History of the United States Navy
The history of the United States Navy divides into two major periods: the "Old Navy", a small but respected force of sailing ships, notable for innovation in the use of ironclads during the American Civil War, the "New Navy", the result of a modernization effort that began in the 1880s and made it the largest in the world by the 1920s. The United States Navy claims 13 October 1775 as the date of its official establishment, when the Second Continental Congress passed a resolution creating the Continental Navy. With the end of the American Revolutionary War, the Continental Navy was disbanded. Under first President George Washington threats to American merchant shipping by Barbary pirates from four North African Muslim States, in the Mediterranean, led to the Naval Act of 1794, which created a permanent standing U. S. Navy; the original six frigates were authorized as part of the Act. Over the next 20 years, the Navy fought the French Republic Navy in the Quasi-War, Barbary states in the First and Second Barbary Wars, the British in the War of 1812.
After the War of 1812, the U. S. Navy was at peace until the Mexican–American War in 1846, served to combat piracy in the Mediterranean and Caribbean seas, as well as fighting the slave trade off the coast of West Africa. In 1845, the Naval Academy was founded at old Fort Severn at Annapolis, Maryland by the Chesapeake Bay. In 1861, the American Civil War began and the U. S. Navy fought the small Confederate States Navy with both sailing ships and new revolutionary ironclad ships while forming a blockade that shut down the Confederacy's civilian coastal shipping. After the Civil War, most of its ships were laid up in reserve, by 1878, the Navy was just 6,000 men. In 1882, the U. S. Navy consisted of many outdated ship designs. Over the next decade, Congress approved building multiple modern steel-hulled armored cruisers and battleships, by around the start of the 20th century had moved from twelfth place in 1870 to fifth place in terms of numbers of ships. After winning two major battles during the 1898 Spanish–American War, the American Navy continued to build more ships, by the end of World War I had more men and women in uniform than the British Royal Navy.
The Washington Naval Conference of 1921 recognized the Navy as equal in capital ship size to the Royal Navy, during the 1920s and 1930s, the Navy built several aircraft carriers and battleships. The Navy was drawn into World War II after the Japanese Attack on Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941, over the next four years fought many historic battles including the Battle of the Coral Sea, the Battle of Midway, multiple naval battles during the Guadalcanal Campaign, the largest naval battle in history, the Battle of Leyte Gulf. Much of the Navy's activity concerned the support of landings, not only with the "island-hopping" campaign in the Pacific, but with the European landings; when the Japanese surrendered, a large flotilla entered Tokyo Bay to witness the formal ceremony conducted on the battleship Missouri, on which officials from the Japanese government signed the Japanese Instrument of Surrender. By the end of the war, the Navy had over 1,600 warships. After World War II ended, the U. S. Navy entered the 45 year long Cold War and participated in the Korean War, the Vietnam War, the First Persian Gulf War, the Second Persian Gulf War / Iraq War.
Following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1990-91, the Soviet Red Navy fell apart, which made the United States the world's undisputed naval superpower. Nuclear power and ballistic missile technology led to new ship propulsion and weapon systems, which were used in the Nimitz-class aircraft carriers and Ohio-class submarines. By 1978, the number of ships had dwindled to less than 400, many of which were from World War II, which prompted Ronald Reagan to institute a program for a modern, 600-ship Navy. Today, the United States is the world's undisputed naval superpower, with the ability to engage and project power in two simultaneous limited wars along separate fronts. In March 2007, the U. S. Navy reached its smallest fleet size, with 274 ships, since World War I. Former U. S. Navy admirals who head the U. S. Naval Institute have raised concerns about what they see as the ability to respond to'aggressive moves by Iran and China.' The Navy was rooted in the American seafaring tradition, which produced a large community of sailors and shipbuilders in the colonial era.
During the Revolution, several states operated their own navies. On 12 June 1775, the Rhode Island General Assembly passed a resolution creating a navy for the colony of Rhode Island; the same day, Governor Nicholas Cooke signed orders addressed to Captain Abraham Whipple, commander of the sloop Katy, commodore of the armed vessels employed by the government. The first formal movement for the creation of a Continental navy came from Rhode Island, because its merchants' widespread smuggling activities had been harassed by British frigates. On 26 August 1775, Rhode Island passed a resolution that there be a single Continental fleet funded by the Continental Congress; the resolution was tabled. In the meantime, George Washington had begun to acquire ships, starting with the schooner USS Hannah, paid for out of Washington's own pocket. Hannah was commissioned and launched on 5 September 1775, from the port of Marblehead, Massachusetts; the US Navy recognizes 13 October 1775 as the date of its official establishment — the date of the passage of the resolution of the Continental Congress at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania that created the Continental Navy.
On this day, Congress authorized the purchase of two vessels to be armed for a cruise against British merchant ships. On 13 December 1775, Congress authorized the building of thirteen
United States Fleet Forces Command
The United States Fleet Forces Command is a service component command of the United States Navy that provides naval forces to a wide variety of U. S. forces. The naval resources may be allocated to Combatant Commanders such as United States Northern Command under the authority of the Secretary of Defense. Formed as United States Atlantic Fleet in 1906, it has been an integral part of the defense of the United States of America since the early 20th century. In 2002, the Fleet comprised over 118,000 Navy and Marine Corps personnel serving on 186 ships and in 1,300 aircraft, with an area of responsibility ranging over most of the Atlantic Ocean from the North Pole to the South Pole, the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, the waters of the Pacific Ocean along the coasts of Central and South America; the command is based at Naval Support Activity Hampton Roads in Norfolk, Virginia and is the navy's service component to U. S. Northern Command and is a supporting command under the U. S. Strategic Command.
The command's mission is to organize, man and equip Naval Forces for assignment to Unified Command Combatant commanders. The Atlantic Fleet was established by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1906, at the same time as the Pacific Fleet, as protection for new bases in the Caribbean acquired as a result of the Spanish–American War; the Fleet was a combination of the South Atlantic Squadron. The first commander of the fleet was Rear Admiral Robley D. Evans, who hoisted his flag in the battleship USS Maine on 1 January 1906; the following year, he took his 16 battleships, now dubbed the Great White Fleet, on a round-the-world cruise that lasted until 1909, a goodwill tour that served the purpose of advertising the United States' naval strength and reach to all other nations of the globe. In January 1913 the fleet consisted of six first-line divisions, a torpedo flotilla and fleet auxiliaries; the fleet was under the command of Rear Admiral Hugo Osterhaus. The First Division, under Rear Admiral Bradley A. Fiske, consisted of USS Florida, USS Delaware, USS North Dakota.
The Second Division, under Rear Admiral Nathaniel R. Usher with his flag aboard the USS Vermont, consisted of USS Louisiana, USS Michigan, USS New Hampshire, USS South Carolina; the Third Division, under Rear Admiral Cameron McR. Winslow, comprised USS Virginia, USS Georgia, USS New Jersey, USS Rhode Island, USS Nebraska; the Fourth Division, under Rear Admiral Frank F. Fletcher, consisted of the USS Minnesota, USS Connecticut, USS Ohio, USS Idaho, USS Kansas.. Fifth and Sixth Divisions were made up of protected cruisers, USS St. Louis, USS Tennessee, USS Washington, USS Cleveland, USS Denver, USS Des Moines, USS Tacoma; the Cruiser and Transport Force, under Rear Admiral Albert Gleaves served in Atlantic waters during World War I moving the American Expeditionary Forces to Europe. United States Battleship Division Nine joined the Grand Fleet in the UK; the Atlantic Fleet was reorganized into the Scouting Force in 1923, under the United States Fleet along with the Pacific Fleet. In January 1939 the Atlantic Squadron, United States Fleet, was formed.
The aircraft carrier USS Ranger was transferred to the Atlantic Ocean. Vice Admiral Alfred Wilkinson Johnson commanded the squadron. On 1 November 1940 the Atlantic Squadron was renamed the Patrol Force; the Patrol Force was organized into type commands: Patrol Force. On 1 February 1941, the Atlantic Fleet was organized from the Patrol Force. Along with the Pacific Fleet and Asiatic Fleet, the fleet was to be under the command of a full admiral, which jumped the fleet's commander Ernest J. King from a two-star to a four-star. King's flagship was USS Texas. Subsequently, the headquarters was in a rather odd assortment of ships. In 1948, the HQ moved into the former naval hospital at Norfolk and has remained there since. On 7 December 1941 the Fleet comprised eight separate components: Battleships, Atlantic Fleet was made up of three Battleship Divisions Of these, Battleship Division 5 was a training unit consisting of the oldest remaining battleships in service, while Division 6 was responsible for working up the two most commissioned battleships, North Carolina and Washington.
The other components were Atlantic Fleet, which included Carrier Division Three. During World War II "Transports, Amphibious Force, Atlantic Fleet" was part of this command. Smaller units included the Antisubmarine Development Detachment, Atlantic Fleet located at Quonset Point, Rhode Island; the detachment was responsible for the study and development of antisubmarine gear during World War II. The Commander of the detachment was known as COMASDEVLANT. In addition, the aircraft carriers USS Yorktown and USS Long Island were directl
Carrier strike group
A carrier strike group is an operational formation of the United States Navy. It is composed of 7,500 personnel, an aircraft carrier, at least one cruiser, a destroyer squadron of at least two destroyers or frigates, a carrier air wing of 65 to 70 aircraft. A carrier strike group on occasion, includes submarines, attached logistics ships and a supply ship; the carrier strike group commander operationally reports to the commander of the numbered fleet, operationally responsible for the area of waters in which the carrier strike group is operating. Carrier strike groups comprise a principal element of U. S. power projection capability. Referred to as carrier battle groups, they are referred to by the carrier they are associated with; as of March 2016 there were 10 carrier strike groups in the U. S. navy. The carrier strike group is a flexible naval force that can operate in confined waters or in the open ocean, during day and night, in all weather conditions; the principal role of the carrier and its air wing within the carrier strike group is to provide the primary offensive firepower, while the other ships provide defense and support.
These roles are not exclusive, however. Other ships in the strike group sometimes undertake offensive operations and the carrier's air wing contributes to the strike group's defense. Thus, from a command and control perspective, carrier strike groups are combat organized by mission rather than by platform; the Royal Navy is in the process of rebuilding its aircraft carrier strike group, led by Commander UK Carrier Strike Group, a Royal Navy Commodore. This will consist of two Queen Elizabeth-class aircraft carriers each equipped with an air wing of around 30 plus early warning aircraft and numerous helicopters; the group will consist of at least one Type 45 destroyer, two Type 23 frigates, one Astute class attack submarine plus a number of support vessels. The development of the U. S. Navy carrier battle group can be traced to the 1920s and was based on previous experience grouping battleships and other major surface combatants. In World War II, aircraft carriers were assigned to carrier divisions.
Operationally they were assigned to Task Forces, of which Task Force 11, Task Force 16 and Task Force 17 gained the most fame for their roles in the Battle of the Coral Sea and the Battle of Midway. The single-carrier battle group was born with the military draw down that followed World War II. Carrier Division 1 was redesignated Carrier Group 1 on 30 June 1973, all Carrier Divisions were redesignated Carrier Groups on that date. Throughout the 1990s, the U. S. Navy's aircraft carrier groups were referred to as Carrier Battle Groups, were commanded by either flag officers called Cruiser-Destroyer Group or Carrier Group commanders. In the summer of 1992, the U. S. Navy instituted a concept that mandated greater task group integration of naval air and surface warfare assets into a more permanent carrier battle group structure; each of the Navy's 12 existing carrier battle groups consisted of an aircraft carrier. On 1 October 2004, carrier groups and cruiser-destroyer groups were redesignated carrier strike groups.
The change in nomenclature from'Battle' to'Strike' appears to have been connected with an increasing emphasis on projecting air power ashore. Carrier strike groups are tasked to accomplish a variety of wartime missions, as well as a wide variety of functions in situations short of war; the peacetime mission is to conduct forward presence operations, to help shape the strategic environment, deter conflict, build interoperability with allies, respond to crises when necessary. The U. S. Navy provides a regular rotation of strike groups overseas for six-eight months, based on the needs of Unified Combatant Commands that request strike group capabilities in their respective area of responsibility; the ships in the group "disaggregate" from the carrier, performing missions hundreds or thousands of miles away. The missions of the carrier strike groups include: Power projection ashore against a wide range of strategic and tactical targets defended by sophisticated air defense systems, during day and night, in all weather conditions.
Gaining and maintaining sea control including coastal regions, bounded seas, choke points, the open ocean. Protection of commercial and military shipping. Protection of a United States Marine Corps Amphibious Ready Group prior to or during an amphibious operation. Humanitarian Assistance/Disaster Relief. Surveillance/Intelligence to achieve and maintain a comprehensive operational picture of the littoral environment, including surface, undersea and relevant land areas of interest. Command and Control of assigned U. S. and multinational forces. Establishing air superiority or air supremacy in an area by seizing and maintaining control of designated airspace. Theater ballistic missile defense of littoral areas and selected theater wide areas against attack. Operations in support of the peacetime presence mission, including supporting U. S. diplomacy through cooperative engagement with designated allied forces, normal peacetime operations, shows of force. CSGs are not restricted to a specific composition and can be modified depending on expected threats, roles, or missions expected during a deployment, one may b
Fleet Replacement Squadron
A Fleet Replacement Squadron, is a unit of the United States Navy and Marine Corps that trains Naval Aviators, Naval Flight Officers and enlisted Naval Aircrewman on the specific front-line aircraft they have been assigned to fly. Students, referred to as Replacement Pilots or Replacement Weapon Systems Officers are either newly winged aviators, aviators transitioning from one type aircraft to another, or aviators returning to the cockpit after a period of non-flying. After completing the training regimen, graduates are assigned to fleet squadrons. Additionally, FRSs are responsible for training aircraft mechanics, providing replacement aircraft for fleet squadron attrition, standardizing maintenance and aircraft operations. U. S. Navy and Marine personnel are assigned to other services' FRSs; the FRSs were known as Replacement Air Groups, are thus called "Rags". From 1 April 1958 to June 1970 the Navy organized the Fleet Replacement Squadrons for carrier based fighter and attack type aircraft into Readiness Carrier Air Groups.
On 20 December 1963 when all Carrier Air Groups were redesignated Carrier Air Wings the RCVGs were redesignated Readiness Carrier Air Wings. From 30 June 1960 to February 1961 it organized the Fleet Replacement Squadrons for carrier based ASW squadrons into Readiness Carrier Air Anti-Submarine Groups; the RCVSGs were not redesignated as wings in 1963 and they remained Readiness Carrier Air Anti-Submarine Groups until they were disestablished in 1970 and 1971. After disestablishment of the RCVWs and RCVSGs the Fleet Replacement Squadrons were placed under the operational control of the aircraft specific type or functional wings but they all retained their former RCVW or RCVSG tail codes. While most squadrons listed below were dedicated Fleet Replacement Squadrons, some such as VAQ-33, VAQ-130, HC-1, HC-2 and HC-16 operated a department which performed as an FRS while the remainder of the squadron performed operational or other fleet support functions. List of active United States Marine Corps aircraft squadrons List of inactive United States Marine Corps aircraft squadrons List of United States Navy aircraft squadrons List of inactive United States Navy aircraft squadrons List of United States Navy aircraft wings
Fleet Logistics Support Squadron 40 known as the "Rawhides", is a United States Navy fleet logistics support squadron based at NS Norfolk. Commissioned in 1960, it is one of only two active fleet logistics squadrons in the Navy, the other being VRC-30. Fleet Logistics Support Squadron 40 was commissioned on 1 July 1960 and is tasked with providing Carrier onboard delivery services to the U. S. Navy's Second and Sixth Fleets. VRC-40, homeported at NS Norfolk, operates the Grumman C-2A Greyhound and reports to Commander, Airborne Early Warning Wing, U. S. Atlantic Fleet. Maintaining and flying the squadron's 14 aircraft are nearly 320 enlisted personnel and 42 officers. Unlike most squadrons, VRC-40 does not deploy as a unit. Instead, it prepares five separate sea going detachments with a two-plane complement while maintaining ashore "Homeguard" to support local operational commitments. Based at remote forward logistics sites, the deployed detachments support multiple carrier strike groups that operate in the Second, Fourth and Sixth Fleets aboard deployed aircraft carriers providing continuous fleet support.
VRC-40 supports the fleet from ships and bases as far north as Norway, down the Eastern Seaboard and Gulf Coast, throughout the Caribbean, in Central and South America, all over the Mediterranean and Middle Eastern theaters. VRC-40 played a vital role in support of combat missions during Operations Enduring and Iraqi Freedom and was selected as the Commander Naval Air Force Battle "E" winner for the 2010 calendar year. After flying the Grumman C-1A Trader aircraft for over 26 years, VRC-40 completed a transition to the C-2A in 1986, marking the end of the reciprocating engine era in Naval Aviation history. VRC-40's continuing mission is the efficient transportation of passengers and cargo to and from carriers at sea. While speed and efficiency are requisite to completion of the squadron's mission, safety is of paramount importance. Among VRC-40's many achievements and accomplishments, the "Rawhides" reached one of the highest honors in Aviation Safety by completing 25 years of class "A" mishap free flying.
Every year, VRC-40 carries over three million pounds of mail and cargo and effects over 1,000 arrested landings. Astronauts Alan Shepard and Scott Carpenter, sports icons including Tiger Woods, Dale Earnhardt, Jr. numerous Congressional and Cabinet members, business leaders, entertainers such as Bruce Willis, Charlie Daniels, Jimmy Buffett, Halle Berry and Robin Williams have all flown with the "Rawhides". History of the United States Navy List of United States Navy aircraft squadrons VRC-40 Website VRC-40 @ Globalsecurity.org
Grumman C-2 Greyhound
The Grumman C-2 Greyhound is a twin-engine, high-wing cargo aircraft, designed to carry supplies and passengers to and from aircraft carriers of the United States Navy. Its primary mission is carrier onboard delivery; the aircraft provides critical logistics support to carrier strike groups. The aircraft is used to transport high-priority cargo and passengers between carriers and shore bases, can deliver cargo like jet engines and special stores. Prototype C-2s first flew in 1964, production followed the next year; the initial Greyhound aircraft were overhauled in 1973. In 1984, more C-2As were ordered under designation Reprocured C-2A or C-2A. In 2010 all C-2A aircraft received navigational updates; the C-2 Greyhound, a derivative of the E-2 Hawkeye, shares wings and power plants with the E-2, but has a widened fuselage with a rear loading ramp. The first of two prototypes flew in 1964. After successful testing, Grumman began production of the aircraft in 1965; the C-2 replaced the piston-engined Grumman C-1 Trader in the COD role.
The original C-2A aircraft were overhauled to extend their operational life in 1973. Powered by two Allison T56 turboprop engines, the C-2A can deliver up to 10,000 pounds of cargo, passengers or both, it can carry litter patients in medical evacuation missions. A cage system or transport stand restrains cargo during carrier landing; the large aft cargo ramp and door and a powered winch allow straight-in rear cargo loading and unloading for fast turnaround. The Greyhound's ability to airdrop supplies and personnel, fold its wings, generate power for engine starting and other uses provide an operational versatility found in no other cargo aircraft; the C-2 has four vertical stabilizers. A single vertical stabilizer large enough for adequate directional control would have made the aircraft too tall to fit on an aircraft carrier hangar deck; the four-stabilizer configuration has the advantage of placing the outboard rudder surfaces directly in line with the propeller wash, providing effective yaw control down to low airspeeds, such as during takeoff and landing.
The inner-left stabilizer lacks a rudder, has been called the "executive tail", as it has nothing to do compared to the other three. A single C-2 was equipped with an air-to-air refueling probe but this was not installed in other aircraft. In 1984, the Navy ordered 39 new C-2A aircraft to replace older airframes. Dubbed the Reprocured C-2A or C-2A due to the similarity to the original, the new aircraft has airframe improvements and better avionics; the older C-2As were phased out in 1987, the last of the new models was delivered in 1990. The 36 C-2As underwent a critical Service Life Extension Program; the C-2A's lifespan was 15,000 carrier landings. The lower landing limit was approaching for most airframes, the SLEP will increase their projected life to 15,000 hours or 36,000 landings. Once complete, the SLEP will allow the 36 aircraft to operate until 2027; the SLEP includes structural improvements to the center wing, an eight-bladed NP2000 propeller, navigational upgrades including the addition of GPS and the dual CAINS II Navigation System, the addition of crash-survivable flight incident recorders, a Ground Proximity Warning System.
The first upgraded C-2A left NAVAIR Depot North Island on 12 September 2005, after sitting on the ground for three and a half years while the SLEP was developed and installed. All aircraft will receive SLEP by 2015. In November 2008, the company obtained a $37M contract for the maintenance and aviation administration services over five years for the C-2A fleet assigned to VX-20 test and evaluation squadron at Patuxent River. Northrop Grumman worked on an upgraded C-2 version, offered to modernize the fleet with components common to the E-2D Hawkeye. Between November 1985 and February 1987, VR-24 and its seven reprocured C-2As demonstrated the aircraft's exceptional operational readiness; the squadron delivered 2,000,000 pounds of cargo, 2,000,000 pounds of mail and 14,000 passengers in the European and Mediterranean theaters. The C-2A served the carrier battle groups during Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm during the Gulf War, as well as Operation Enduring Freedom during the War in Afghanistan.
On 2 June 2011, the US Navy loaned two C-2A Greyhounds from VRC-40 to the French Navy. The two aircraft were stationed at Toulon-Hyères Airport, Hyères to assist in improving the flow of logistics and supplies to the French aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle operating in the Mediterranean Sea off Libya in support of the NATO intervention in Libya. After 16 days, both aircraft returned to the US via Shannon Airport, Ireland on 18 June 2011; the Common Support Aircraft was once considered as a replacement for the C-2, but failed to materialize. The USN was exploring a replacement for the C-2 in September 2009. Three options were suggested as replacements for the aging C-2s; the C-2 competed with the V-22 Osprey for use. Northrop Grumman proposed modernizing the C-2 by installing the same wings, glass cockpit, engines as the E-2D Advanced Hawkeye. Installing the Rolls Royce T56-427A engines would cut fuel consumption by 13-15 percent with the same 8-bladed propeller, enabling take offs with a 10,000-pound payload in 125 °F degree he
United States Naval Forces Central Command
United States Naval Forces Central Command is the United States Navy element of United States Central Command. Its area of responsibility includes the Red Sea, Gulf of Oman, Persian Gulf, Arabian Sea, it consists of the United States Fifth Fleet and several other subordinate task forces, including Combined Task Force 150, Combined Task Force 158 and others. The Navy's post-World War II operations in the Persian Gulf began in 1948 when a series of U. S. task groups, led by the USS Valley Forge, the USS Rendova, Task Force 128 led by the USS Pocono visited the Persian Gulf. On 20 January 1948, Commander-in-Chief, Northeastern Atlantic and Mediterranean, Admiral Conolly, created Task Force 126 to supervise the large number of Navy fleet oilers and chartered tankers picking up oil in the Persian Gulf. By June 1949, the Task Force had become Persian Gulf Forces and on 16 August 1949 Persian Gulf Forces became Middle East Force. In October 1948, Hydrographic Survey Group 1 arrived to help map the Persian Gulf's waters.
Consisting of USS Maury, USS Dutton, USS John Blish, USS Littlehales, the Group remained in the Persian Gulf until April 1949, but their efforts were limited by weather, logistics support and upkeep. In 1971, when Bahrain achieved full independence, the U. S. Navy leased part of the former British base HMS Jufair established in 1935, it was renamed it Bahrain. The name was changed to Naval Support Activity Bahrain in 1999; the command was established on 1 January 1983 along with the rest of U. S. Central Command, command of NAVCENT was given to a flag officer selectee based at Pearl Harbor and tasked with coordinating administrative and logistical support for U. S. naval forces in the Persian Gulf. Rear Admiral Stan Arthur, the first ComUSNAVCENT, served as the Commander-in-Chief, Pacific Fleet, Plans Officer during his first year in the position. An actual flag officer deployed to the region known as Commander, Middle East Force, retained operational control of U. S. naval forces in the Persian Gulf and served as USCENTCOM's de facto naval component commander.
Following the initial establishment of U. S. Central Command, the boundary between USCENTCOM and U. S. Pacific Command was the Strait of Hormuz. To direct forces of multiple services operating over the boundary, Joint Task Force Middle East was established on 20 September 1987, it was soon obvious that JTF-ME and the Middle East Force were directing much the same operations, a single dual-hatted naval commander, Middle Eastern Force, was appointed by February 1988. U. S. Naval Forces Central Command took part in Operation Earnest Will in 1986–1987 and supported Army special operations helicopters conducting Operation Prime Chance. Operation Praying Mantis followed later. In August 1990, Captain Robert Sutton USN, selected for promotion to Rear Admiral, was serving as ComUSNAVCENT; the first Central Command operations order for Desert Shield, issued on 10 August 1990, reflected the Pearl Harbor/MIDEASTFOR split and split the tasks between the two organisations, but,'most likely,' Pokrant writes,'Schwarzkopf had decided to do things differently.'
As Pokrant recounts, in a meeting on 6 August 1990, the Central Command plans chief, Rear Admiral Grant Sharp, had advised Schwarzkopf to have a fleet commander assigned to CENTCOM to control the extensive naval forces that would deploy. Schwarzkopf discussed the issue with Commander-in-Chief, Pacific Command, Admiral Huntington Hardisty, it was agreed that the Commander, U. S. Seventh Fleet staff, under Vice Admiral Hank Mauz, would be despatched to command in the Middle East and, the Commander, U. S. Third Fleet staff would be earmarked to replace them in six months. Mauz, his staff, his flagship, USS Blue Ridge, were all located at Yokosuka, their normal homeport. To speed the process of taking over command, Mauz obtained permission from Hardisty to fly to Diego Garcia aboard a VIP-configured P-3 Orion,'Peter Rabbit,' with key members of his staff; the rest of the command group would steam to the Persian Gulf aboard Blue Ridge. When Mauz was cleared to proceed from Diego Garcia to Bahrain, he expected to land and have some days to familiarise himself with the situation before taking over command of NAVCENT from Rear Admiral Fogerty.
However, on landing he found a message from Schwarzkopf ordering him to assume command immediately. From 1 January 1991, the six carriers deployed were divided into Battle Force Yankee and Task Force 154, Battle Force Zulu. TF 150 was Vice Admiral Henry H. Mauz, Jr. himself, TF 151 the Middle East Force, now including USS Bunker Hill, TG 150.3 Naval Logistics Support Force, TF 156 the amphibious force. Since ComUSNAVCENT operated from onboard ship, he established NAVCENT-Riyadh as a staff organization to provide continuous Navy representation at CENTCOM headquarters; this mission was assigned to Commander, Carrier Group Three. During succeeding months, the NAVCENT-Riyadh staff was augmented but remained small, relative to the ARCENT and CENTAF staffs. In November, the NAVCENT-Riyadh command was transferred from COMCARGRU 3 to Commander, Cruiser Destroyer Group 5; this change resulted in the Navy flag officer at NAVCENT Riyadh's remaining junior to other Service representatives CENT