Ducati Motor Holding S.p.A.
Ducati Motor Holding S.p. A. is the motorcycle-manufacturing division of Italian company Ducati, headquartered in Bologna, Italy. The company is owned by German automotive manufacturer Audi through its Italian subsidiary Lamborghini, in turn owned by the Volkswagen Group. In 1926 Antonio Cavalieri Ducati and his three sons, Adriano and Bruno Cavalieri Ducati founded Società Scientifica Radio Brevetti Ducati in Bologna to produce vacuum tubes and other radio components. In 1935 they had become successful enough to enable construction of a new factory in the Borgo Panigale area of the city. Production was maintained during World War II, despite the Ducati factory being a repeated target of Allied bombing. Meanwhile, at the small Turinese firm SIATA, Aldo Farinelli began developing a small pushrod engine for mounting on bicycles. A month after the official liberation of Italy in 1944, SIATA announced its intention to sell this engine, called the "Cucciolo" to the public; the first Cucciolos were available alone, to be mounted by the buyer.
In 1950, after more than 200,000 Cucciolos had been sold, in collaboration with SIATA, the Ducati firm offered its own Cucciolo-based motorcycle. This first Ducati motorcycle was a 48 cc bike weighing 98 pounds, with a top speed of 40 mph, had a 15 mm carburetor giving just under 200 mpg‑US. Ducati soon dropped the Cucciolo name in favor of "55M" and "65TL"; when the market moved toward larger motorcycles, Ducati management decided to respond, making an impression at an early-1952 Milan show, introducing their 65TS cycle and Cruiser. Despite being described as the most interesting new machine at the 1952 show, the Cruiser was not a great success, only a few thousand were made over a two-year period before the model ceased production. In 1953, management split the company into two separate entities, Ducati Meccanica SpA and Ducati Elettronica, in acknowledgment of its diverging motorcycle and electronics product lines. Dr. Giuseppe Montano took over as head of Ducati Meccanica SpA and the Borgo Panigale factory was modernized with government assistance.
By 1954, Ducati Meccanica SpA had increased production to 120 bikes a day. In the 1960s, Ducati earned its place in motorcycling history by producing the fastest 250 cc road bike available, the Mach 1. In the 1970s Ducati began producing large-displacement V-twin motorcycles and in 1973, released a V-twin with the trademarked desmodromic valve design. In 1985, Cagiva planned to rebadge Ducati motorcycles with the "Cagiva" name. By the time the purchase was completed, Cagiva kept the "Ducati" name on its motorcycles. Eleven years in 1996, Cagiva accepted the offer from Texas Pacific Group and sold a 51% stake in the company for US$325 million. In 1999, TPG issued an initial public offering of Ducati stock and renamed the company "Ducati Motor Holding SpA". TPG sold over 65 % of its shares in Ducati. In December 2005, Ducati returned to Italian ownership with the sale of Texas Pacific's stake to Investindustrial Holdings, the investment fund of Carlo and Andrea Bonomi. In April 2012, Volkswagen Group's Audi subsidiary announced its intention to buy Ducati for €860 million.
Volkswagen chairman Ferdinand Piëch, a motorcycle enthusiast, had long coveted Ducati, had regretted that he passed up an opportunity to buy the company from the Italian government in 1984. Analysts doubted a tiny motorcycle maker would have a meaningful effect on a company the size of Volkswagen, commenting that the acquisition has "a trophy feel to it," and, "is driven by VW's passion for nameplates rather than industrial or financial logic". Italian luxury car brand Lamborghini was strengthened under VW ownership. AUDI AG's Automobili Lamborghini S.p. A. subsidiary acquired 100 percent of the shares of Ducati Motor Holding S.p. A. on 19 July 2012 for €747 million. Since 1926, Ducati has been owned by a number of companies. 1926–1950 – Ducati family 1950–1967 – Government Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale management 1967–1978 – Government EFIM management 1967–1973 – Headed By Giuseppe Montano 1973–1978 – Headed by Cristiano de Eccher 1978–1985 – VM Group 1985–1996 – Cagiva Group 1996–2005 – Texas-Pacific Group ownership and going public Headed by CEO Federico Minoli, 1996–2001.
A. 2008–2012 – Performance Motorcycles S.p. A. An investment vehicle formed by Investindustrial Holdings, BS Investimenti and Hospitals of Ontario Pension Plan19 July 2012 – present – Automobili Lamborghini S.p. A. AUDI AG acquired 100% of the voting rights of Ducati Motor Holding S.p. A. via Audi's Automobili Lamborghini S.p. A. subsidiary From the 1960s to the 1990s, the Spanish company MotoTrans licensed Ducati engines and produced motorcycles that, although they incorporated subtle differences, were Ducati-derived. MotoTrans's most notable machine was the 250 cc 24 Horas. Ducati is best known for high-performance motorcycles characterized by large-capacity four-stroke, 90° V-twin engines, with a desmodromic valve design. Ducati refers to this configuration as L-twin because one cylinder is vertical while the other is horizontal, making it look like a letter "L"
Volkswagen Group Sales India
Volkswagen Group Sales India Private Limited is the wholly owned subsidiary of Volkswagen Group in India. They focus on manufacture and sales of Audi, Volkswagen and Škoda vehicles in India. Volkswagen subsidiaries, Lamborghini sell their cars in India through them. Volkswagen is planning to introduce SEAT mini crossover SUV Arona in India Volkswagen Group Sales India Private Limited operates a manufacturing plant at Chakan, near Pune, Maharashtra with an annual capacity of 200,000 vehicles for production of Volkswagen branded vehicles; the Chakan Plant is used by SAIPL to manufacture the Škoda Rapid. It shares a manufacturing/assembly plant in Aurangabad, Maharashtra, operated by Škoda Auto India Private Limited for production of Audi branded vehicles. Audi A4 Audi A6 Audi Q5 Audi Q3 Audi Q7 Audi A7 Audi A8 Audi TT Audi RS5 Audi RS7 Audi R8 Porsche 911 Porsche Boxster Porsche Cayman Porsche Cayenne Porsche Panamera Porsche Macan Volkswagen Passat Volkswagen Jetta Volkswagen Polo Volkswagen Ameo Volkswagen Vento Volkswagen Phaeton Volkswagen Touareg Volkswagen New Beetle Skoda Octavia Škoda Fabia Škoda Superb Skoda Rapid Škoda Yeti Škoda Laura Skoda Octavia VGSIPL's vehicle brands have a combined dealership network of more than 153 dealerships in more than 56 cities all over India.
Skoda and Audi alone having in total around 120 dealerships across the country today. In the year 2010-11, VGSIPL recorded combined sales of 53,341 vehicles. In 2011-2012 the Volkswagen Group India clocked an impressive growth of 109.3%. The three brands – Audi, Škoda and Volkswagen together delivered a total of 111,623 vehicles to customers in 2011-2012; the Volkswagen Polo is the highest selling model of this group with a sales of 37,153 in 2011. From January to December 2012 Volkswagen Group India sold 115,237 cars with a growth of 3.2 percent. Audi, Lamborghini and Škoda achieved impressive sales figures while the sales figures of Volkswagen and Bentley remained with a slight decrease. Volkswagen Group Automobile industry in India Volkswagen India Private Limited
Audi Sport GmbH
Audi Sport GmbH known as quattro GmbH, is a wholly owned private subsidiary of Audi, a division of the Volkswagen Group. Founded in October 1983 as quattro GmbH, it specialises in producing high performance Audi cars and components, along with purchaser specified customisations; the company's former name was an homage to Audi's original four-wheel drive rally-inspired road car—the Audi Quattro. In 2016, the company was renamed Audi Sport GmbH, it is located in a 3,500 square metres site at Neckarsulm, near Stuttgart, in the German State of Baden-Württemberg. With over twenty years experience, their own development and manufacturing factories are based within the larger 10,700 square metres site of the now defunct German automotive maker NSU Motorenwerke AG, on what is now known as Audi's "aluminium plant", or aluminium site. Although "quattro GmbH" as a company may be unknown, compared to its parent, its core products include the Audi RS4, the Audi RS6 and the Audi R8. Furthermore, it is a'closed company', in that it does not sell its automobiles directly to the public via franchised outlets under its own brand name.
However, it does now sell'quattro GmbH' branded lifestyle products and accessories via Audi franchised outlets and Audi Forum such as that located in the Allianz Arena on the northern outskirts of Munich, Germany. Audi Sport GmbH specialises in four'key' areas, including the design and production of specialist and high performance Audi automobiles, such as the Audi RS3, Audi RS4, Audi RS5, Audi RS6, Audi RS7, Audi RS Q3, Audi TTRS and the Audi R8, they design and specify roadwheels, design and produce sports suspension, the specialist car body parts which are used on the Audi "S line" trim specification available on most of the model range. The Audi RS cars have technology and performance comparable with high performance sports cars such as the Porsche 911. Being based on conventional saloon or estate cars, RS models retain the everyday comfort and practicality of regular mainstream models, they are some of the most powerful vehicles offered by Audi. quattro GmbH create, design and produce all RS models in conjunction with parent, AUDI AG.
The "RS" initials are taken from the German: RennSport - translated as "racing sport". RS is Audi's highest trim level, positioned above the "S" specification level of Audi's regular model range. RS cars are produced in limited numbers over a limited time scale, pioneer some of Audi's latest and most advanced technology and engineering prowess. Whilst RS cars command a much higher purchase price, compared to their'lesser' brethren, they retain high residual values too. S line is a trim specification, offered on many Audi models. Whilst the individual S line parts and components are designed and manufactured by quattro GmbH, Audi "S line" cars are still manufactured in the same AUDI AG factories, on the same production lines as their related models with differing trim levels. Cars with "S line" trim should not be confused with "RS" models. Audi cars with S line trim bear identical performance figures to their counterparts with SE or base trim levels, with the exception of the Audi Q7 S line with the 3.0 V6 TFSI petrol engines.
Quattro GmbH offers potential purchasers of new Audi cars the possibility of customising their new car beyond the scope of "conventional" options, to their own personal desires during the initial manufacturing process. This facility is called Audi exclusive, extends to all areas of the car; the customer may choose unique exterior paint, in any colour, as well as alloy wheels developed by quattro GmbH. For the interior, the upholstery can be finished in various grades and grains of leathers, in a choice of colours; these coloured leathers may be applied to interior door coverings and rear parcel shelves. Headlining fabrics can be customised in colour, along with seat belt webbing; the interior can be finished with a wide selection of wooden trims, sourced from around the world, along with colour coordinated piping on the edges of tailored floor carpet mats. A range of in-car office equipment is available. Quattro GmbH first offered this service at the 1995 Frankfurt International Motor Show. From 1985, quattro GmbH have developed a range of Audi lifestyle products, known as Audi Accessories.
These include mountain bikes and personal leather goods, such as briefcases, handbags and wallets. Quattro GmbH has only been able to produce one specific model at a time at its sole plant at Neckarsulm. Chronologically, the first quattro GmbH model produced was the Audi RS2 Avant, a joint venture between Porsche and quattro GmbH, from 1994-1996. After this initial joint venture, all subsequent cars have been produced at Neckarsulm by quattro GmbH; the second car was the C4 S6 Plus, produced from April 1996 to July 1997. Third was the 2000-2001 B5 RS4 Avant quattro. Sixth out of quattro GmbH was the 2006 B7 RS4 quattro, seventh out of quattro GmbH was t
VW Electronics Research Laboratory
The Volkswagen Electronics Research Laboratory is a division of the Volkswagen Group of America, Inc. with its headquarters in Silicon Valley. The VWERL's slogan Technology to the People! indicates its mission: to leverage Silicon Valley resources for the advancement of the Volkswagen Groups' products through technical knowledge and electronics expertise. The VWERL has received media attention surrounding its joint victory with Stanford University in the DARPA Grand Challenge, a prize competition for driverless cars; the Volkswagen Electronics Research Laboratory was founded in August 1998, VWERL began operations in October 1998, with three employees. As of December 2002, the lab had moved to Palo Alto. In 2011 it moved again to Belmont; this current location provides a spacious office and prototyping areas for about 60 workers. It supports VWERL employees at Volkswagen Group of America's offices in Auburn Hills and the new headquarters at Herndon, Virginia; the VWERL supports all brands within the Volkswagen Group.
This includes Volkswagen Passenger Cars, Škoda and Bugatti as well as Audi, SEAT, Lamborghini. In addition to working with research and development teams in Germany, the VWERL supports the development of U. S.-specific features for the Volkswagen Group of America. The VWERL comprises four teams: Driver Information and Assistance - Instrumentation, visualization systems Human Machine Interface - Interface concepts for driver assistance, infotainment systems Connected Vehicle - wireless infotainment, collaborative intelligence, distributed computing Test Concepts and Validations - Testing procedures, specifications compliance The VWERL's headquarters are located at 500 Clipper Drive, Belmont CA. List of German cars Volkswagen Group Volkswagen Group of America VWERL.com- VW Electronics Research Laboratory official website VolkswagenGroupAmerica.com - Volkswagen Group of America, Inc. corporate website Stanford Racing Team
The megabyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information. Its recommended unit symbol is MB; the unit prefix mega is a multiplier of 1000000 in the International System of Units. Therefore, one megabyte is one million bytes of information; this definition has been incorporated into the International System of Quantities. However, in the computer and information technology fields, several other definitions are used that arose for historical reasons of convenience. A common usage has been to designate one megabyte as 1048576bytes, a measurement that conveniently expresses the binary multiples inherent in digital computer memory architectures. However, most standards bodies have deprecated this usage in favor of a set of binary prefixes, in which this quantity is designated by the unit mebibyte. Less common is a convention that used the megabyte to mean 1000×1024 bytes; the megabyte is used to measure either 10002 bytes or 10242 bytes. The interpretation of using base 1024 originated as a compromise technical jargon for the byte multiples that needed to be expressed by the powers of 2 but lacked a convenient name.
As 1024 approximates 1000 corresponding to the SI prefix kilo-, it was a convenient term to denote the binary multiple. In 1998 the International Electrotechnical Commission proposed standards for binary prefixes requiring the use of megabyte to denote 10002 bytes and mebibyte to denote 10242 bytes. By the end of 2009, the IEC Standard had been adopted by the IEEE, EU, ISO and NIST; the term megabyte continues to be used with different meanings: Base 10 1 MB = 1000000 bytes is the definition recommended by the International System of Units and the International Electrotechnical Commission IEC. This definition is used in networking contexts and most storage media hard drives, flash-based storage, DVDs, is consistent with the other uses of the SI prefix in computing, such as CPU clock speeds or measures of performance; the Mac OS X 10.6 file manager is a notable example of this usage in software. Since Snow Leopard, file sizes are reported in decimal units. In this convention, one thousand megabytes is equal to one gigabyte, where 1 GB is one billion bytes.
Base 2 1 MB = 1048576 bytes is the definition used by Microsoft Windows in reference to computer memory, such as RAM. This definition is synonymous with the unambiguous binary prefix mebibyte. In this convention, one thousand and twenty-four megabytes is equal to one gigabyte, where 1 GB is 10243 bytes. Mixed 1 MB = 1024000 bytes is the definition used to describe the formatted capacity of the 1.44 MB 3.5-inch HD floppy disk, which has a capacity of 1474560bytes. Semiconductor memory doubles in size for each address lane added to an integrated circuit package, which favors counts that are powers of two; the capacity of a disk drive is the product of the sector size, number of sectors per track, number of tracks per side, the number of disk platters in the drive. Changes in any of these factors would not double the size. Sector sizes were set as powers of two for convenience in processing, it was a natural extension to give the capacity of a disk drive in multiples of the sector size, giving a mix of decimal and binary multiples when expressing total disk capacity.
Depending on compression methods and file format, a megabyte of data can be: a 1 megapixel bitmap image with 256 colors stored without any compression. A 4 megapixel JPEG image with normal compression. 1 minute of 128 kbit/s MP3 compressed music. 6 seconds of uncompressed CD audio. A typical English book volume in plain text format; the human genome consists of DNA representing 800 MB of data. The parts that differentiate one person from another can be compressed to 4 MB. Timeline of binary prefixes Gigabyte § Consumer confusion Historical Notes About The Cost Of Hard Drive Storage Space the megabyte International Electrotechnical Commission definitions IEC prefixes and symbols for binary multiples
Volkswagen Group China
Volkswagen Group China is division of the German automotive concern Volkswagen Group in the People's Republic of China. Volkswagen Group China enjoys sales of about 3.14 million cars in the Chinese market and is the largest brand in China by sales. The Chinese market is one of the main markets of the Group. Operations of Volkswagen in China include the production and services of whole cars and components, engines and transmission systems, the sales and service of imported cars; the company's locally manufactured and imported vehicles are sold under various brand names such as Volkswagen, Audi, SEAT, Škoda and Lamborghini in China. Volkswagen Group China is the largest and the most successful international partner in China's Automotive Industry, it started its connection with China as early as in 1978, has been taking the leading position in the Chinese automotive market for more than 25 years. Its first joint venture in China, Shanghai Volkswagen Automotive Co. Ltd. was established in October 1984.
This joint venture, now called SAIC Volkswagen. was in the process of building an electric-car plant in Anting, near Shanghai by late 2018. The second, much larger, joint venture, FAW-Volkswagen Automotive Company Ltd. was established in Changchun in February 1991. It manufactures Audi brand cars. In 2018, an executive with FAW-Volkswagen's Audi division said that two million China-made Audi cars will be sold in the country by 2020; as of the end of 2017, the total to date was 777,000. In 1984, Volkswagen signed a 25-year contract to make passenger cars in Shanghai. Since, at that time, vehicle manufacturers could not own a majority stake in a manufacturing plant, Volkswagen's venture took the limit of 50 per cent foreign ownership. Today, the Group has 16 representative companies in the country, undertaking parts delivery and service provision for both customers and industry in addition to vehicle production and import. By May 2004, Volkswagen Group had concentrated its strengths in the founding of Volkswagen Group China, governed by a six-member management team responsible for the areas of sales and marketing, purchasing and governmental relations as well as finance.
VGC's tasks include supervision of the Chinese associated companies of the Volkswagen Group, the set-up of new business segments. Volkswagen Group, via its Volkswagen Group China division, has 16 subsidiaries in China, with Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation, First Automobile Works being the two major Chinese partner companies. In 1984, a joint venture was established between Volkswagen Group and Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation, creating Shanghai Volkswagen Automotive Co. Ltd.. With its headquarters in Shanghai, equity holdings are split - Volkswagen AG, Volkswagen Invest, SAIC; this a fixed term venture, of 45 years, running until 2030. Shanghai Volkswagen Automotive Co. Ltd. is the first car-making joint venture since China began its reform, debut to the outside world, is located in Anting International Auto City on the northwest outskirts of Shanghai. Producing cars under the Volkswagen and the Škoda brands, SVW offers a total of twelve model series. By October 2009, SVW had turned out over five million cars in total, becoming the carmaker that has the biggest population of cars in China.
In April 2005, Škoda landed at Shanghai Volkswagen, ushering Shanghai Volkswagen into the dual brand era. In September 2006, Shanghai Volkswagen Škoda – the first Chinese manufactured Škoda - was launched and the Chinese name was announced. Octavia, the first Shanghai Volkswagen Škoda model, hit the market on 6 June 2007. Following Octavia's success, Shanghai Volkswagen launched Fabia in 2008 and Superb in 2009. Established in February 1991, FAW-Volkswagen Automotive Company is a large-scale carmaker jointly funded by China FAW Group subsidiary First Automobile Works, Volkswagen AG, Audi AG and Volkswagen Investment Co. Ltd, it was the first modern car industrial base constructed with an economy of scale in China. With its development over the years, FAW-Volkswagen is producing thousands of vehicles on a daily basis. FAW-Volkswagen manufactures 10 products of two globally known brands, Volkswagen Passenger Cars and Audi, with advanced technology and equipment. Volkswagen Jetta, New Bora, Sagitar, Volkswagen CC, Audi A6L, Audi A4L, Audi Q3 and Audi Q5 cars are popular among consumers.
FAW-Volkswagen is a mature production base in China, with a complete portfolio of both A-, B- and C-grade cars. Audi AG, with more than 20 years of development experience in China, was the first global premium car brand to realize domestic production in China. Agreements on the manufacturing of the Audi 100 under license were signed on 13 August 1988, with this date marking the conclusion of negotiations lasting one year; the joint venture agreement included both the technology transfer for the production and planning of the Audi 100, the setting up of after sales support. Expertise was in addition transferred by providing training for some 500 Chinese workers at Audi in Germany. Furthermore, around 30 Audi employees were posted to Changchun to provide production support. In November 1993, the then-Board Chairman of FAW and Volkswagen AG, signed a letter of intent on the integration of Audi production and a V6 engine plant into the FAW-Volkswagen joint venture, established at the end of 1991.
As a result of the signing of the agreements in December 1995, Audi acquired a 10 percent stake in the joint venture by the name of FAW-Volkswagen Automotive Company Ltd. Volksw
An abbreviation is a shortened form of a word or phrase. It consists of a group of letters taken from the phrase. For example, the word abbreviation can itself be represented by the abbreviation abbr. abbrv. or abbrev. In strict analysis, abbreviations should not be confused with contractions, acronyms, or initialisms, with which they share some semantic and phonetic functions, though all four are connected by the term "abbreviation" in loose parlance. An abbreviation is a shortening by any method. A contraction of a word is made by omitting certain letters or syllables and bringing together the first and last letters or elements. A contraction is an abbreviation, but an abbreviation is not a contraction. Acronyms and initialisms are regarded as subsets of abbreviations, they are abbreviations that consist of the initial parts of words. Abbreviations have a long history, created; this might be done to save time and space, to provide secrecy. Shortened words were used and initial letters were used to represent words in specific applications.
In classical Greece and Rome, the reduction of words to single letters was common. In Roman inscriptions, "Words were abbreviated by using the initial letter or letters of words, most inscriptions have at least one abbreviation." However, "some could have more than one meaning, depending on their context."Abbreviations in English were used from its earliest days. Manuscripts of copies of the old English poem Beowulf used many abbreviations, for example 7 or & for and, y for since, so that "not much space is wasted"; the standardisation of English in the 15th through 17th centuries included such a growth in the use of abbreviations. At first, abbreviations were sometimes represented with various suspension signs, not only periods. For example, sequences like ‹er› were replaced with ‹ɔ›, as in ‹mastɔ› for master and ‹exacɔbate› for exacerbate. While this may seem trivial, it was symptomatic of an attempt by people manually reproducing academic texts to reduce the copy time. An example from the Oxford University Register, 1503: Mastɔ subwardenɔ y ɔmēde me to you.
And wherɔ y wrot to you the last wyke that y trouyde itt good to differrɔ thelectionɔ ovɔ to quīdenaɔ tinitatis y have be thougħt me synɔ that itt woll be thenɔ a bowte mydsomɔ. The Early Modern English period, between the 15th and 17th centuries, had abbreviations like ye for Þe, used for the word the: "hence, by misunderstanding, Ye Olde Tea Shoppe."During the growth of philological linguistic theory in academic Britain, abbreviating became fashionable. The use of abbreviation for the names of J. R. R. Tolkien and his friend C. S. Lewis, other members of the Oxford literary group known as the Inklings, are sometimes cited as symptomatic of this. A century earlier in Boston, a fad of abbreviation started that swept the United States, with the globally popular term OK credited as a remnant of its influence. After World War II, the British reduced the use of the full stop and other punctuation points after abbreviations in at least semi-formal writing, while the Americans more kept such use until more and still maintain it more than Britons.
The classic example, considered by their American counterparts quite curious, was the maintenance of the internal comma in a British organisation of secret agents called the "Special Operations, Executive"—"S. O. E"—which is not found in histories written after about 1960, but before that, many Britons were more scrupulous at maintaining the French form. In French, the period only follows an abbreviation if the last letter in the abbreviation is not the last letter of its antecedent: "M." is the abbreviation for "monsieur" while "Mme" is that for "madame". Like many other cross-channel linguistic acquisitions, many Britons took this up and followed this rule themselves, while the Americans took a simpler rule and applied it rigorously. Over the years, the lack of convention in some style guides has made it difficult to determine which two-word abbreviations should be abbreviated with periods and which should not; the U. S. media tend to use periods in two-word abbreviations like United States, but not personal computer or television.
Many British publications have done away with the use of periods in abbreviations. Minimization of punctuation in typewritten material became economically desirable in the 1960s and 1970s for the many users of carbon-film ribbons since a period or comma consumed the same length of non-reusable expensive ribbon as did a capital letter. Widespread use of electronic communication through mobile phones and the Internet during the 1990s allowed for a marked rise in colloquial abbreviation; this was due to increasing popularity of textual communication services such as instant- and text messaging. SMS, for instance, supports message lengths of 160 characters at most; this brevity gave rise to an informal abbreviation scheme sometimes called Textese, with which 10% or more of the words in a typical SMS message are abbreviated. More Twitter, a popular social networking service, began driving abbreviation use with 140 character message limits. In modern English, there are several conventions for abbreviations, the choice may be confusing.
The only rule universally accepted is th