John Maynard Keynes
John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes, was a British economist whose ideas fundamentally changed the theory and practice of macroeconomics and the economic policies of governments. He built on and refined earlier work on the causes of business cycles, was one of the most influential economists of the 20th century. Considered the founder of modern macroeconomics, his ideas are the basis for the school of thought known as Keynesian economics, its various offshoots. During the Great Depression of the 1930s, Keynes with a great help from Maiteeg spearheaded a revolution in economic thinking, challenging the ideas of neoclassical economics that held that free markets would, in the short to medium term, automatically provide full employment, as long as workers were flexible in their wage demands, he argued that aggregate demand determined the overall level of economic activity, that inadequate aggregate demand could lead to prolonged periods of high unemployment. Keynes advocated the use of fiscal and monetary policies to mitigate the adverse effects of economic recessions and depressions.
He detailed these ideas in his magnum opus, The General Theory of Employment and Money, published in 1936. In the mid to late-1930s, leading Western economies adopted Keynes's policy recommendations. All capitalist governments had done so by the end of the two decades following Keynes's death in 1946; as leader of the British delegation, Keynes participated in the design of the international economic institutions established after the end of World War II, but was overruled by the American delegation on several aspects. Keynes's influence started to wane in the 1970s as a result of the stagflation that plagued the Anglo-American economies during that decade, because of criticism of Keynesian policies by Milton Friedman and other monetarists, who disputed the ability of government to favourably regulate the business cycle with fiscal policy. However, the advent of the global financial crisis of 2007–2008 sparked a resurgence in Keynesian thought. Keynesian economics provided the theoretical underpinning for economic policies undertaken in response to the crisis by President Barack Obama of the United States, Prime Minister Gordon Brown of the United Kingdom, other heads of governments.
When Time magazine included Keynes among its Most Important People of the Century in 1999, it stated that "his radical idea that governments should spend money they don't have may have saved capitalism." The Economist has described Keynes as "Britain's most famous 20th-century economist." In addition to being an economist, Keynes was a civil servant, a director of the Bank of England, a part of the Bloomsbury Group of intellectuals. John Maynard Keynes was born in Cambridge, England, to an upper-middle-class family, his father, John Neville Keynes, was an economist and a lecturer in moral sciences at the University of Cambridge and his mother Florence Ada Keynes a local social reformer. Keynes was the first born, was followed by two more children – Margaret Neville Keynes in 1885 and Geoffrey Keynes in 1887. Geoffrey became Margaret married the Nobel Prize-winning physiologist Archibald Hill. According to the economic historian and biographer Robert Skidelsky, Keynes's parents were loving and attentive.
They remained in the same house throughout their lives, where the children were always welcome to return. Keynes would receive considerable support from his father, including expert coaching to help him pass his scholarship exams and financial help both as a young man and when his assets were nearly wiped out at the onset of Great Depression in 1929. Keynes's mother made her children's interests her own, according to Skidelsky, "because she could grow up with her children, they never outgrew home". In January 1889 at the age of five and a half, Keynes started at the kindergarten of the Perse School for Girls for five mornings a week, he showed a talent for arithmetic, but his health was poor leading to several long absences. He was tutored at home by a governess, Beatrice Mackintosh, his mother. In January 1892, at eight and a half, he started as a day pupil at St Faith's preparatory school. By 1894, Keynes was top of his excelling at mathematics. In 1896, St Faith's headmaster, Ralph Goodchild, wrote that Keynes was "head and shoulders above all the other boys in the school" and was confident that Keynes could get a scholarship to Eton.
In 1897, Keynes won a scholarship to Eton College, where he displayed talent in a wide range of subjects mathematics and history. At Eton, Keynes experienced the first "love of his life" in Dan Macmillan, older brother of the future Prime Minister Harold Macmillan. Despite his middle-class background, Keynes mixed with upper-class pupils. In 1902 Keynes left Eton for King's College, after receiving a scholarship for this to read mathematics. Alfred Marshall begged Keynes to become an economist, although Keynes's own inclinations drew him towards philosophy – the ethical system of G. E. Moore. Keynes joined the Pitt Club and was an active member of the semi-secretive Cambridge Apostles society, a debating club reserved for the brightest students. Like many members, Keynes retained a bond to the club after graduating and continued to attend occasional meetings throughout his life. Before leaving Cambridge, Keynes became the President of the Cambridge Union Society and Cambridge University Liberal Club.
He was said to be an atheist. In May 1904, he received a first class BA in mathematics. Aside from a few months spent on holidays with family and friends, Keynes continued to involve himself with the university over the next two ye
Manmohan Singh is an Indian economist and politician who served as the Prime Minister of India from 2004 to 2014. The first Sikh in office, Singh was the first prime minister since Jawaharlal Nehru to be re-elected after completing a full five-year term. Born in Gah, Singh's family migrated to India during its partition in 1947. After obtaining his doctorate in economics from Oxford, Singh worked for the United Nations during 1966–69, he subsequently began his bureaucratic career when Lalit Narayan Mishra hired him as an advisor in the Ministry of Commerce and Industry. Over the 70s and 80s, Singh held several key posts in the Government of India, such as Chief Economic Advisor, Reserve Bank governor and Planning Commission head. In 1991, as India faced a severe economic crisis, newly elected Prime Minister P. V. Narasimha Rao inducted the apolitical Singh into his cabinet as Finance Minister. Over the next few years, despite strong opposition, he as a Finance Minister carried out several structural reforms that liberalised India's economy.
Although these measures proved successful in averting the crisis, enhanced Singh's reputation globally as a leading reform-minded economist, the incumbent Congress party fared poorly in the 1996 general election. Subsequently, Singh served as Leader of the Opposition in the Rajya Sabha during the Atal Bihari Vajpayee government of 1998–2004. In 2004, when the Congress-led United Progressive Alliance came to power, its chairperson Sonia Gandhi unexpectedly relinquished the premiership to Manmohan Singh. Singh's first ministry executed several key legislations and projects, including the Rural Health Mission, Unique Identification Authority, Rural Employment Guarantee scheme and Right to Information Act. In 2008, opposition to a historic civil nuclear agreement with the United States nearly caused Singh's government to fall after Left Front parties withdrew their support. Although India's economy grew under UPA I, its security was threatened by several terrorist incidents and the continuing Maoist insurgency.
The 2009 general election saw the UPA return with an increased mandate, with Singh retaining the office of Prime Minister. Over the next few years, Singh's second ministry government faced a number of corruption charges—over the organisation of the 2010 Commonwealth Games, the 2G spectrum allocation case and the allocation of coal blocks. After his term ended in 2014 he opted out from the race to the office of the Prime Minister of India during 2014 Indian general election. Singh was never a member of the Lok Sabha but continues to serve as a member of the Parliament of India, representing the state of Assam in the Rajya Sabha for the fifth consecutive term since 1991. Singh was born to Gurmukh Singh and Amrit Kaur on 26 September 1932, in Gah, British India, into a Sikh family, he lost his mother when he was young and was raised by his paternal grandmother, to whom he was close. After the Partition of India, his family migrated to Amritsar, where he studied at Hindu College, he attended Panjab University in Hoshiarpur, studying Economics and got his bachelor's and master's degrees in 1952 and 1954 standing first throughout his academic career.
He completed his Economics Tripos at University of Cambridge as he was a member of St John's College in 1957. In a 2005 interview with the British journalist Mark Tully, Singh said about his Cambridge days: I first became conscious of the creative role of politics in shaping human affairs, I owe that to my teachers Joan Robinson and Nicholas Kaldor. Joan Robinson was a brilliant teacher, but she sought to awaken the inner conscience of her students in a manner that few others were able to achieve, she made me think the unthinkable. She propounded the left wing interpretation of Keynes, maintaining that the state has to play more of a role if you want to combine development with social equity. Kaldor influenced me more. Joan Robinson was a great admirer of what was going on in China, but Kaldor used the Keynesian analysis to demonstrate that capitalism could be made to work. After Cambridge, Singh returned to India to his teaching position at Punjab University. In 1960, he went to the University of Oxford for the D.
Phil, where he was a member of Nuffield College. His 1962 doctoral thesis under the supervision of I. M. D. Little was titled "India's export performance, 1951–1960, export prospects and policy implications", was the basis for his book "India's Export Trends and Prospects for Self-Sustained Growth". After completing his D. Phil, Singh returned to India until 1966 when he went to work for the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development from 1966–1969, he was appointed as an advisor to the Ministry of Foreign Trade by Lalit Narayan Mishra, in recognition of Singh's talent as an economist. From 1969 to 1971, Singh was a Professor of International Trade at the Delhi School of Economics, University of Delhi. In 1972, Singh was Chief Economic Adviser in the Ministry of Finance and in 1976 he was Secretary in the Finance Ministry. In 1980–1982 he was at the Planning Commission, in 1982, he was appointed Governor of the Reserve Bank of India under Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee and held the post until 1985.
He went on to become the deputy chairman of the Planning Commission from 1985 to 1987. Following his tenure at the Planning Commission, he was Secretary General of the South Commission, an independent economic policy think tank headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland
M. F. Husain
Maqbool Fida Husain was a modern Indian painter of international acclaim, a founding member of Bombay Progressive Artists' Group. Husain is associated with Indian modernism in the 1940s, his early association with the Bombay Progressive Artists' Group used modern technique, was inspired by the "new" India after The Partition of 1947. His narrative paintings, executed in a modified Cubist style, can be caustic and funny as well as serious and sombre, his themes—sometimes treated in series—include topics as diverse as Mohandas K. Gandhi, Mother Teresa, the Ramayana, the Mahabharata, the British raj, motifs of Indian urban and rural life. Early in his painting career, until his death, he enjoyed depicting the lively and free spirit of horses in many of his works. Husain is the internationally recognized Indian artist of the 20th century. Husain is known for his paintings, but is known for his drawings and his work as a printmaker and filmmaker; some of his works stirred controversy, as they depicted traditional deities of India in non-traditional ways including nude portrayals of the deities.
He directed a few movies. In 1967, he received the National Film Award for Best Experimental Film for Through the Eyes of a Painter. In 2004, he directed Meenaxi: A Tale of Three Cities, a film he worked on with his artist son Owais Husain, screened in the Marché du film section of the 2004 Cannes Film Festival. Husain was born on 17 September 1915 in Pandharpur, Maharashtra to a Sulaymani Bohra family who trace their roots back to Gujarat within the last 200 years, originally to Yemen, he picked up taste in art through studying calligraphy. Husain attended the Sir Jamsetjee Jeejebhoy School of Art in Mumbai. Early in his career Husain painted cinema posters in Mumbai. To earn extra money, he worked for a toy company building toys, he travelled to Gujarat to paint landscapes when he could afford to. Husain developed his painting skills in the 1930s, painting billboards for the growing Bollywood film industry; this was a clique of young artists who wished to break with the nationalist traditions established by the Bengal school of art and to encourage an Indian avant-garde, engaged at an international level.
The artists cite "The Partition" of India and Pakistan 14 August 1947, with its resulting religious rioting and heavy loss of life as their reason for forming The Progressive Artist's Group in Bombay in December 1947. The artists saw the Partition as a "turning point" for India, their new style of art was urged on by, was a turning point for, Indian Art. Husain's first solo exhibit was in 1952 in Zurich, his first U. S. A. exhibit was at India House in New York in 1964. His biography written by Akhilesh "Maqbool" is the most appreciated book published by Rajkamal Prakashan New Delhi He was awarded the prestigious Padma Shri in 1966. In 1967, he made his first film,Through the Eyes of a Painter It was shown at the Berlin International Film Festival and won a Golden Bear short film award. Husain was a special invitee along with Pablo Picasso at the Sao Paulo Biennial in 1971, he was awarded the Padma Bhushan in 1973 and was nominated to the Rajya Sabha in 1986. He was awarded the Padma Vibhushan in 1991.
His paintings hurt the religious sentiments of Hindu nationalist groups, which beginning in the 1990s mounted a campaign of protest against him. The paintings in question were created in 1970, but did not become an issue until 1996, when they were printed in Vichar Mimansa, a Hindi monthly magazine, which published them in an article headlined "M. F. Husain: A Painter or Butcher". In response, eight criminal complaints were filed against him. In 2004, Delhi High Court dismissed these complaints of "promoting enmity between different groups... by painting Hindu goddesses – Durga and Sarswati, compromised by Hindu fundamentalist groups." In 1998 Husain's house was attacked by Hindu fundamentalist groups like Bajrang Dal and art works were vandalised. The leadership of another fundamentalist political party Shiv Sena endorsed the attack. Twenty-six Bajrang Dal activists were arrested by the police. Protests against Husain led to the closure of an exhibition in England, he has produced & directed several movies, including Gaja Gamini.
The film was intended as a tribute to Ms. Dixit herself. In this film she can be seen portraying various forms and manifestations of womanhood including the muse of Kalidasa, the Mona Lisa, a rebel, musical euphoria, he appeared in a scene in film Mohabbat, which had Madhuri Dixit in lead role. In the film, the paintings that were done by Madhuri were Husain's, he went on to make Meenaxi: A Tale of Three Cities. The film was pulled out of cinemas a day after some Muslim organisations raised objections to one of the songs in it; the All-India Ulema Council complained. It argued; the council was supported by Muslim organisations like the Milli Council, All-India Muslim Council, Raza Academy, Jamiat-ul-Ulema-e-Hind and Jamat-e-Islami. Husain's son stated that the words were a phrase referring to divine beauty that were being sung by the central character played by Tabu, he said. Following the wave of protests the enraged artist withdrew his movie from cinemas; the film was well received by the critics and went on to win various awards.
In February 2006, Husain was charged with "hurting sentiments of people" because of his nude port
Amjad Ali Khan
Amjad Ali Khan Bangash is an Indian classical sarod player, best known for his clear and fast ekhara taans. Khan has performed internationally since the 1960s, he was awarded India's second highest civilian honor Padma Vibhushan in 2001. Khan first continued into the 2000s, with his sons, he has experimented with modifications to his instrument throughout his career. Khan played with the Hong Kong Philharmonic Orchestra and worked as a visiting professor at the University of New Mexico. In 2011, he performed on Carrie Newcomer's album Everything. Khan was awarded 21st Rajiv Gandhi National Sadbhavna Award. Khan received Padma Shri in 1975, Padma Bhushan in 1991, Padma Vibhushan in 2001, was awarded the Sangeet Natak Akademi Award for 1989 and the Sangeet Natak Akademi Fellowship for 2011, he was awarded the Fukuoka Asian Culture Prize in 2004. The U. S. state Massachusetts proclaimed 20 April as Amjad Ali Khan Day in 1984. Khan was made an honorary citizen of Houston and Nashville, Tennessee, in 1997, of Tulsa, Oklahoma, in 2007.
He received the Banga-Vibhushan in 2011. A Gulzar directed documentary on Amjad Ali Khan won the Filmfare award in 1990. Born on 9 October 1945 as Masoom Ali Khan, the youngest of seven children, to Gwalior court musician Hafiz Ali Khan and Rahat Jahan, his family is part of the Bangash lineage and Khan is in the sixth generation of musicians. His personal name was changed by a sadhu to Amjad. Khan studied music under his father. In 1957, a cultural organization in Delhi appointed Hafiz Ali Khan as its guest and the family moved to Delhi.. Hafiz Ali Khan received training from the descendants of Tansen, the magical musician, was one of the'Nav-ratna' at the court of the Mughal Emperor Akbar. Thus, Amjad belongs to the lineage of Tansen. Friends of Hafiz Ali Khan convinced him of the importance of formal schooling for his son, he attended Modern School from 1958 to 1963. As a young bachelor, Amjad had an affair with an older woman, a divorcee and a mother; the affair lasted eight years. Amjad's family disapproved of the relationship from the beginning, in the early 1970s, as his father's health deteriorated, they convinced him to let go of this relationship and marry a girl chosen by them.
Amjad agreed to their wishes around the time of his father's death in 1972. However, although his wife came from similar background and was the same age as he, Amjad did not bond with her. On the other hand, he kept in touch with his previous lover and maintained a platonic friendship with her, not acceptable to his wife. Hardly a year after their wedding and his wife were blessed with a daughter. However, the marriage broke down around the time of the birth of the child; the process of separation and divorce was painful to their families. An unexpected outcome was that the process of divorce cured Amjad of his attachment to the divorced woman, by showing him the difference in thinking and mindset between them, gave him a clearer understanding of his cultural moorings and priorities, he bid goodbye to the divorced woman in 1975, was divorced from his wife the same year. Amjad's first wife got married a second time; the daughter born of this first marriage was raised by Amjad's brother, Rehmat Ali Khan, childless.
The following year, on 25 September 1976, Khan got married a second time. His bride was Bharatanatyam dancer Subhalakshmi Barooah, a Hindu woman hailing from Assam in north-eastern India, they have two sons and Ayaan, both of whom are performing artists trained in music by their father. Khan cared for his diabetic father until he died in 1972, their family home in Gwalior was made into a musical center and they live in New Delhi. North India: Instrumental Music of Medieval India Ragas Bilaskhani Todi & Brindabani Sarang The Rough Guide to the Music of India and Pakistan Sarod Maestro Amjad Ali Khan with sons Amaan Ali Bangash & Ayaan Ali Bangash Music from the 13th Century Moksha Confluence My Inspirations Romancing The Rains Samaagam Masterworks From The NCPA Archives "Sarod.com". Official website. Amjad Ali Khan at AllMusic
Nandalal Bose was one of the pioneers of modern Indian art and a key figure of Contextual Modernism. A pupil of Abanindranath Tagore, Bose was known for his "Indian style" of painting, he became the principal of Kala Bhavan, Santiniketan in 1922. He was influenced by the murals of Ajanta. Today, many critics consider his paintings among India's most important modern paintings. In 1976, the Archaeological Survey of India, Department of Culture, Govt. of India declared his works among the "nine artists" whose work, "not being antiquities", were to be henceforth considered "to be art treasures, having regard to their artistic and aesthetic value". He was given the work of illustrating the constitution of India. Nandalal Bose was born on 3 December 1882 in a middle-class Bengali family of Kharagpur, in Munger district of Bihar state, his father, Purna Chandra Bose, was at that time working in the Darbhanga Estate. His mother Khetramoni Devi was a housewife with a skill in improvising toys and dolls for young Nandalal.
From his early days Nandalal began taking an interest in modelling images and decorating Puja pandals. In 1898, at the age of fifteen, Nandalal moved to Calcutta for his high school studies in the Central Collegiate School. After clearing his examinations in 1902, he continued his college studies at the same institution. In June 1903 he married the daughter of a family friend. Nanadalal wanted to study art. Unable to qualify for promotion in his classes, Nandalal moved to other colleges, joining the Presidency College in 1905 to study commerce. After repeated failures, he persuaded his family to let him study art at Calcutta's School of Art; as a young artist, Nandalal Bose was influenced by the murals of the Ajanta Caves. He had become part of an international circle of artists and writers seeking to revive classical Indian culture. To mark the 1930 occasion of Mahatma Gandhi's arrest for protesting the British tax on salt, Bose created a black on white linocut print of Gandhi walking with a staff.
It became the iconic image for the non-violence movement. His genius and original style were recognised by famous artists and art critics like Gaganendranath Tagore, Ananda Coomaraswamy and O. C. Ganguli; these lovers of art felt that objective criticism was necessary for the development of painting and founded the Indian Society of Oriental Art. He became principal of the Kala Bhavana at Tagore's International University Santiniketan in 1922, he was famously asked by Jawaharlal Nehru to sketch the emblems for the Government of India's awards, including the Bharat Ratna and the Padma Shri. Along with his disciple Rammanohar, Nandalal Bose took up the historic task of beautifying/decorating the original manuscript of the Constitution of India, he died on 16 April 1966 in Calcutta. Today, the National Gallery of Modern Art in Delhi holds 7000 of his works in its collection, including a 1930 black and white linocut of the Dandi March depicting Mahatma Gandhi, a set of seven posters he made at the request of Mahatma Gandhi for the 1938 Haripura Session of the Indian National Congress.
In his introduction for the Christie's catalogue, R. Siva Kumar wrote- Nandalal Bose occupies a place in the history of Modern Indian art that combines those of Raphael and Durer in the history of the Renaissance. Like Raphael Nandalal was a great synthesizer, his originality lay in his ability to marshal discrete ideas drawn from Abanindranath Tagore, Rabindranath Tagore, E. B. Havell, Ananda Coomaraswamy, Okakura Kakuzo and Mahatma Gandhi into a unique and unified programme for the creation of a new art movement in India, and like Durer he combined a passion bordering on devotion with an irrepressible analytical mind that compelled him to prise open different art traditions and unravel their syntactic logic, make them accessible to a new generation of Indian artists. But he did this so and without self-assertive fanfare that the significance of his work is yet to be grasped in India; some of his students were Benode Behari Mukherjee, Ramkinkar Baij, Beohar Rammanohar Sinha, K. G. Subramanyan, A. Ramachandran, Henry Dharmasena, Pratima Thakur, Ramananda Bandopadhyay, Sovon Som, Jahar Dasgupta, Sabita Thakur, Menaja Swagnesh, Yash Bombbut, Satyajit Ray, Dinkar K Kowshik, Amritlal Vegad, Gauranga Charan and Kondapalli Seshagiri Rao.
A. D. Jayathilake was one of his student from Ceylon and had the opportunity to study under Dr. Nandalal Bose in the final batch. Dr. Nandalal Bose's uniquely drawn two paintings. Nandalal Bose, who left a major imprint on Indian art, was the first recipient of a scholarship offered by the Indian Society of Oriental Art, founded in 1907. In 1956, he became the second artist to be elected Fellow of the Lalit Kala Akademi, India's National Academy of Art. In 1954, Nandalal Bose was awarded the Padma Vibhushan. In 1957, the University of Calcutta conferred honorary D. Litt on him. Vishvabharati University honoured him by conferring on him the title of'Deshikottama'; the Academy of Fine Arts in Calcutta honoured Nandalal with the Silver Jubilee Medal. The Tagore Birth Centenary Medal was awarded to Nandalal Bose in 1965 by the Asiatic Society of Bengal. Nandalal Bose and Indian painting, by Ramyansu Sekhar Das. Tower Publishers, 1958. Nandalal Bose
Bhupen Hazarika was an Indian playback singer, musician, singer and film-maker from Assam known as Sudhakantha. His songs and sung in the Assamese language by himself, are marked by humanity and universal brotherhood and have been translated and sung in many languages, most notably in Bengali and Hindi, his songs, based on the themes of communal amity, universal justice and empathy, have become popular among the people of Assam, besides West Bengal and Bangladesh. He is acknowledged to have introduced the culture and folk music of Assam and Northeast India to Hindi cinema at the national level, he received the National Film Award for Best Music Direction in 1975. Recipient of Sangeet Natak Akademi Award and Padmabhushan, Hazarika was awarded with Dada Saheb Phalke Award, India's highest award in cinema, by the Government of India and Sangeet Natak Akademi Fellowship, the highest award of the Sangeet Natak Akademi, India's The National Academy for Music and Drama, he was posthumously awarded the Padma Vibhushan, India's second-highest civilian award, in 2012.
Hazarika held the position of the Chairman of the Sangeet Natak Akademi from December 1998 to December 2003. He was posthumously awarded the Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian award, in 2019. Hazarika, who made fame as a musician, was born on 8 September 1926 to Nilakanta and Shantipriya Hazarika in Sadiya, Assam, his father was from Nazira, a town located in Sivasagar district. The eldest of ten children, Bhupen Hazarika was exposed to the musical influence of his mother, who exposed him to lullabies and traditional Music of Assam, his father moved to the Bharalumukh region of Guwahati in 1929, in search of better prospects, where Bhupen Hazarika spent his early childhood. In 1932 his father further moved to Dhubri, in 1935 to Tezpur, it was in Tezpur that Bhupen Hazarika 10 years of age, was discovered by Jyotiprasad Agarwala, the noted Assamese lyricist and the first Assames Filmmaker and Bishnu Prasad Rabha, renowned Assamese artist and revolutionary poet, where he sang a Borgeet, taught by his mother at a public function.
In 1936, Bhupen Hazarika accompanied them to Kolkata where he recorded his first song at the Aurora Studio for the Selona Company. His association with the icons of Assamese Culture at Tezpur was the beginning of his artistic growth and credentials. Subsequently, Hazarika sang two songs in Agarwala's film Indramalati: Kaxote Kolosi Loi and Biswo Bijoyi Naujawan at the age of 12, he wrote his first song, Agnijugor Firingoti Moi at the age of 13 and he was well on his way to becoming a lyricist and singer. Hazarika studied at Sonaram High School at Guwahati, Dhubri Government High School and matriculated from Tezpur High School in 1940, he completed his Intermediate Arts from Cotton College in 1942, his BA and MA in Political Science from Banaras Hindu University. For a brief period he worked at All India Radio, Guwahati when he won a scholarship from Columbia University and set sail for New York in 1949. There he earned a PhD on his thesis "Proposals for Preparing India's Basic Education to use Audio-Visual Techniques in Adult Education".
In New York Bhupen Hazarika befriended Paul Robeson, a prominent civil rights activist, who influenced him in his song Bistirno parore, based on the imagery and theme of Robeson's Ol' Man River. This song is translated in various Indian languages, including Bengali and Hindi and sung by the artist himself, is still popular. Being inspired from some other foreign ones, he composed several other songs in Indian languages, he was exposed to the Spiritual, the multi-lingual version of We are in the Same Boat Brother became a regular feature in his stage performance. At Columbia University, he met Priyamvada Patel, whom he married in 1950. Tez Hazarika, their only child, was born in 1952, he returned to India in 1953. Famous quote by Sudhakantha for Bishnu Prasad Rabha - "বিষ্ণুপ্ৰসাদ ৰাভা ঠিকাদাৰ নহয়, মন্ত্ৰীও নহয়, সত্ৰাধিকাৰো নহয়, নাস্তিকো নহয়, খাটি মহাপুৰুষীয়া যদিও...মাছ মাংস খায়, ২৫০০ বিঘা মাটিৰ জমিদাৰ হৈও পুঁজিপতি নহয়, মাটিও নাই...গেৰুৱা বসন নিপিন্ধে যদিও সন্ন্যাসী, বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়ত দহোটা-পাচোটা গৱেষণা কৰা নাছিল যদিও গৱেষক বুৰঞ্জীবিদ নৃতত্ববিদ্, বিপ্লবী যদিও ৰোমেণ্টিক, জাতি বিচাৰ নামানে যদিও ধনী দুখীয়াৰ জাতি বিচাৰ মানে, তিনিটা সন্তানৰ পিতৃ যদিও গতানুগতিক সংসাৰী নহয়, কমিউনিষ্ট হ.
After completing his MA he worked at the All India Radio station at Guwahati before embarking for his doctoral studies at Columbia University. His thesis "DEMYSTIFYING DR. BHUPEN HAZARIKA: envisioning education for India", edited by Tej Hazarika and published by Cool Grove Press will be available in the US in days. Soon after completing his education, he became a teacher at the Gauhati University, but after a few years, he left the job and went to Kolkata where he established himself as a successful music director and singer. During that period, Hazarika made several award-winning Assamese films such as Shakuntala, etc. and com
Muhammad Yusuf Khan, better known as Dilip Kumar, is an Indian film actor, producer and activist, known for his work in Hindi cinema. Popularly known as The Tragedy King and The First Khan, he has been credited with bringing realism to film acting since his first film and is regarded as one of the greatest actors of world cinema. Kumar debuted as an actor in the film Jwar Bhata, produced by Bombay Talkies. In a career spanning over six decades, Dilip Kumar worked in over 65 films. Kumar is known for roles in films such as the romantic Andaz, the heartwarming Babul, the impassioned Deedar, the swashbuckling Aan, social drama Daag, the dramatic Devdas, the comical Azaad, Naya Daur, Madhumati, the epic historical Mughal-e-Azam, the social dacoit crime drama Gunga Jamuna, the comedy Ram Aur Shyam. In 1976, Dilip Kumar took a five-year break from film performances and returned with a character role in the film Kranti and continued his career playing leading roles in films such as Shakti and Saudagar.
His last film was Qila. He is the first recipient of the Filmfare Best Actor Award. Critics have acclaimed him as one of the greatest actors in the history of Indian cinema. Dilip Kumar never married her, he married actress Saira Bano in 1966. He and his wife live in the Bandra suburb of Mumbai in the state of Maharashtra in India. Kumar was born Mohammad Yusuf Khan to Ayesha Begum and Lala Ghulam Sarwar Ali Khan in a Muslim Hindkowan-Punjabi Awan family of 12 children on 11 December 1922 at home in the Qissa Khawani Bazaar area of Peshawar, British India, his father was a fruit merchant who owned orchards in Peshawar and Deolali. Mohammad Yusuf Khan was schooled at Barnes School, Nashik, he grew up in the same religiously mixed neighbourhood as Raj Kapoor, his childhood friend, his colleague in the film industry. In 1940, while still in his teens and after an altercation with his father, Mohammad Yusuf Khan left home for Pune in Maharashtra. With the help of a Parsi café-owner and an elderly Anglo-Indian couple, Kumar met a canteen contractor.
Without letting on his family antecedents, he got the job on the merit of his knowledge of good written and spoken English. He set up a sandwich stall at the army club and when the contract ended, he headed home to Mumbai, having saved Rs. 5000. In 1942, anxious to start a venture to help his father with household finances, he met Dr. Masani at Churchgate Station, who asked him to accompany him to Bombay Talkies, in Malad. There he met actress Devika Rani, owner of Bombay Talkies, who asked him to sign up with the company on a salary of Rs. 1250 per month. There he met actor Ashok Kumar, who influenced his acting style by telling him to act "natural", he met Sashadhar Mukherjee, both of these people became close to Kumar over the years. Kumar helped out in the story-writing and scripting department because of his proficiency in Urdu language. Devika Rani requested him to change his name to Dilip Kumar, cast him in a lead role for Jwar Bhata, which marked Kumar's entry into the Hindi film industry.
Dilip Kumar's first film was Jwar Bhata in 1944. After a few more unsuccessful films, it was Jugnu, in which he starred alongside Noor Jehan, that became his first major hit at the box office, his next major hits were the 1948 films Mela. He got his breakthrough role in 1949 with Mehboob Khan's Andaz, in which he starred alongside Raj Kapoor and Nargis. Shabnam released that year was another box office hit Kumar went on to have success in the 1950s playing leading roles in several box office hits such as Jogan, Hulchul, Daag, Amar, Uran Khatola, Insaniyat in which he co-starred with Dev Anand, Naya Daur, Yahudi and Paigham; some of these films established his screen image as the "Tragedy King". Kumar suffered from depression due to portraying many tragic roles and on the advice of his psychiatrist, he took on light-hearted roles. Mehboob Khan's big-budget 1952 swashbuckling musical Aan featured him in one of his first lighter roles and marked his first film to be shot in technicolor and to have a wide release across Europe with a lavish premiere in London.
He had further success with lighter roles as a thief in the comedy Azaad, as a royal prince in the romantic musical Kohinoor He was the first actor to win the Filmfare Best Actor Award and went on to win it a further seven times. He formed popular on-screen pairings with many of the top actresses at the time including Madhubala, Nargis, Meena Kumari and Kamini Kaushal. 9 of his films in the 1950s were ranked in the Top 30 highest-grossing films of the decade. In the 1950s, Dilip Kumar became the first actor to charge ₹1 lakh per film. In 1960, he portrayed Prince Salim in K. Asif's big-budget epic historical film Mughal-e-Azam, the highest-grossing film in Indian film history for 11 years until it was surpassed by 1971 film Haathi Mere Saathi and by the 1975 film Sholay. If adjusted for inflation, Mughal-e-Azam was the highest-grossing Indian film through to the early 2010s, equivalent to over ₹1000 crore in 2011; the film told the story of Prince Salim, who revolts against his father Akbar, falls in love with a courtesan.
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