click links in text for more info


In Norse mythology, Völsung was the son of Rerir and the eponymous ancestor of the ill-fortuned Völsung clan, which includes the well known Norse hero Sigurð. He was murdered by the Geatish king Siggeir and avenged by one of his sons and his daughter Signy, married to Siggeir. Völsung's story is recorded in a series of legends about the clan; the earliest extant versions of the cycle were recorded in medieval Iceland. Völsung is the subject matter of the Middle High German epic poem Nibelungenlied and is mentioned as Wæls in the Old English epic Beowulf. Völsung was the great-grandson of Odin himself, it was Odin's consort Frigg who made sure that Völsung would be born. Völsung's parents, who were the king and queen of Hunaland, could not have any children until the goddess sent them an apple of fertility carried by the giantess Hljod. Völsung's father, died shortly after this, but his wife was pregnant for six years, until she had had enough, she commanded that the child be delivered by caesarean section, an operation that in those days cost the life of the mother.

Völsung was a strong child and he kissed his mother before she died. He was proclaimed king of Hunaland and when he had grown up he married the same giantess Hljod. Together they had ten sons and one daughter, including the twins Signy, their daughter, Sigmund, the most courageous and beautiful of their sons. Völsung built himself a great hall in the centre of which stood a large oak tree called the Barnstokkr. Siggeir, the King of the Geats, soon proposed to Signy. Both Völsung and his sons approved. A great wedding was held in the hall, when a stranger appeared, he could not be anyone but Odin. He took his sword and stuck it deep into the trunk. Odin told everyone, he vanished. Everyone at the wedding tried to pull the sword but only Sigmund succeeded, he did so effortlessly. Siggeir, his brother-in-law, offered thrice its weight in gold for the sword, but Sigmund scornfully said no; this angered Siggeir, he swore that one day the sword would be his and he would be avenged on the Völsung family. He returned home the next day.

Before he left he invited the Völsungs to conclude the feast with him. Three months Völsung and his sons sailed to Siggeir's land, they were met by Signy. They refused to turn back, whereupon Signy implored them to go home. Soon they were attacked by Siggeir's army. Völsung fell and his ten sons were taken captive. For the continued story, see Sigmund; the story of Völsung and his children, from the marriage of Signy to Siggeir to Sigmund's vengeance on Siggeir, is retold in the novelette "Vengeance" by Arthur Gilchrist Brodeur, which appeared in the magazine Adventure, June 30, 1925. Brodeur was a professor at Berkeley and became well known for his scholarship on Beowulf and other Norse sagas; as Völsungakviđa en Nýja J. R. R. Tolkien retells the story in the Old Norse verse style of the Poetic Edda, it was published posthumously together with a poetic retelling of the Niflung saga under the title, The Legend of Sigurd and Gudrún. The Völsung tale was the inspiration for much of Richard Wagner's second and third operas of the Ring cycle.

Siegmund and his twin sister Sieglinde reconnect and fall in love in Die Walküre, Siegmund pulls the sword from the tree. Their son Siegfried goes on to become a hero in Siegfried. Völsung Cycle Tyrfing Cycle The Story of Sigurd: Völsunga Saga retold by Andrew Lang Beowulf in modern English by Francis Barton Gummere Beowulf in modern English by John Lesslie Hall Dráp Niflunga translated by Henry Adams Bellows

Oxoboxo River, Connecticut

Oxoboxo River is a census-designated place in the town of Montville in New London County, United States. The population was 3,165 at the 2010 census; the statistical area encompasses the town center of Montville, as well as the adjacent villages of Palmertown and Uncasville. The name of the statistical area is from the river of the same name running through the CDP; the U. S. Postal Service includes the entire area of the CDP in ZIP code 06382, for which the USPS uses "Uncasville" as the place name; the Uncasville ZIP code encompasses the Mohegan reservation, including the Mohegan Sun casino complex, other parts of Montville. The CDP takes its name from the Oxoboxo River, a tributary of the Thames River that flows through the CDP. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 11.6 km², of which 11.0 km² is land and 0.6 km² is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,938 people, 1,245 households, 776 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 266.3/km².

There were 1,356 housing units at an average density of 122.9/km². The racial makeup of the CDP was 90.50% White, 1.60% African American, 1.29% Native American, 2.55% Asian, 1.09% from other races, 2.96% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.51% of the population. There were 1,245 households out of which 26.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.0% were married couples living together, 11.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.6% were non-families. 31.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.95. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 23.0% under the age of 18, 7.3% from 18 to 24, 28.5% from 25 to 44, 24.6% from 45 to 64, 16.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 102.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.2 males.

The median income for a household in the CDP was $43,714, the median income for a family was $51,987. Males had a median income of $37,775 versus $29,028 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $23,310. About 5.3% of families and 6.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.5% of those under age 18 and 6.6% of those age 65 or over

Schulze Baking Company Plant

Schulze Baking Company Plant is a factory building located on the South Side of Chicago, United States. It is located at 40 East Garfield Boulevard in the Washington Park community area in Cook County. Built in 1914, the building was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on November 12, 1982. Built for the Schulze Baking Company, it was the home of the Hostess Brands' Butternut Bread until 2004; the building features a terra cotta exterior with ornamentation. The original flooring is made of reinforced concrete. In the early 21st century, the building fell into a state of disrepair. In 2016, however, a developer stated that the building was being rehabilitated for adaptive reuse in 2017 and following years as a data center; the building is located between the western edge of Washington Park and the Dan Ryan Expressway along a section of Garfield Boulevard that hosted prominent businesses including Schulze and the Wanzer Milk Company. The area has suffered from economic crime during the second half of the 20th century.

One of the few significant remaining businesses in the old Black Belt during this time was Hostess, which still used the building to make Butternut Bread. Schulze, with its signature Butternut Bread became Interstate Bakeries Corporation/Hostess Brands; the business was once Chicago's largest wholesale business entity. Although, according to Form 10-K filings by the Interstate Bakeries Corporation with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission, the Schulze Baking Company was not formed until 1927, many records contradict this claim. Historical accounts of Chicago claim that Paul Schulze, 1910-11 president of the National Association of Master Bakers, started the Schulze Baking Company in 1893 with his brothers. Interstate's own company history confirms the 1893 beginning of Schulze. In 1912, prior to the construction of the plant, the company had four baking plants throughout the city of Chicago and general offices in the Chicago Stock Exchange Building on LaSalle Street in the Chicago Loop.

In the 1910s, the company had extensive legal battles regarding protecting its trademarks. In 1921 Paul Schulze sold control of the company to Ralph Leroy Nafziger. In 1930 Nafziger announced the formation of Interstate Bakeries through the merger of Schulze Baking and Western Bakeries of Los Angeles to form Interstate Bakeries. Schulze and Western continued to maintain their own separate companies under the Interstate umbrella until 1937 when Schulze formally became Interstate. Paul Schulze went on to operate small bakeries elsewhere under the name of Schulze and Burch Biscuit Company; the building is a white terra cotta structure designed by John Ahlschlager in 1914 for the Schulze Baking Company. The terra cotta walls were five storeys high; the building featured blue lettering, foliated cornice ornamentation, stringcourses of rosettes. The building uses 700 windows grouped to complement the ornamentation's allusion to themes of nature and purity; the ornamentation is considered abstract and modern.

The company used Apron conveyor manufactured by the Jeffrey Manufacturing Company of Ohio. A lengthy low industrial complex extends northward behind the main five-story building; the structure has a flat concrete slab floor with four-way reinforcement designed to support 300 pounds per square inch. The dimensions of the building 298 feet 4 inches by 160 feet and it is composed of floor space segmented into 17 feet 6 inches by 20 feet; the second floor is 9 inches thick except in the 7 feet 6 inches square surrounding each column where it is 14 inches thick. As of late 2008, the building was showing signs of wear and neglect. At least one terra cotta cornice was missing, the building had numerous walkway coverings to protect passersby from falling debris such as further terra cotta loss. One side wall was propped up with wood beams at 45 degree angles. In addition, the building had some graffiti markings. However, developer Ghian Foreman stated in February 2016 that the rehabilitation of the former Schulze Baking Company plant into a data center, to be called the Midway Technology Center, was on schedule for operation in 2017.

The adaptive reuse project involved the investment of more than $130 million. Official City of Chicago Washington Park Neighborhood Map

Bant's Carn

Bant's Carn is a Scillonian entrance grave on the island of St Mary's in the Isles of Scilly. The tomb stands on a low platform 12 metres across; the entrance is 1 metre high, with no roof. It is separated from the burial chamber by a jamb; the chamber itself measures around 5 metres in length and 1.5 metres in width and height, with four large capstones serving as a roof. The tomb was excavated in 1900 by George Edward Bonsor Saint Martin, who found the remains of four cremations at the back of the chamber, along with sherds of Neolithic and Bronze Age pottery. Restoration work in 1970, led by P. Ashbee, including re-setting the eastern capstone and southern portal stone; this work uncovered decorated prehistoric pottery fragments from around the portal stone as well as two worked flints which were given to the Isles of Scily Museum in December 1976. This site includes remains of post-medieval field systems and other occupation. It, together with the nearby late Iron Age/Romano-British village of Halangy Down is now in the guardianship of English Heritage.

A military battery built in 1905 stands nearby. Porth Hellick Down Bant's Carn: English Heritage

Myurellopsis kilburni

Myurellopsis kilburni is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Terebridae, the auger snails. The species name kilburni honors the South African malacologist Richard Kilburn. Shells of Myurella kilburni can reach a length of 43 millimetres; these shells show an ivory color with fulvous-brown or lavender-brown markings. This species can be found from South Africa to French Polynesia and Hawaii, at depth of 1 to 110 m. Bratcher T. & Cernohorsky W. O.. Living terebras of the world. A monograph of the recent Terebridae of the world. American Malacologists, Florida & Burlington, Massachusetts. 240pp Drivas, J. & M. Jay. Coquillages de La Réunion et de l'île Maurice Terryn Y.. Terebridae: A Collectors Guide. Conchbooks & NaturalArt. 59pp + plates. Severns M. Shells of the Hawaiian Islands - The Sea Shells. Conchbooks, Hackenheim. 564 pp. Fedosov, A. E.. Phylogenetic classification of the family Terebridae. Journal of Molluscan Studies


C-command is a relationship between the nodes of grammatical parse trees. A working definition of c-command is that node X c-commands node Y if a sister of X dominates Y. C-command is associated with the generative phrase structure grammars of the Chomskyan tradition, is not applicable to the tree structures of other theories of syntax, such as dependency grammars. C-command relations have served as the basis for many explorations and explanations of phenomena within the field of syntax, it has been taken to be the basic configurational relation underlying binding, has played a central role in the analysis of diverse syntactic mechanisms, such as parasitic gaps and the scope of quantifiers. Informally, if a node has any sibling node it c-commands its siblings and all of their descendants. Common terms to represent the relationships between nodes are below: M is a parent or mother to A and B. A and B are children or daughters of M. A and B are sisters. M is a grandparent to C and D; the standard definition of c-command is based on the relationship of dominance: Node N1 dominates node N2 if N1 is above N2 in the tree and one can trace a path from N1 to N2 moving only downwards in the tree.

For a node to c-command another node the sister of N1 must establish dominance over N2. Based upon this definition of dominance, node N1 c-commands node N2 if and only if: Node N1 does not dominate N2, N2 does not dominate N1, The first branching node that dominates N1 dominates N2. For example, according to the standard definition, in the tree at the right, M does not c-command any node because it dominates all other nodes. A c-commands B, C, D, E, F, G. B c-commands A. C c-commands D, F, G. D c-commands C and E. E does not c-command any node because it does not have any daughter nodes. F c-commands G. G c-commands F. If node A c-commands node B, B c-commands A, it can be said that A symmetrically c-commands B. If A c-commands B but B does not c-command A A asymmetrically c-commands B; the notion of asymmetric c-command plays a major role in Richard Kayne's theory of Antisymmetry. Reinhart’s definition, one of the earlier definitions on this concept, is based on the relation of immediate dominance: Node N1 dominates node N2 if N1 is above N2 in the tree and there is no node in between N1 and N2.

Based upon this definition of immediate dominance, node N1 c-commands node N2 if and only if the branching node X1 dominating N1, either: Dominates N2, or Is dominated by node X2 which dominates N2 According to Reinhart's definition, a node can c-command itself, sister nodes can c-command each other, c-command relations involving X’ over X can be represented. For example, according to Reinhart's definition, in the tree at the right, Z does not c-command any node because there is no node dominating it. Y c-commands Y, X2, W, X1, V, U, T. X2 c-commands Y, X2, W, X1, V, U, T. W c-commands W, X1, V, U, T. X1 c-commands W, X1, V, U, T. V does not c-command any node because W dominating V, is not a branching node. U c-commands W, V, U, T. T c-commands W, V, U, T. A number of variations of the c-command relationship have been proposed, a prominent one being m-command, used in defining the notion of government; the term c-command was introduced by Tanya Reinhart in her 1976 dissertation and is a shortened form of constituent command.

Reinhart thanks Nick Clements for suggesting both the term and its abbreviation. However, the concept Reinhart was developing was not new to syntax. Similar configurational notions had been circulating for more than a decade. In 1964, Klima defined a configurational relationship between nodes he labeled "in construction with". In addition, Langacker proposed a similar notion of "command" in 1969; because c-command can be used to establish constituency it plays a key role in a variety of applications in syntax and semantics, including binding, quantifier scope, syntactic movement. One application of the c-command relation is found in the study of binding, which investigates the possible syntactic relationships between personal pronouns and their antecedents. Binding Theory consists of three principles, the role of c-command differs amongst them: Principle A: An anaphor must be bound in its domain Principle B: A pronominal must be free in its domain Principle C: An R-expression must be free In order to establish binding, the bound element must be c-commanded and be co-referenced with an antecedent element.

Without a c-commanding relationship, binding cannot be established. These relationships between pronouns and antecedents appear to be subject to certain restrictions. For example, it is hypothesized that a pronoun cannot appear in a position where it c-commands its antecedent (Binding Theory Principle B