USS Ranger (CV-61)
The seventh USS Ranger was the third of four Forrestal-class supercarriers built for the United States Navy in the 1950s. Although all four ships of the class were completed with angled decks, Ranger had the distinction of being the first US carrier built from the beginning as an angled-deck ship. Commissioned in 1957, she served extensively in the Pacific the Vietnam War, for which she earned 13 battle stars. Near the end of her career, she served in the Indian Ocean and Persian Gulf. Ranger appeared on television in The Six Million Dollar Man and Baa Baa Black Sheep, in the films Top Gun, Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home, Flight of the Intruder. Ranger was decommissioned in 1993, was stored at Bremerton, Washington until March 2015, she was moved to Brownsville for scrapping, completed in November 2017. Ranger was the first American aircraft carrier, she was laid down 2 August 1954 by Newport News Drydock Co.. Newport News, Virginia in Shipway 10, her completed hull was floated and placed in Shipway 11 four months for final completion.
Ranger was launched 29 September 1956, sponsored by Mrs. Arthur Radford and commissioned at the Norfolk Naval Shipyard 10 August 1957, Captain Charles T. Booth II in command. Ranger joined the U. S. Atlantic Fleet on 3 October 1957. Just prior to sailing on 4 October for Guantánamo Bay, for shakedown, she received the men and planes of Attack Squadron 85, she conducted air operations, individual ship exercises, final acceptance trials along the eastern seaboard and in the Caribbean Sea until 20 June 1958. Noted artist Jack Coggins was commissioned by the United States Naval Institute to paint the new aircraft carrier, she departed Norfolk, with 200 Naval Reserve officer candidates for a two-month cruise that took the carrier around Cape Horn. She arrived at her new homeport, Naval Air Station Alameda, California, on 20 August and joined the Pacific Fleet; the carrier spent the remainder of 1958 in pilot qualification training for Air Group 14 and fleet exercises along the California coast. Departing 3 January 1959 for final training in Hawaiian waters until 17 February, she next sailed as the flagship of Rear Admiral Henry H. Caldwell, Carrier Division Two, to join the Seventh Fleet.
Air operations off Okinawa were followed by maneuvers with SEATO naval units out of Subic Bay, Philippines. A special weapons warfare exercise and a patrol along the southern seaboard of Japan followed. During this first WestPac deployment, Ranger launched more than 7,000 sorties in support of 7th Fleet operations, she returned to San Francisco Bay 27 July. During the next 6 months, Ranger was kept in a high state of readiness through participation in exercises and coastal fleet operations. With Carrier Air Group 9 embarked, she departed Alameda on 6 February 1960 for a second WestPac deployment and returned to Alameda 30 August. From 11 August 1961 through 8 March 1962, Ranger deployed to the Far East a third time; the next seven months were filled with intensive training along the western seaboard in preparation for operations in Southeast Asia. Ranger departed Alameda on 9 November for brief operations off Hawaii, thence proceeded, via Okinawa, to the Philippines, she steamed to the South China Sea 1 May 1963 to support possible Laotian operations.
When the political situation in Laos relaxed 4 May, she resumed her operations schedule with the 7th Fleet. Arriving at Alameda from the Far East 14 June 1963, she underwent overhaul in the San Francisco Naval Shipyard 7 August 1963 through 10 February 1964. Refresher training out of Alameda commenced 25 March, interrupted by an operational cruise to Hawaii from 19 June to 10 July. In May 1964, Ranger was deployed near French Polynesia in the Pacific Ocean to monitor the French nuclear tests on Moruroa, a task made possible by launching and recovering a Lockheed U-2 from its flight deck. Work on modifying the U-2 for carrier landing and take-off started in late 1963, one accident occurred during the carrier landing operation when the aircraft piloted by test pilot Bob Schumacher crashed. Ranger again sailed for the Far East on 6 August 1964; this deployment came on the heels of the Gulf of Tonkin incident. Ranger made only an eight-hour stop in Pearl Harbor on 10 August hurried on to Subic Bay to Yokosuka, Japan.
In the latter port on 17 October 1964, she became the flagship of Rear Admiral Miller, who commanded Fast Carrier Task Force 77. In the following months, she helped the 7th Fleet continue its role of steady watchfulness to keep sea lanes open and stop Communist infiltration by sea. General William Westmoreland, commanding the Military Advisory Command in Vietnam, visited Ranger on 9 March 1965 to confer with Rear Admiral Miller. Ranger continued air strikes on enemy inland targets until 13 April when a fuel line broke and engulfed her No. 1 main machinery room in flames. The fire was extinguished in little over an hour. There was one fatality, she sailed on the 20th for Alameda, arriving home on 6 May. She entered the San Francisco Naval Shipyard 13 May and remained there under overhaul until 30 September 1965. Following refresher training, Ranger departed Alameda on 10 December 1965 to rejoin the 7th Fleet, she and her embarked Carrier Air Wing 14 received the Navy Unit Commendation for exceptionally meritorious service during combat operations in Southeast Asia from
Northrop Grumman E-2 Hawkeye
The Northrop Grumman E-2 Hawkeye is an American all-weather, carrier-capable tactical airborne early warning aircraft. This twin-turboprop aircraft was designed and developed during the late 1950s and early 1960s by the Grumman Aircraft Company for the United States Navy as a replacement for the earlier, piston-engined E-1 Tracer, becoming obsolete; the aircraft's performance has been upgraded with the E-2B, E-2C versions, where most of the changes were made to the radar and radio communications due to advances in electronic integrated circuits and other electronics. The fourth major version of the Hawkeye is the E-2D, which first flew in 2007; the E-2 was the first aircraft designed for its role, as opposed to a modification of an existing airframe, such as the Boeing E-3 Sentry. Variants of the Hawkeye have been in continuous production since 1960, giving it the longest production run of any carrier-based aircraft; the E-2 received the nickname "Super Fudd" because it replaced the E-1 Tracer "Willy Fudd".
In recent decades, the E-2 has been referred to as the "Hummer" because of the distinctive sounds of its turboprop engines, quite unlike that of turbojet and turbofan jet engines. In addition to U. S. Navy service, smaller numbers of E-2s have been sold to the armed forces of Egypt, Israel, Mexico and Taiwan. Continual improvements in airborne radars through 1956 led to the construction of AEW airplanes by several different countries and several different armed forces; the functions of command and control and sea & air surveillance were added. The first carrier-based aircraft to perform these missions for the U. S. Navy and its allies was the Douglas AD Skyraider, replaced in US Navy service by the Grumman E-1 Tracer, a modified version of the S-2 Tracker twin-engine anti-submarine warfare aircraft, where the radar was carried in an aerofoil-shaped radome carried above the aircraft's fuselage. In 1956, the U. S. Navy developed a requirement for an airborne early warning aircraft where its data could be integrated into the Naval Tactical Data System aboard the Navy's ships, with a design from Grumman being selected to meet this requirement in March 1957.
Its design designated W2F-1, but redesignated the E-2A Hawkeye, was the first carrier plane, designed from its wheels up as an AEW and command and control airplane. The problems facing the design engineers at Grumman were immense, were compounded by having to constrain the design to enable the aircraft to operate from the older modified Essex-class aircraft carriers; these ‘smaller’ carriers were built during World War II and modified to allow them to operate jet aircraft. Various height and length restrictions had to be factored into the E-2A design, resulting in some handling characteristics which were less than ideal; the E-2A never operated from the modified Essex class carriers. The first prototype, acting as an aerodynamic testbed only, flew on 21 October 1960; the first equipped aircraft followed it on 19 April 1961, entered service with the US Navy as the E-2A in January 1964. By 1965 the major development problems delaying the E-2A Hawkeye got so bad that the aircraft was cancelled after 59 aircraft had been built.
Particular difficulties were being experienced due to inadequate cooling in the packed avionics compartment. Early computer and complex avionics; these failures continued long after the aircraft entered service and at one point reliability was so bad that the entire fleet of aircraft was grounded. After Navy officials had been forced to explain to Congress why four production contracts had been signed before avionics testing had been completed, action was taken; the unreliable rotary drum computer was replaced by a Litton L-304 digital computer and various avionics systems were replaced – the upgraded aircraft were designated E-2Bs. In total, 49 of the 59 E-2As were upgraded to E-2B standard; these aircraft replaced the E-1B Tracers in the various US Navy AEW squadrons. Although the upgraded E-2B was a vast improvement on the unreliable E-2A, it was an interim measure; the US Navy knew the design had much greater capability and had yet to achieve the performance and reliability parameters set out in the original 1957 design.
In April 1968, a reliability improvement program was instigated. In addition, now that the capabilities of the aircraft were starting to be realized, more were desired. Improvements in the new and upgraded aircraft were concentrated in the radar and computer performance. Two E-2A test machines were modified as E-2C prototypes, the first flying on 20 January 1971. Trials proved satisfactory and the E-2C was ordered into production, the first production machine performed its initial flight on 23 September 1972; the original E-2C, known as Group 0, consisted of 55 aircraft. US Navy Reserve used some aircraft for tracking drug smugglers; the type was used in conjunction with Grumman F-14 Tomcat fighters. The next production run, between 1988 and 1991, saw 18 aircraft built to the Group I standard. Group I aircraft replaced the E-2's older APS-125 radar and T56-A-425 turboprops with their successors, the APS-139 radar system and T56-A-427 turboprops; the first G
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Master Chief Petty Officer of the Navy
The Master Chief Petty Officer of the Navy is a unique non-commissioned rank and position of office of the United States Navy, which has with it the paygrade of E-9. The holder of this position is the most senior enlisted member of the U. S. Navy, equivalent to the Sergeant Major of the Army, Chief Master Sergeant of the Air Force, Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps, Master Chief Petty Officer of the Coast Guard; the Master Chief Petty Officer of the Navy is appointed by the Chief of Naval Operations to serve as a spokesperson to address the issues of enlisted personnel to the highest positions in the Navy. As such, they are the senior enlisted advisor to the Chief of Naval Operations as well as the Chief of Naval Personnel, their exact duties vary, depending on the CNO, though they devote much of their time to traveling throughout the Navy observing training and talking to sailors and their families. Their personnel code is N00D as the senior enlisted advisor to Chief of Naval Operations and PERS-00D in their special advisory capacity to Chief of Naval Personnel/Deputy Chief of Naval Operations.
In 1988, the MCPON's spouse was made the Ombudsman-at-Large, authorizing them to travel around the fleet with their spouse, representing the interests of the spouses of enlisted members. The MCPON serves an appointed two-year team of office but can be reappointed by the CNO for an additional two-year term. Typically. While the MCPON is a non-commissioned officer, this billet is unofficially protocoled equivalent to a vice admiral; the current MCPON is Russell Smith. In 1966, the opportunity was given to sailors in the U. S. Navy's two largest concentration areas, Hampton Roads and San Diego County, California, to voice their concerns and recommendations to the top levels of the U. S. Navy; the response was overwhelming. To provide a permanent channel for input from the enlisted force to their senior leadership, the Navy acted on a suggestion to create a "Leading Chief Petty Officer of the Navy" who would have a direct dialogue channel with all enlisted sailors and represent their interests; the post was known as the Senior Enlisted Advisor of the Navy, on 13 January 1967 GMCM Delbert Black was selected to serve a four-year term in that capacity.
On 28 April of the same year, Black's title was changed to Master Chief Petty Officer of the Navy to bring the Navy in line with the U. S. Marine Corps and U. S. Army, which had created equivalent positions in July 1966 respectively. MCPON Black's duties were to the Chief of Naval Personnel. All subsequent MCPONs have reported to both the CNO and CNP. During the MCPON's tenure, a third silver star above the gold anchor is added onto the MCPON's collar and cap devices, as well as a rating badge consisting of a perched eagle atop three inverted gold chevrons, one rocker, three inverted gold stars above the eagle; the MCPON's rating specialty mark is replaced by a single inverted gold star. The MCPON will wear the Master Chief Petty Officer of the Navy Badge on naval uniforms. Senior Enlisted Advisor to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Sergeant Major of the Army—U. S. Army equivalent Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps—U. S. Marine Corps equivalent Chief Master Sergeant of the Air Force—U. S. Air Force equivalent Master Chief Petty Officer of the Coast Guard—U.
S. Coast Guard equivalent Senior Enlisted Advisor for the National Guard Bureau Crist, Charlotte D. Winds of Change: The History of the Office of the Master Chief Petty Officer of the Navy 1967–1992. Washington, D. C.: Naval Historical Center, 1992. A joint publication of the Office of the Master Chief Petty Officer of the Navy and the Naval Historical Center, available through the Government Printing Office and depository libraries. Media related to Master Chief Petty Officers of the United States Navy at Wikimedia Commons
USS Oldendorf, named for Admiral Jesse B. Oldendorf USN, was a Spruance-class destroyer built by the Ingalls Shipbuilding Division of Litton Industries at Pascagoula, Mississippi. Oldendorf was the tenth Spruance- class destroyer and the first ship in the Navy named after Admiral Jesse B. Oldendorf, one of the most distinguished surface warfare flag officers to serve during World War II, she was built by Ingalls Shipbuilding in Pascagoula, Mississippi beginning 27 December 1974. Was Launched on 21 October 1975 and was commissioned on 4 March 1978. Oldendorf was stationed in San Diego, although the ship's first year was marked by shipyard work in Long Beach and another visit to Litton Shipbuilders in Pascagoula, Mississippi; this schedule meant three Panama Canal transits for most of the ship's pre-commissioning crew within the a ship's first 12 months of service. During her first Westpac deployment which took place between May to November 1980 Oldendorf took part in a joint Australian-American-New Zealand anti-submarine exercise off the Western Australian coast during August 1980, which saw the destroyer conduct visits to the Western Australian town of Bunbury and the city of Perth.
Oldendorf conducted her second Westpac deployment, this time with the aircraft carrier USS Constellation and her Carrier Battle Group in October 1981 to the Persian Gulf, during which Oldendorf returned to visit the Western Australian city of Perth. She returned home in May 1982 before undergoing an overhaul from September 1982 to July 1983 conducted work ups for the ship's third Westpac deployment which took place from January to May 1984. Oldendorf was re-based to Yokosuka, Japan as part of the United States Seventh Fleet in August 1984, she was a member of the USS Midway battle group until being transferred to San Diego in 1991. During her time in the 7th Fleet she was involved with numerous events including regular exercises with all major navies in the area. In November 1986, along with USS Reeves and USS Rentz, she visited the port of Quingdao, the first group of US warships to visit mainland China since 1949. In 1988 Oldendorf deployed as part of the Seoul Olympics security force with the Nimitz battle group for which she received the Meritorious Unit Citation.
During two separate deployments Oldendorf was responsible for rescuing Vietnamese refugees fleeing governmental oppression and during mid-1989 Oldendorf was the first warship to be granted access to the small Australian village of Gove since 1975, when a seafaring naval tug was last to visit. Oldendorf had received approval from the Aboriginal tribe leaders to make a port of call there as a sign of good will to the US Navy, she received numerous awards for excellence. The commanding officer during her deployment to the Gulf War was Commander Cyrus H Butt IV. Oldendorf was part of the first United States response to the invasion of Kuwait in 1990, she served with distinction throughout the war earning the Combat Action Ribbon escorting the various major warships and supporting the naval blockade of Iraq. She returned to Japan in mid-1991; the summer of 1991 had the ship change its homeport to Long Beach, California for a year and a half long overhaul in the Long Beach Naval Shipyards. In late 1993 the command was shifted to her final homeport of San Diego.
In early 1993 she participated in LEO operations off the South American coast returning in March 1993. Oldendorf took part in the surface exercise Eager Sentry, as part of the larger Exercise Native Fury'94. Involving Kuwaiti and British military members, it was the largest naval exercise conducted in Kuwait, it was conducted from 4 April through 25 April, to demonstrates U. S. resolve to support the peace in the Persian Gulf region after ousting Iraq from Kuwait three years prior. Native Fury comprised several exercises under one umbrella. In the namesake exercises, two Maritime Prepositioning Ships sailed from their homeport of Diego Garcia and discharged more than 1,000 tanks, artillery pieces and vehicles at the port of Shuaibah, starting 5 April. 2,000 marines and sailors from I Marine Expeditionary Force, 7th Marine Regiment, 1st Force Service Support Group and Naval Beach Group One arrived by air, off-loaded and convoyed the equipment to a training range north of Kuwait City. There, they trained with the Kuwaiti Army and British Royal Marines, perfecting tactics which would delay, turn back, any repeat of the invasion of Kuwait.
Other elements of Native Fury involved. As part of a reorganization by the Pacific Fleet's surface ships into six core battle groups and eight destroyer squadrons, with the reorganization scheduled to be completed by 1 October 1995, homeport changes to be completed within the following, Oldendorf was reassigned to Destroyer Squadron 23. Oldendorf departed on 1 December 1995, as part of the USS Nimitz Battle Group, for a scheduled Western Pacific deployment. In March 1996, in response to the announcement of missile tests and military live-fire exercises to be conducted by the Chinese in the waters surrounding the island of Taiwan, the United States dispatched forward deployed naval assets, including a carrier and other combatants to the area to monitor the situation. USS Independence and other units in its battle group, operating in international waters, were on the scene from the beginning of the exercises. However, to augment the monitoring efforts, further demonstrate U. S. commitment to peace and stability in the region and elements of its battle group, including Oldendorf, were ordered to sail from the Persian Gulf to the Western Pacific earlier than pl
The Vietnam War known as the Second Indochina War, in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America or the American War, was an undeclared war in Vietnam and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. It was the second of the Indochina Wars and was fought between North Vietnam and South Vietnam. North Vietnam was supported by the Soviet Union and other communist allies; the war is considered a Cold War-era proxy war from some US perspectives. It lasted some 19 years with direct U. S. involvement ending in 1973 following the Paris Peace Accords, included the Laotian Civil War and the Cambodian Civil War, resulting in all three countries becoming communist states in 1975. American military advisors began arriving in what was French Indochina in 1950 to support the French in the First Indochina War against the communist-led Viet Minh. Most of the funding for the French war effort was provided by the U. S. After the French quit Indochina in 1954, the US assumed financial and military responsibility for the South Vietnamese state.
The Việt Cộng known as Front national de libération du Sud-Viêt Nam or NLF, a South Vietnamese communist common front aided by the North, initiated a guerrilla war against the South Vietnamese government in 1959. U. S. involvement escalated in 1960, continued in 1961 under President John F. Kennedy, with troop levels surging under the MAAG program from just under a thousand in 1959 to 16,000 in 1963. By 1964, there were 23,000 U. S. troops in Vietnam, but this escalated further following the 1964 Gulf of Tonkin incident, in which a U. S. destroyer was alleged to have clashed with North Vietnamese fast attack craft. In response, the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution gave President Lyndon B. Johnson broad authorization to increase U. S. military presence, deploying ground combat units for the first time and increasing troop levels to 184,000. Past this point, the People's Army of Vietnam known as the North Vietnamese Army engaged in more conventional warfare with US and South Vietnamese forces; every year onward there was significant build-up of US forces despite little progress, with Robert McNamara, one of the principal architects of the war, beginning to express doubts of victory by the end of 1966.
U. S. and South Vietnamese forces relied on air superiority and overwhelming firepower to conduct search and destroy operations, involving ground forces and airstrikes. The U. S. conducted a large-scale strategic bombing campaign against North Vietnam. The Tet Offensive of 1968, proved to be the turning point of the war; the Tet Offensive showed that the end of US involvement was not in sight, increasing domestic skepticism of the war. The unconventional and conventional capabilities of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam increased following a period of neglect and became modeled on heavy firepower-focused doctrines like US forces. Operations crossed international borders. S. forces. Gradual withdrawal of U. S. ground forces began as part of "Vietnamization", which aimed to end American involvement in the war while transferring the task of fighting the communists to the South Vietnamese themselves and began the task of modernizing their armed forces. Direct U. S. military involvement ended on 15 August 1973 as a result of the Case–Church Amendment passed by the U.
S. Congress; the capture of Saigon by the NVA in April 1975 marked the end of the war, North and South Vietnam were reunified the following year. The war exacted a huge human cost in terms of fatalities. Estimates of the number of Vietnamese soldiers and civilians killed vary from 966,000 to 3.8 million. Some 275,000–310,000 Cambodians, 20,000–62,000 Laotians, 58,220 U. S. service members died in the conflict, a further 1,626 remain missing in action. The Sino-Soviet split re-emerged following the lull during the Vietnam War and confllict between North Vietnam and its Cambodian allies in the Royal Government of the National Union of Kampuchea, the newly-formed Democratic Kampuchea begun immediately in a series of border raids by the Khmer Rouge and erupted into the Cambodian–Vietnamese War, with Chinese forces directly intervening in the Sino-Vietnamese War; the end of the war and resumption of the Third Indochina War would precipitate the Vietnamese boat people and the bigger Indochina refugee crisis, which saw an estimated 250,000 people perish at sea.
Within the US the war gave rise to what was referred to as Vietnam Syndrome, a public aversion to American overseas military involvements, which together with Watergate contributed to the crisis of confidence that affected America throughout the 1970s. Various names have been applied to the conflict. Vietnam War is the most used name in English, it has been called the Second Indochina War and the Vietnam Conflict. As there have been several conflicts in Indochina, this particular conflict is known by the names of its primary protagonists to distinguish it from others. In Vietnamese, the war is known as Kháng chiến chống Mỹ, but less formally as'Cuộc chiến tranh Mỹ', it is called Chiến tranh Việt Nam. The primary military organizations involved in the war were as follows: One side consisted of th