Home energy storage
Home energy storage devices store electricity locally, for consumption. At their heart are batteries lithium-ion or lead-acid, intelligent software. An energy storage technology, they are downstream relatives of battery-based grid energy storage and support the concept of distributed generation; when paired with on-site generation, they can eliminate blackouts in an off-the-grid lifestyle. The stored energy originates from on-site solar photovoltaic panels, generated during daylight hours, the stored electricity consumed after sundown, when domestic energy demand peaks in homes unoccupied during the day. Electric vehicles used during weekdays, needing recharging overnight, are a good fit with home energy storage in homes with solar panels and low daylight-hour electrical consumption. EV manufacturers Tesla, Mercedes-Benz, BMW, Nissan and BYD market own-brand home energy storage devices to their customers, with Tesla's Powerwall enjoying significant media exposure; the units can be programmed to exploit a differential tariff, that provide lower priced energy during hours of low demand - seven hours from 12:30am in the case of Britain’s Economy 7 tariff - for consumption when prices are higher.
Smart tariffs, stemming from the increasing prevalence of smart meters, will be paired with home energy storage devices to exploit low off-peak prices, avoid higher-priced energy at times of peak demand. Transmission of electrical power from power stations to population centres is inherently inefficient, due to transmission losses in electrical grids within power-hungry dense conurbations where power stations are harder to site. By allowing a greater proportion of on-site generated electricity to be consumed on-site, rather than exported to the energy grid, home energy storage devices can reduce the inefficiencies of grid transport. Home energy storage devices, when connected to a server via the internet, can theoretically be ordered to provide short-term services to the energy grid:- Reduced peak hour demand stress - provision of short-term demand response during periods of peak demand reducing the need to inefficiently standing up of short generation assets like diesel generators. Frequency correction - the provision of ultra short-term corrections, to keep mains frequency within the tolerances required by regulators.
Due to the above efficiencies, their ability to boost the amount of solar energy consumed on-site, the devices reduce the amount of power generated using fossil fuels, namely natural gas, coal and diesel. Lithium-ion batteries, a popular choice due to their high charge cycle and lack of memory effect, are difficult to recycle. Lead-acid batteries are easier to recycle and, due to the high resale value of the lead, 99% of those sold in the US get recycled, they have much shorter useful lives than a lithium-ion battery of a similar capacity, due to having a lower charge cycle, narrowing the environmental-impact gap. In addition, lead is a toxic heavy metal and the sulphuric acid in the electrolyte has a high environmental impact. To offset the environmental impact of batteries, some manufacturers extend the useful life of used batteries taken from electric vehicles at the point where the cells won't sufficiently hold charge. Though considered end of life for electric vehicles, the batteries will function satisfactorily in home energy storage devices.
Manufacturers supporting this include BMW and Powervault. Home Energy Storage devices can be paired with salt water batteries, which have a lower environmental impact due to their lack of toxic heavy metal and ease of recyclability. Using a pumped-storage system of cisterns for energy storage and small generators, pico hydro generation may be effective for "closed loop" home energy generation systems. Distributed generation Grid energy storage
Energizer Holdings, Inc. is an American manufacturer and one of the world's largest manufacturers of batteries, headquartered in St. Louis, Missouri, it produces batteries under the Energizer, Rayovac and Eveready brand names, owned a number of personal care businesses until it separated that side of the business into a new company called Edgewell Personal Care in 2015. In January 2018, Energizer announced it was purchasing the global battery and lighting division from Spectrum Brands, which includes the Rayovac and Varta brands, for $2 billion in cash; this acquisition was finalized in January 2019 after a lengthy regulatory approval process. In November 2018, Energizer purchased the global auto care division from Spectrum for $1.25 billion in cash and stock. The company has its foundation in the Eveready Battery Company, which in 1980 changed the name of its Eveready Alkaline Power Cell to Energizer. In 1986, Eveready Battery Company was sold to human food manufacturer Ralston Purina. In 2000, Ralston spun off Eveready, it was listed on the New York Stock Exchange as Energizer Holdings, Inc..
In 2003 under the leadership of Chief Executive Officer J. Patrick Mulcahy, Energizer Holdings started expanding into the personal care product sector by buying personal care and razor brand Schick and gardening tools and razor brand Wilkinson Sword from Pfizer. In 2005, after Hurricane Katrina, Energizer worked with the Red Cross to donate flashlights, batteries and funds to help Hurricane Katrina relief workers and victims. On November 3, 2005, Energizer Holdings Inc. said that higher sales of its Schick razors and blades offset lower sales of its batteries in North America. On a constant-currency basis, sales at Energizer rose 4 percent in its fourth quarter. In October 2007, the company acquired Inc. for $1.9 billion. The purchase included sunscreen brand Hawaiian Tropic, which Playtex had bought a few months earlier, Sun Pharmaceuticals Corp. which manufactures the Banana Boat sunscreen products. In 2009, Energizer acquired Edge and Skintimate shaving gels from S. C. Johnson & Son. In October 2010, Energizer announced it was the winning bidder for held American Safety Razor in a bankruptcy court auction.
The maker of Banana Boat sunscreen recalled a half-million bottles of spray-on lotion after reports that a handful of people have caught on fire after applying the product and coming in contact with an open flame. On October 19, 2012 Energizer Holdings said it was withdrawing 23 varieties of its Banana Boat brand of UltraMist spray-on sunscreen lotion from stores due to the risk of it igniting when exposed to fire. On July 31, 2013, Energizer bought the Stayfree, Carefree and o.b. brands from Johnson & Johnson for $185 million. The purchase was only for the brands in North America – Johnson & Johnson continues to own the brands in all other regions of the world. On April 30, 2014, Energizer announced that by September 2015 it would separate its two lines of business into two publicly traded companies; the household business, with revenue of $1.9 billion in the latest fiscal year, would have Energizer chairman J. Patrick Mulcahy as its chairman and unit chief Alan Hoskins as CEO, would sell batteries and lamps.
The personal care company, whose revenue was $2.6 billion, would have Energizer CEO Ward Klein serving as chairman and current unit head David Hatfield as CEO, would sell feminine products from Playtex, Carefree, o.b. and Stayfree. In 2016, Energizer acquired HandStands Holding Corporation, a leading designer and marketer of automotive fragrance and appearance products. In 2018, Energizer further expanded its auto care portfolio with the Nu Finish auto appearance brands. In January 2018, Energizer announced it was purchasing the global battery and lighting division from Spectrum Brands, which includes the Rayovac and Varta consumer batteries brands, for $2 billion in cash; this acquisition was finalized in January 2019. Energizer Bunny Official website
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
A torch is a stick with combustible material at one end, ignited and used as a light source. Torches have been used throughout history, are still used in processions and religious events, in juggling entertainment. In some countries, the word "torch" is used as the term for a battery-operated portable light. From the Old French "torche" meaning "twisted thing", hence "torch formed of twisted tow dipped in wax" from Vulgar Latin *torca, alteration of Late Latin torqua, variant of classical Latin torques "collar of twisted metal", from torquere "to twist". Torch construction has varied through history depending on the torch's purpose. Torches were constructed of a wooden stave with one end wrapped in a material, soaked in a flammable substance. In ancient Rome some torches were made of sulfur mixed with lime; this meant. Modern procession torches are made from coarse hessian soaked in wax. A wooden handle is used, a cardboard collar is attached to deflect any wax droplets, they are an easy and cheap way to hold a flame aloft in a parade or to provide illumination in any after-dark celebration.
Modern torches suitable for juggling are made of a wooden-and-metal or metal-only stave with one end wrapped in a Kevlar wick. This wick is soaked in a flammable liquid paraffin; the torch is a common emblem of both hope. Thus the Statue of Liberty "Liberty Enlightening the World", lifts her torch. Crossed reversed torches were signs of mourning that appear on Greek and Roman funerary monuments—a torch pointed downwards symbolizes death, while a torch held up symbolizes life and the regenerative power of flame; the torch is a symbol used by political parties, for instance by both Labour and the Conservatives in the UK, the Malta Labour Party. In the seals of schools in the Philippines, the torch symbolizes the vision of education to provide enlightenment to all the students. A torch carried in relay by runners is used to light the Olympic flame which burns without interruption until the end of the Games; these torches and the relay tradition were introduced in the 1936 Summer Olympics by Carl Diem, the chairman of the event because during the duration of the Ancient Olympic Games in Olympia, a sacred flame burnt inside of the temple of Hera, kept in custody by her priestess.
Juggling torches are used as a prop in toss juggling: they can be flipped into the air in an end-over-end motion while being juggled, in the same manner as juggling clubs or juggling knives, but because of their sound and'trail of flame', they can appear much more impressive to audiences. To a skilled juggler, there is only a slight chance of being burned. In former times, liturgical torches were carried in Eucharistic processions to give light; the Church adopted their use for Solemn High Masses. According to Adrian Fortescue, the more correct form of liturgical torches are non-freestanding. However, today in the Vatican, tall candles in ornate candle-stick holders have replaced the former type; the torches are carried by torchbearers, who leave after Communion. Anglicans of the High Church and some Lutherans use torches in some of their liturgical celebrations as well; the association of a torch with love may date to the Greek and Roman tradition of a wedding torch, lit in the bride's hearth on her wedding night used to light the hearth in her new home.
Such a torch is associated with the Greek god of marriage Hymen. The idiom to carry a torch means to love or to be romantically infatuated with someone when such feelings are not reciprocated, it is used to characterize a situation in which a romantic relationship has ended, but where one partner still loves the other. It is considered by some to still in wide usage. A torch song is a sentimental love song in which a female singer laments an unrequited love. List of light sources Sconce Picture of non-freestanding torches Antique Liturgical Torches in Procession Picture of non-freestanding torches Antique Liturgical Torches in Procession
Herbert Werner Quandt was a German industrialist, regarded as having saved BMW when it was at the point of bankruptcy and made huge profit in doing so. Herbert Quandt was born in the second son of Günther Quandt and Antonie "Toni" Quandt. Antonie died of the Spanish flu in 1918; the Quandts are descendants of a Dutch rope-making family who had settled in Wittstock and Pritzwalk, between Berlin and Schwerin, in the 18th century. Günther's father, Emil Quandt, married the daughter of a rich textile manufacturer and took charge of the company in 1883. During World War I, with Günther in charge, the Quandts supplied the German army with uniforms, building up a larger fortune that Günther would use after the war to acquire Accumulatorenfabrik AG, a battery manufacturer in Hagen. Herbert was afflicted with a retinal disease that left scars, he was nearly blind from the age of nine, he had to be educated at home. After extensive training at the family's companies at home and abroad, Herbert Quandt became a member of the executive board of AFA VARTA AG, in 1940.
Herbert was the director of Pertrix GmbH, a Berlin-based subsidiary of AFA. Herbert Quandt was not tried after the war, though his father was interned until 1948 while he was investigated; the Hanns-Joachim-Friedrichs-Award winning documentary film The Silence of the Quandts by the German public broadcaster ARD described in October 2007 the role of the Quandt family businesses during the Second World War. The family's Nazi past was not well known, but the documentary film revealed this to a wide audience and confronted the Quandts about the use of slave labourers in the family's factories during World War II; as a result, five days after the showing, four family members announced, on behalf of the entire Quandt family, their intention to fund a research project in which a historian would examine the family's activities during Adolf Hitler's dictatorship. The independent 1,200-page study, released in 2011 concluded: "The Quandts were linked inseparably with the crimes of the Nazis"-Joachim Scholtyseck, the Bonn historian who compiled and researched the study.
As of 2008 no compensation, apology or memorial at the site of one of their factories, have been permitted. BMW was not implicated in the report, he gained greater responsibility for companies which his father had acquired and after 1945, he rebuilt them. He developed a business philosophy of decentralised organisation which gave executives wide powers for decision-making and allowed employees to participate in their company's success; when Günther died in 1954, the Quandt group was a conglomerate of about 200 businesses including the battery manufacturer, several metal fabrication companies, textile companies and chemical companies. It owned about 10% of car company Daimler-Benz and about 30% of BMW. After Günther's death, the conglomerate was divided between his two surviving sons: Herbert and Harald Quandt, Herbert's half brother. BMW was an ailing company and in 1959 its management suggested selling the whole concern to Daimler-Benz. Herbert Quandt was close to agreeing to such a deal, but changed his mind at the last minute because of opposition from the workforce and trade unions.
Instead he increased his share in BMW to 50% against the advice of his bankers, risking much of his wealth. He was instrumental in reversing the company's fortunes. BMW was planning its BMW 1500 model when Quandt took control, it was launched in 1962 and established a new segment in the car market: the quality production saloon. It occupied a position between the mass production car and the craftsman-built output of the luxury producers. BMW's sophisticated technical skills put it in a strong position to fill this niche, it was this model. When Harald died in 1967 in an air crash, Herbert received more shares in BMW, VARTA and IWKA. In 1974, Harald's widow, sold their stake in Daimler-Benz to the Government of Kuwait, he married his first wife, Ursel Münstermann, in 1933 but they divorced in 1940. This marriage had produced Silvia Quandt, who stayed with her mother after the divorce. Silvia is now an artist. Ten years in 1950, he married his second wife, the jeweller Lieselotte Blobelt, but they divorced in 1959.
This second marriage produced Sonja and Sven. Sven became the manager of the BMW rally team. Herbert married his third wife Johanna Bruhn in 1960, just a year after his second divorce, she had been a secretary in his office in the 1950s and became his personal assistant. She did not remarry after Herbert's death, lived in Bad Homburg until her own death in 2015; the current supervisory board members at BMW include Johanna's two children: Stefan Quandt, holder of 17.4% of the shares in BMW, Susanne Klatten, a 12.5% shareholder. They joined the board in May 1997. Herbert ensured that the shares in his companies were not thinly spread and so to avoid family disputes the children of the previous marriages received large shares in other Quandt family companies. Silvia Quandt, the oldest child, received extensive property in the 1970s; the three children from the second marriage were given the majority of the shares of VARTA Battery AG but these have since been sold. Susanne received his shares in Altana AG, while Stefan received shares in a holding company called Delton with interests in medical products and power supplies.
Herbert Quandt died 2 June 1982 in Kiel. Today the Quandts are multi-billionaires, although it is difficult to put an exact figure on their weal
Frankfurt Stock Exchange
The Frankfurt Stock Exchange is the world's 10th largest stock exchange by market capitalization. Located in Frankfurt, the Frankfurt Stock Exchange is owned and operated by Deutsche Börse AG and Börse Frankfurt Zertifikate AG, it is located in the district of Innenstadt and within the central business district known as Bankenviertel. With 90 per cent of its turnover generated in Germany, namely at the two trading venues Xetra and Börse Frankfurt, the Frankfurt Stock Exchange is the largest of the seven regional securities exchanges in Germany; the trading indices are DAX, DAXplus, CDAX, DivDAX, LDAX, MDAX, SDAX, TecDAX, VDAX and EuroStoxx 50. Through its Deutsche Börse Cash Market business section, Deutsche Börse AG now operates two trading venues at the Frankfurt Stock Exchange. Xetra is the reference market for exchange trading in exchange traded funds. In 2015, 90 per cent of all trading in shares at all German exchanges was transacted through the Xetra. With regard to DAX listings, Xetra has 60 per cent market share throughout Europe.
Trading times on trading days are from 9.00 a.m. to 5.30 p.m. The prices on Xetra serve as the basis for calculating the best-known German share index. Over 200 trading participants from 16 European countries, plus Hong Kong and the United Arab Emirates, are connected via Xetra servers in Frankfurt/Main. Börse Frankfurt is the trading venue for private investors with more than one million securities of German and international issuers. So named Specialists on the trading floor attend to the trading of the securities. Trading at the Frankfurt Stock Exchange is governed by clear rules, which apply for all trading participants. Independent market surveillance is made up of the Trading Surveillance Office, the Exchange Supervisory Authority attached to the Hessian Ministry of Economic Affairs and Regional Development, the Federal Financial Supervisory Authority. With a view to improving the continuity of prices and to avoid mistrades, several protective mechanisms are in place for the trading venues Xetra and Börse Frankfurt.
These include volatility interruption, market order interruption, liquidity interruption measures. The origins of the Frankfurt Stock Exchange go back to medieval trade fairs in the 11th century. By the 16th century Frankfurt developed into a wealthy and busy city with an economy based on trade and financial services. In 1585 a bourse was established to set up fixed currency exchange rates, considered to mark the'birth' of the stock exchange. During the following centuries Frankfurt developed into one of the world's first stock exchanges - next to London and Paris. Bankers like Mayer Amschel Rothschild and Max Warburg had substantial influence on Frankfurt's financial trade. In 1879 Frankfurt Stock Exchange moved into its new building at Börsenplatz, it was only in 1949 after World War II that the Frankfurt Stock Exchange established as the leading stock exchange in Germany with incoming national and international investments. During the 1990s the Frankfurt Stock Exchange was bourse for the Neuer Markt as part of the worldwide dot-com boom.
In 1993 the Frankfurter Wertpapierbörse became Deutsche Börse AG, operating businesses for the exchange. From the early 1960s onwards the Frankfurt Stock Exchange took advantage of the close by Bundesbank which decided on financial policies in Europe until the introduction of the euro in 2002. Since the exchange profits from the presence of the European Central Bank in Frankfurt. In 2002 and 2004 Deutsche Börse was in advanced negotiations to take over London Stock Exchange, which were broken off in 2005. A further merger bid was blocked by the European Commission in 2017. Financial Market Integration in a Wider European Union International financial centres: rivals or partner? Assessment on Frankfurt's failed take-over of LSE Deutsche Börse Cash Market - Organisation of the FWB Website of trading venue Xetra Website of trading venue Börse Frankfurt Federation of European Securities Exchanges, Brussels Clippings about Frankfurt Stock Exchange in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well