čel-, meaning "member of the people. The country has been traditionally divided into three lands, namely Bohemia in the west, Moravia in the east, Czech Silesia in the northeast. Known as the lands of the Bohemian Crown since the 14th century, a number of other names for the country have been used, including Czech/Bohemian lands, Bohemian Crown and the lands of the Crown of Saint Wenceslas; when the country regained its independence after the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian empire in 1918, the new name of Czechoslovakia was coined to reflect the union of the Czech and Slovak nations within the one country. After Czechoslovakia dissolved in 1992, the Czech part lac
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Jaroslav Kocian was a Czech violinist, classical composer and teacher. He studied in Prague under Otakar Ševčík, is considered together with Jan Kubelík as the most important representative of "Ševčík´s school". An interpreter of violin compositions of Johann Sebastian Bach, he is noted for his compositions for the violin, which have been recorded most by his student Josef Suk. He taught at the Prague Conservatory. Free scores by Jaroslav Kocián at the International Music Score Library Project
Hradec Králové is a city of the Czech Republic, in the Hradec Králové Region of Bohemia. The city's economy is based on food-processing technology, photochemical, EMS and IT. Traditional industries include musical instrument manufacturing – the best known being PETROF pianos; the University of Hradec Králové is located in the city, the University of Defense has its only medical faculty in Hradec Králové and Charles University in Prague has its Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Králové and Faculty of Pharmacy there. The city lies at the confluence of the Elbe and the Orlice rivers close to Krkonoše, the highest of Czech mountains, with its peak, Sněžka, at 1602m; the original name of one of the oldest settlements in the Czech Republic was Hradec. In Latin, the Castle of the Queen was called Grecz Reginae, the original German Königingrätz was shortened to Königgrätz by 1800, it remained a dowry town until 1620. Hradec Králové was the first town to declare for the national cause during the Hussite Wars in the first half of the 15th century.
After the Battle of White Mountain, a large segment of the Protestant population left the area. In 1639 the town was occupied for eight months by the Swedes. Several churches and convents were pulled down to make way for fortifications erected under Joseph II; the Battle of Königgrätz, the decisive battle of the Austro-Prussian War, took place on 3 July 1866 near Hradec Králové. This event is commemorated in the famous "Königgrätzer Marsch". Moreover, the battle put an end to the age of fortifications, which were destroyed in 1884; the city is situated in the centre of a fertile region called the Golden Road, at the confluence of Elbe and Orlice, contains many buildings of historical and architectural interest. The Cathedral of the Holy Spirit was founded in 1303 by Elizabeth, the church of St. John, built in 1710, stands on the ruins of the old castle. During the 1920s and 1930s the city grew thanks to decisions made by the heads of the city to develop a modern city, which included razing the fortress and opening the town for expansion.
During this era many buildings of modern architecture were built, Hradec Králové became known as the Salon of the Republic. This nickname was given to the city by its citizens who were enamored by the architecture of Josef Gočár and Jan Kotěra. Hradec Králové Airport is a public domestic and private international airport located about 3 km from the city centre. There are no scheduled flights operating to the airport, it is sometimes visited by private jet traffic. Every May, an Air Ambulance Show is held for both Air Ambulance personnel; every June an international theatre festival, takes place. Since 2004 the city hosts one of the biggest European hip hop festivals, in August. Since 2007 the city hosts Rock for the biggest rock festival in the Czech Republic, in July. "Jazz goes to town", an international jazz festival, is held in Hradec Králové every October. The city's museum holds one of the oldest surviving collections of Czech Renaissance polyphony, the Codex Speciálník manuscript; the city is home to one of the Czech Republic's leading orchestras, the Hradec Králové Philharmonic Orchestra.
The ice hockey club of Hradec Králové is Mountfield HK. The most successful football club is FC Hradec Králové, which plays in the Czech National Football League; the women's basketball team, Hradecké Lvice, plays in the national women basketball league. Josef Čapek, writer, poet Avigdor Dagan, Israeli diplomat Josef Gočár, architect Jiří Horák, 1st Chairman of Czech Social Democratic Party Viktor Mucha, dermatologist Jiří Petr, Rector Emeritus, Czech University of Agriculture Prague František Plesnivý, architect Baron Carl von Rokitansky, pathologist Jan Šindel, mathematician Otakar Vávra, film director Dušan Salfický, hockey player Vít Jedlička, president of Liberland Václav Snítil, violinist Václav Kliment Klicpera, founder of Klicpera theatre, dramatist Bohuslav Balbín, geographer, writer Kateřina Siniaková, professional tennis player Sonja Vectomov, musical artist Antonín Petrof, piano maker Hradec Králové is twinned with: There are two cooperating towns: Biskupské gymnázium Bohuslava Balbína Cathedral of the Holy Spirit New Hradec, North Dakota Official website Photo gallery with a map Virtual show
Robert Schumann was a German composer and influential music critic. He is regarded as one of the greatest composers of the Romantic era. Schumann left the study of law, his teacher, Friedrich Wieck, a German pianist, had assured him that he could become the finest pianist in Europe, but a hand injury ended this dream. Schumann focused his musical energies on composing. In 1840, after a long and acrimonious legal battle with Wieck, who opposed the marriage, Schumann married Wieck's daughter Clara. Before their marriage, Clara—also a composer—had supported her father through her considerable career as a pianist. Together and Robert encouraged, maintained a close relationship with German composer Johannes Brahms; until 1840, Schumann wrote for the piano. He composed piano and orchestral works, many Lieder, he composed four symphonies, one opera, other orchestral and chamber works. His best-known works include Carnaval, Symphonic Studies, Kinderszenen and the Fantasie in C, his writings about music appeared in the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik, a Leipzig-based publication that he co-founded.
Schumann suffered from a mental disorder that first manifested in 1833 as a severe melancholic depressive episode—which recurred several times alternating with phases of "exaltation" and also delusional ideas of being poisoned or threatened with metallic items. After a suicide attempt in 1854, Schumann was admitted at his own request to a mental asylum in Endenich near Bonn. Diagnosed with psychotic melancholia, he died two years at the age of 46 without recovering from his mental illness. Schumann was born in Zwickau, in the Kingdom of Saxony, the fifth and last child of Johanna Christiane and August Schumann. Schumann began to compose before the age of seven, but his boyhood was spent in the cultivation of literature as much as music—undoubtedly influenced by his father, a bookseller and novelist. At age seven, Schumann began studying general music and piano with Johann Gottfried Kuntzsch, a teacher at the Zwickau high school; the boy developed a love of music, worked on his own compositions, without the aid of Kuntzsch.
Though he disregarded the principles of musical composition, he created works regarded as admirable for his age. The Universal Journal of Music 1850 supplement included a biographical sketch of Schumann that noted, "It has been related that Schumann, as a child, possessed rare taste and talent for portraying feelings and characteristic traits in melody,—ay, he could sketch the different dispositions of his intimate friends by certain figures and passages on the piano so and comically that everyone burst into loud laughter at the similitude of the portrait."At age 14, Schumann wrote an essay on the aesthetics of music and contributed to a volume, edited by his father, titled Portraits of Famous Men. While still at school in Zwickau, he read the works of the German poet-philosophers Schiller and Goethe, as well as Byron and the Greek tragedians, his most powerful and permanent literary inspiration was Jean Paul, a German writer whose influence is seen in Schumann's youthful novels Juniusabende, completed in 1826, Selene.
Schumann's interest in music was sparked by attending a performance of Ignaz Moscheles playing at Karlsbad, he developed an interest in the works of Beethoven and Mendelssohn. His father, who had encouraged his musical aspirations, died in 1826 when Schumann was 16. Thereafter, neither his mother nor his guardian encouraged him to pursue a music career. In 1828, Schumann left school, after a tour during which he met Heinrich Heine in Munich, he went to Leipzig to study law. In 1829, he continued his law studies in Heidelberg, where he became a lifelong member of Corps Saxo-Borussia Heidelberg. During Eastertide 1830, he heard the Italian violinist, violist and composer Niccolò Paganini play in Frankfurt. In July he wrote to his mother, "My whole life has been a struggle between Poetry and Prose, or call it Music and Law." By Christmas he was back in Leipzig, at age 20 taking piano lessons from his old master Friedrich Wieck, who assured him that he would be a successful concert pianist after a few years' study with him.
During his studies with Wieck, some stories claim that Schumann permanently injured a finger on his right hand. Wieck claimed that Schumann damaged his finger by using a mechanical device that held back one finger while he exercised the others—which was supposed to strengthen the weakest fingers. Clara Schumann discredited the story, saying the disability was not due to a mechanical device, Robert Schumann himself referred to it as "an affliction of the whole hand." Some argue that, as the disability appeared to have been chronic and have affected the hand, not just a finger, it was not caused by a finger strengthening device. Schumann devoted himself instead to composition. To this end he began a study of music theory under Heinrich Dorn, a German composer six years his senior and, at that time, conductor of the Leipzig Opera. About this time Schumann considered composing an opera on the subject of Hamlet; the fusion of literary ideas with musical ones—known as program music—may have first taken shape in Papillons, Op. 2, a musical portrayal of events in Jean Paul's novel Die Flegeljahre.
In a letter from Leipzig dated April 1832, Schumann bids his brothers, "Read the last scene in Jean Paul's Flegeljahre as soon as possible, because the Papillons are intended as a musical repre