Komárom-Esztergom is an administrative Hungarian county in Central Transdanubia Region. It shares borders with the Hungarian counties of Győr-Moson-Sopron, Veszprém, Fejér and Pest and the Slovakian Nitra Region, its county seat is Tatabánya. After World War I and the break-up of empires, the Hungarian Soviet Republic came to power in 1919, followed by the Kingdom of Hungary. Komárom-Esztergom was created from the Hungarian parts of the pre-1918 counties Komárom and Esztergom part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire; the pre-1918 situation was temporarily restored during World War II. Between 1950 and 1990, during the Communist regime, the county was called Komárom. Since the establishment of Hungary, it was named Komárom-Esztergom to refer to its historic past. In 2015, it had a population of 299,110 and the population density was 132/km². Hungarians constitute the majority of the population; the chief minorities are ethnic Germans and Slovaks. Total population: 304,568 Ethnic groups: Identified themselves: 270 933 persons: Hungarians: 252 432 Germans: 9 168 Gypsies: 4 261 Slovaks: 3 174 Others and indefinable: 1 898 Approx.
48,000 persons in Komárom-Esztergom County did not declare an ethnic group at the 2011 census. Religious adherence in the county according to 2011 census: Catholic – 111,919; the Komárom-Esztergom County Council, elected at the 2014 local government elections, is made up of 15 counselors, with the following party composition: Komárom-Esztergom County has 1 urban county, 11 towns, 3 large villages and 61 villages. The county is ranked second in terms of population density among counties in Hungary: 66% of people live in towns. Cities with county rights Tatabánya – county seatTowns Villages municipalities are large villages. Official site in Hungarian and German 24 Óra - The county portal
Geographic coordinate system
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection; the invention of a geographic coordinate system is credited to Eratosthenes of Cyrene, who composed his now-lost Geography at the Library of Alexandria in the 3rd century BC. A century Hipparchus of Nicaea improved on this system by determining latitude from stellar measurements rather than solar altitude and determining longitude by timings of lunar eclipses, rather than dead reckoning. In the 1st or 2nd century, Marinus of Tyre compiled an extensive gazetteer and mathematically-plotted world map using coordinates measured east from a prime meridian at the westernmost known land, designated the Fortunate Isles, off the coast of western Africa around the Canary or Cape Verde Islands, measured north or south of the island of Rhodes off Asia Minor.
Ptolemy credited him with the full adoption of longitude and latitude, rather than measuring latitude in terms of the length of the midsummer day. Ptolemy's 2nd-century Geography used the same prime meridian but measured latitude from the Equator instead. After their work was translated into Arabic in the 9th century, Al-Khwārizmī's Book of the Description of the Earth corrected Marinus' and Ptolemy's errors regarding the length of the Mediterranean Sea, causing medieval Arabic cartography to use a prime meridian around 10° east of Ptolemy's line. Mathematical cartography resumed in Europe following Maximus Planudes' recovery of Ptolemy's text a little before 1300. In 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by representatives from twenty-five nations. Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England as the zero-reference line; the Dominican Republic voted against the motion, while Brazil abstained. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in 1911.
In order to be unambiguous about the direction of "vertical" and the "horizontal" surface above which they are measuring, map-makers choose a reference ellipsoid with a given origin and orientation that best fits their need for the area they are mapping. They choose the most appropriate mapping of the spherical coordinate system onto that ellipsoid, called a terrestrial reference system or geodetic datum. Datums may be global, meaning that they represent the whole Earth, or they may be local, meaning that they represent an ellipsoid best-fit to only a portion of the Earth. Points on the Earth's surface move relative to each other due to continental plate motion and diurnal Earth tidal movement caused by the Moon and the Sun; this daily movement can be as much as a metre. Continental movement can be up to 10 m in a century. A weather system high-pressure area can cause a sinking of 5 mm. Scandinavia is rising by 1 cm a year as a result of the melting of the ice sheets of the last ice age, but neighbouring Scotland is rising by only 0.2 cm.
These changes are insignificant if a local datum is used, but are statistically significant if a global datum is used. Examples of global datums include World Geodetic System, the default datum used for the Global Positioning System, the International Terrestrial Reference Frame, used for estimating continental drift and crustal deformation; the distance to Earth's center can be used both for deep positions and for positions in space. Local datums chosen by a national cartographical organisation include the North American Datum, the European ED50, the British OSGB36. Given a location, the datum provides the latitude ϕ and longitude λ. In the United Kingdom there are three common latitude and height systems in use. WGS 84 differs at Greenwich from the one used on published maps OSGB36 by 112 m; the military system ED50, used by NATO, differs from about 120 m to 180 m. The latitude and longitude on a map made against a local datum may not be the same as one obtained from a GPS receiver. Coordinates from the mapping system can sometimes be changed into another datum using a simple translation.
For example, to convert from ETRF89 to the Irish Grid add 49 metres to the east, subtract 23.4 metres from the north. More one datum is changed into any other datum using a process called Helmert transformations; this involves converting the spherical coordinates into Cartesian coordinates and applying a seven parameter transformation, converting back. In popular GIS software, data projected in latitude/longitude is represented as a Geographic Coordinate System. For example, data in latitude/longitude if the datum is the North American Datum of 1983 is denoted by'GCS North American 1983'; the "latitude" of a point on Earth's surface is the angle between the equatorial plane and the straight line that passes through that point and through the center of the Earth. Lines joining points of the same latitude trace circles on the surface of Earth called parallels, as they are parallel to the Equator and to each other; the North Pole is 90° N. The 0° parallel of latitude is designated the Equator, the fun
A postal code is a series of letters or digits or both, sometimes including spaces or punctuation, included in a postal address for the purpose of sorting mail. In February 2005, 117 of the 190 member countries of the Universal Postal Union had postal code systems. Although postal codes are assigned to geographical areas, special codes are sometimes assigned to individual addresses or to institutions that receive large volumes of mail, such as government agencies and large commercial companies. One example is the French CEDEX system. There are a number of synonyms for postal code. CAP: The standard term in Italy. CEP: The standard term in Brazil. Eircode: The standard term in Ireland. NPA in French-speaking Switzerland and Italian-speaking Switzerland. PIN: The standard term in India. Sometimes redundantly called a PIN code. PLZ: The standard term in Germany, German-speaking Switzerland and Liechtenstein. Postal code: The general term is used in Canada. Postcode: This solid compound is popular in many English-speaking countries and is the standard term in the Netherlands.
ZIP code: The standard term in the United States and the Philippines. The development of postal codes reflects the increasing complexity of postal delivery as populations grew and the built environment became more complex; this happened first in large cities. Postal codes began with postal district numbers within large cities. London was first subdivided into 10 districts in 1857, Liverpool in 1864. By World War I, such postal district or zone numbers existed in various large European cities, they existed in the United States at least as early as the 1920s implemented at the local post office level only although they were evidently not used throughout all major US cities until World War II. By 1930 or earlier the idea of extending postal district or zone numbering plans beyond large cities to cover small towns and rural locales was in the air; these developed into postal codes. The name of US postal codes, "ZIP codes", reflects this evolutionary growth from a zone plan to a zone improvement plan, "ZIP".
Modern postal codes were first introduced in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic in December 1932, but the system was abandoned in 1939. The next country to introduce postal codes was Germany in 1941, followed by Singapore in 1950, Argentina in 1958, the United States in 1963 and Switzerland in 1964; the United Kingdom began introducing its current system in Norwich in 1959, but they were not used nationwide until 1974. The characters used in postal codes are The Arabic numerals "0" to "9" Letters of the ISO basic Latin alphabet Spaces, hyphens Postal codes in the Netherlands did not use the letters'F','I','O','Q','U' and'Y' for technical reasons, but as all existing combinations are now used, these letters were allowed for new locations starting 2005. The letter combinations "SS", "SD", "SA" are not used for historical reasons. Postal codes in Canada do not include the letters D, F, I, O, Q, or U, as the optical character recognition equipment used in automated sorting could confuse them with other letters and digits.
The letters W and Z are used, but are not used as the first letter. The Canadian Postal Codes use alternate letters and numbers in this format: A9A 9A9In Ireland the eircode system uses the following letters only: A, C, D, E, F, H, K, N, P, R, T, V, W, X, Y; this serves two purposes: to avoid confusion in OCR, it helps to avoid accidental doubles-entendres by avoiding the creation of word look-alikes, as Eircode's last 4 characters are random. Most of the postal code systems are numeric. Alphanumeric systems can, given the same number of characters, encode many more locations. For example, while a 2 digit numeric code can represent 100 locations, a 2 character alphanumeric code using ten numbers and twenty letters can represent 900 locations; the independent nations using alphanumeric postal code systems are: Argentina Brunei Canada Ireland Jamaica Kazakhstan Malta Netherlands Peru The postal code format in Peru was updated in February 2011 to be of the format of five digits. Somalia Swaziland United Kingdom Countries which prefix their postal codes with a fixed group of letters, indicating a country code, include Andorra, Barbados and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.
ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country codes were recommended by the European Committee for Standardization as well as the Universal Postal Union to be used in conjunction with postal codes starting in 1994, but they have not become used. Andorra, Barbados, Ecuador and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines use the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 as a prefix in their postal codes. In some countries the numeric postal code is sometimes prefixed with a country code when s