Grumman F-14 Tomcat
The Grumman F-14 Tomcat is an American supersonic, twin-engine, two-seat, twin-tail, variable-sweep wing fighter aircraft. It was the first such U. S. jet fighter with twin tails. The Tomcat was developed for the United States Navy's Naval Fighter Experimental program after the collapse of the F-111B project; the F-14 was the first of the American Teen Series fighters, which were designed incorporating air combat experience against MiG fighters during the Vietnam War. The F-14 first flew on 21 December 1970 and made its first deployment in 1974 with the U. S. Navy aboard USS Enterprise, replacing the McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II; the F-14 served as the U. S. Navy's primary maritime air superiority fighter, fleet defense interceptor, tactical aerial reconnaissance platform into the 2000s; the Low Altitude Navigation and Targeting Infrared for Night pod system were added in the 1990s and the Tomcat began performing precision ground-attack missions. In the 1980s, F-14s were used as land-based interceptors by the Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force during the Iran–Iraq War, where they saw combat against Iraqi warplanes.
Iranian F-14s shot down at least 160 Iraqi aircraft during the war, while only 12 to 16 Tomcats were lost. The Tomcat was retired from the U. S. Navy's active fleet on 22 September 2006, having been supplanted by the Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet; the F-14 remains in service with Iran's air force, having been exported to Iran in 1976. In November 2015, reports emerged of Iranian F-14s flying escort for Russian Tu-95 bombers on air strikes in Syria. Beginning in the late 1950s, the U. S. Navy sought a long-range, high-endurance interceptor to defend its carrier battle groups against long-range anti-ship missiles launched from the jet bombers and submarines of the Soviet Union; the U. S. Navy needed a Fleet Air Defense aircraft with a more powerful radar and longer range missiles than the F-4 Phantom II carried to intercept both enemy bombers and missiles; the Navy was directed to participate in the Tactical Fighter Experimental program with the U. S. Air Force by Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara.
McNamara wanted "joint" solutions to service aircraft needs to reduce development costs, had directed the Air Force to buy the F-4 Phantom II, developed for the Navy and Marine Corps. The Navy strenuously opposed the TFX as it feared compromises necessary for the Air Force's need for a low-level attack aircraft would adversely impact the aircraft's performance as a fighter. Weight and performance issues plagued the U. S. Navy F-111B would not be resolved to the Navy's satisfaction; the F-111 manufacturer General Dynamics partnered with Grumman on the Navy F-111B. With the F-111B program in distress, Grumman began studying alternatives. In 1966, the Navy awarded Grumman a contract to begin studying advanced fighter designs. Grumman narrowed down these designs to its 303 design. Vice Admiral Thomas F. Connolly, Deputy Chief of Naval Operations for Air Warfare, flew the developmental F-111A variant on a flight and discovered that it had difficulty going supersonic and had poor carrier landing characteristics.
He testified before Congress about his concerns against the official U. S. Department of the Navy position and, in May 1968, Congress stopped funding for the F-111B, allowing the Navy to pursue an answer tailored to its requirements; the name "Tomcat" was chosen to pay tribute to Admiral Connolly, as the nickname "Tom's Cat" had been used by the manufacturer, although the name followed the Grumman tradition of naming its fighter aircraft after felines. The F-111B had been designed for the long-range Fleet Air Defense interceptor role, but not for new requirements for air combat based on the experience of American aircraft against agile MiG fighters over Vietnam; the Navy studied the need for VFAX, an additional fighter, more agile than the F-4 Phantom for air-combat and ground-attack roles. Grumman continued work on its 303 design and offered it to the Navy in 1967, which led to fighter studies by the Navy; the company continued to refine the design into 1968. In July 1968, the Naval Air Systems Command issued a request for proposals for the Naval Fighter Experimental program.
VFX called for a tandem two-seat, twin-engined air-to-air fighter with a maximum speed of Mach 2.2. It would have a built-in M61 Vulcan cannon and a secondary close air support role; the VFX's air-to-air missiles would be either six AIM-54 Phoenix or a combination of six AIM-7 Sparrow and four AIM-9 Sidewinder missiles. Bids were received from General Dynamics, Ling-Temco-Vought, McDonnell Douglas and North American Rockwell. McDonnell Douglas and Grumman were selected as finalists in December 1968. Grumman was selected for the contract award in January 1969. Grumman's design reused the TF30 engines from the F-111B, though the Navy planned on replacing them with the Pratt & Whitney F401-400 engines under development for the Navy, along with the related Pratt & Whitney F100 for the USAF. Though lighter than the F-111B, it was still the largest and heaviest U. S. fighter to fly from an aircraft carrier, a consequence of the requirement to carry the large AWG-9 radar and AIM-54 Phoenix missiles and an internal fuel load of 16,000 lb.
Upon winning the contract for the F-14, Grumman expanded its Calverton, Long Island, New York facility for evaluating the aircraft. Much of the testing, including the first of many compressor stalls and multiple ejections, took place over Long Island Sound. In order to save time and forestall interference from Secretary McNamara, the Navy skipped the
A fighter aircraft is a military aircraft designed for air-to-air combat against other aircraft, as opposed to bombers and attack aircraft, whose main mission is to attack ground targets. The hallmarks of a fighter are its speed and small size relative to other combat aircraft. Many fighters have secondary ground-attack capabilities, some are designed as dual-purpose fighter-bombers; this may be for national security reasons, for advertising purposes, or other reasons. A fighter's main purpose is to establish air superiority over a battlefield. Since World War I, achieving and maintaining air superiority has been considered essential for victory in conventional warfare; the success or failure of a belligerent's efforts to gain air superiority hinges on several factors including the skill of its pilots, the tactical soundness of its doctrine for deploying its fighters, the numbers and performance of those fighters. Because of the importance of air superiority, since the early days of aerial combat armed forces have competed to develop technologically superior fighters and to deploy these fighters in greater numbers, fielding a viable fighter fleet consumes a substantial proportion of the defense budgets of modern armed forces.
The word "fighter" did not become the official English-language term for such aircraft until after World War I. In the British Royal Flying Corps and Royal Air Force these aircraft were referred to as "scouts" into the early 1920s; the U. S. Army called their fighters "pursuit" aircraft from 1916 until the late 1940s. In most languages a fighter aircraft is known as hunting aircraft. Exceptions include Russian, where a fighter is an "истребитель", meaning "exterminator", Hebrew where it is "matose krav"; as a part of military nomenclature, a letter is assigned to various types of aircraft to indicate their use, along with a number to indicate the specific aircraft. The letters used to designate a fighter differ in various countries – in the English-speaking world, "F" is now used to indicate a fighter, though when the pursuit designation was used in the US, they were "P" types. In Russia "I" was used, while the French continue to use "C". Although the term "fighter" specifies aircraft designed to shoot down other aircraft, such designs are also useful as multirole fighter-bombers, strike fighters, sometimes lighter, fighter-sized tactical ground-attack aircraft.
This has always been the case, for instance the Sopwith Camel and other "fighting scouts" of World War I performed a great deal of ground-attack work. In World War II, the USAAF and RAF favored fighters over dedicated light bombers or dive bombers, types such as the Republic P-47 Thunderbolt and Hawker Hurricane that were no longer competitive as aerial combat fighters were relegated to ground attack. Several aircraft, such as the F-111 and F-117, have received fighter designations though they had no fighter capability due to political or other reasons; the F-111B variant was intended for a fighter role with the U. S. Navy, but it was cancelled; this blurring follows the use of fighters from their earliest days for "attack" or "strike" operations against ground targets by means of strafing or dropping small bombs and incendiaries. Versatile multirole fighter-bombers such as the McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet are a less expensive option than having a range of specialized aircraft types; some of the most expensive fighters such as the US Grumman F-14 Tomcat, McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle, Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor and Russian Sukhoi Su-27 were employed as all-weather interceptors as well as air superiority fighter aircraft, while developing air-to-ground roles late in their careers.
An interceptor is an aircraft intended to target bombers and so trades maneuverability for climb rate. Fighters were developed in World War I to deny enemy aircraft and dirigibles the ability to gather information by reconnaissance over the battlefield. Early fighters were small and armed by standards, most were biplanes built with a wooden frame covered with fabric, a maximum airspeed of about 100 mph; as control of the airspace over armies became important, all of the major powers developed fighters to support their military operations. Between the wars, wood was replaced in part or whole by metal tubing, aluminium stressed skin structures began to predominate. On 15 August 1914, Miodrag Tomić encountered an enemy plane while conducting a reconnaissance flight over Austria-Hungary; the Austro-Hungarian aviator waved at Tomić, who waved back. The enemy pilot took a revolver and began shooting at Tomić's plane. Tomić fired back, he swerved away from the Austro-Hungarian plane and the two aircraft parted ways.
It was considered the first exchange of fire between aircraft in history. Within weeks, all Serbian and Austro-Hungarian aircraft were armed; the Serbians equipped their planes with 8-millimetre Schwarzlose MG M.07/12 machine guns, six 100-round boxes of ammunition and several bombs. By World War II, most fighters were all-metal monoplanes armed with batteries of machine guns or cannons and some were capable of speeds approaching 400 mph. Most fighters up to this point had one engine.
McDonnell Douglas F-15E Strike Eagle
The McDonnell Douglas F-15E Strike Eagle is an American all-weather multirole strike fighter derived from the McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle. The F-15E was designed in the 1980s for long-range, high-speed interdiction without relying on escort or electronic-warfare aircraft. United States Air Force F-15E Strike Eagles can be distinguished from other U. S. Eagle variants by darker aircraft camouflage and conformal fuel tanks mounted along the engine intake ramps; the Strike Eagle has been deployed for military operations in Iraq, Afghanistan and Libya, among others. During these operations, the strike fighter has carried out deep strikes against high-value targets and combat air patrols, provided close air support for coalition troops, it has been exported to several countries. The McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle had been introduced by the USAF as a replacement for its fleet of McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom IIs. However, unlike the F-4, the F-15 was designed for the air-superiority mission with little consideration for a ground-attack role.
In service, the F-15 has been a successful fighter, with over 100 aerial combat victories and zero losses in air-to-air combat as of 2007. Despite a lack of official interest, McDonnell Douglas worked on an F-15-derived interdictor fighter; the company envisaged the aircraft as a replacement for the General Dynamics F-111 and the remaining F-4s, as well as to augment the existing F-15s. In 1978, the USAF initiated the Tactical All-Weather Requirement Study, which looked at McDonnell Douglas's proposal and other options such as the purchase of further F-111Fs; the study recommended the F-15E as the USAF's future strike platform. In 1979, McDonnell Douglas and Hughes began a close collaboration on the development of the F-15E's air-to-ground capabilities. To assist in the F-15E's development, McDonnell Douglas modified the second TF-15A prototype, AF serial number 71-0291, as a demonstrator; the aircraft, known as the Advanced Fighter Capability Demonstrator, first flew on 8 July 1980. It was used to test conformal fuel tanks designed for the F-15 under the designation "FAST Pack", with FAST standing for "Fuel and Sensor, Tactical.
It was subsequently fitted with a Pave Tack laser designator targeting pod to allow the independent delivery of guided bombs. The demonstrator was displayed at the 1980 Farnborough Airshow. In March 1981, the USAF announced the Enhanced Tactical Fighter program to procure a replacement for the F-111; the program was renamed the Dual-Role Fighter competition. The concept envisioned an aircraft capable of launching deep air interdiction missions without requiring additional support by fighter escort or jamming. General Dynamics submitted the F-16XL, while McDonnell Douglas submitted the F-15E; the Panavia Tornado was a candidate, but since the aircraft lacked a credible air-superiority fighter capability, coupled with the fact that it is not American-made, it was not considered. The DRF evaluation team, under the direction of Brigadier General Ronald W. Yates, ran from 1981 through 30 April 1983, during which the F-15E logged more than 200 flights, demonstrated takeoff weight of more than 75,000 pounds, validated 16 different weapons-carrying configurations.
McDonnell Douglas, to assist 71-0291 in the evaluation, added to the program other F-15s, designated 78-0468, 80–0055, 81-0063. The single-engined F-16XL was a promising design, which with its radically redesigned cranked-delta wing boosted performance. On 24 February 1984, the USAF chose the F-15E; the USAF was expected to procure 400 aircraft, a figure revised to 392. Construction of the first three F-15Es started in July 1985; the first of these, 86-0183, made its maiden flight on 11 December 1986. Piloted by Gary Jennings, the aircraft reached a maximum speed of Mach 0.9 and an altitude of 40,000 feet during the 75-minute flight. This aircraft had the full F-15E avionics suite and the redesigned front fuselage, but not the aft fuselage and the common engine bay; the latter was featured on 86-0184, while 86-0185 incorporated all the changes of the F-15E from the F-15. On 31 March 1987, the first completed F-15E made its first flight; the first production F-15E was delivered to the 405th Tactical Training Wing, Luke Air Force Base, Arizona, in April 1988.
Production continued into the 2000s with 236 produced for the USAF through 2001. The F-15E was to be upgraded with the Raytheon APG-82 Active Electronically Scanned Array radar after 2007, the first test radar was delivered to Boeing in 2010, it combines the processor of the APG-79 used on the F/A-18E/F Super Hornet with the antenna of the APG-633 AESA being fitted on the F-15C. The new radar upgrade is to be part of the F-15E Radar Modernization Program; the new radar was named APG-634 until it received the APG-82 designation in 2009. The RMP includes a wideband radome, improvements to the environment control and electronic warfare systems. Having a sturdier airframe rated for twice the lifetime of earlier variants, the F-15E is expected to remain in service past 2025; as of December 2012, the USAF's F-15E fleet had an average age of 21 years a
The Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation Grumman Aerospace Corporation, was a leading 20th century U. S. producer of military and civilian aircraft. Founded on December 6, 1929, by Leroy Grumman and partners, it merged in 1994 with Northrop Corporation to form Northrop Grumman. Leroy Grumman and others worked for the Loening Aircraft Engineering Corporation in the 1920s, but when it was bought by Keystone Aircraft Corporation and the operations moved from New York City to Bristol, Pennsylvania and his partners started their own company in an old Cox-Klemin Aircraft Co. factory in Baldwin on Long Island, New York. All of the early Grumman employees were former Loening employees; the company was named after Grumman. The company filed as a business on December 5, 1929, opened its doors on January 2, 1930. Keeping busy by welding aluminum tubing for truck frames, the company eagerly pursued contracts with the US Navy. Grumman designed the first practical floats with a retractable landing gear for the Navy, this launched Grumman into the aviation market.
The first Grumman aircraft was for the Navy, the Grumman FF-1, a biplane with retractable landing gear. This was followed by a number of other successful designs. During World War II, Grumman became known for its "Cats", Navy fighter aircraft, F4F Wildcat and F6F Hellcat, the less well known Grumman F7F Tigercat and Grumman F8F Bearcat, for its torpedo bomber TBF Avenger. Grumman ranked 22nd among United States corporations in the value of wartime production contracts. Grumman's first jet aircraft was the F9F Panther; the company's big postwar successes came in the 1960s with the A-6 Intruder and E-2 Hawkeye and in the 1970s with the Grumman EA-6B Prowler and F-14 Tomcat. Grumman products were prominent in the film Top Gun and numerous World War II naval and Marine Corps aviation films; the U. S. Navy still employs the Hawkeye as part of Carrier Air Wings on board aircraft carriers, while the U. S. Marine Corps, the last branch of service to fly the Prowler retired it on March 8, 2019. Grumman was the chief contractor on the Apollo Lunar Module.
The firm received the contract on November 7, 1962, built 13 lunar modules. As the Apollo program neared its end, Grumman was one of the main competitors for the contract to design and build the Space Shuttle, but lost to Rockwell International; the company ended up involved in the shuttle program nonetheless, as a subcontractor to Rockwell, providing the wings and vertical stabilizer sections. In 1969 the company changed its name to Grumman Aerospace Corporation, in 1978 it sold the Grumman-American Division to Gulfstream Aerospace; the company built the Grumman Long Life Vehicle, a light transport mail truck designed for and used by the United States Postal Service. The LLV entered service in 1986. Grumman was responsible for a successful line of business aircraft including the Gulfstream I turboprop and Gulfstream II business jet which were operated by a number of companies and private individuals as well as by government agencies including various military entities and NASA. In addition, the Gulfstream I propjet was operated by several commuter/regional airlines in scheduled passenger services and included a stretched version, being the Gulfstream I-C which could transport 37 passengers.
Gulfstream business jets continue to be manufactured by Gulfstream Aerospace, a wholly owned subsidiary of General Dynamics. For much of the Cold War period, Grumman was the largest corporate employer on Long Island. Grumman's products were considered so reliable and ruggedly built that the company was referred to as the "Grumman Iron Works"; as the company grew, it moved to Valley Stream, New York Farmingdale, New York to Bethpage, New York, with the testing and final assembly at the 6,000-acre Naval Weapons Station in Calverton, New York, all located on Long Island. At its peak in 1986 it employed 23,000 people on Long Island and occupied 6,000,000 square feet in structures on 105 acres it leased from the U. S. Navy in Bethpage; the end of the Cold War at the beginning of the 1990s reduced defense spending and led to a wave of mergers as aerospace companies shrank in number. The new company closed all of its facilities on Long Island and converted the Bethpage plant to a residential and office complex, with its headquarters becoming the corporate headquarters for Cablevision and the Calverton plant being turned into a business/industrial complex.
Former aircraft hangars have become a film and television production center. A portion of the airport property has been used for the Grumman Memorial Park. Northrop Grumman's remaining business at the Bethpage campus is the "Battle Management and Engagement Systems Division", which employs around 2,000 people; the "Cats" Grumman F4F Wildcat Grumman F6F Hellcat Grumman F7F Tigercat Grumman F8F Bearcat Grumman F9F Panther Grumman F9F, F-9 Cougar Grumman XF10F Jaguar Grumman F-11 Tiger Grumman F11F-1F Super Tiger Grumman F-14 Tomcat Other fighter aircraft Grumman FF1 Grumman F2F Grumman F3F Grumman XF5F Skyrocket Grumman XP-50 General Dynamics-Grumman F-111B Grumman G-17 project only Grumman G-25 project only Grumman G-29 project only Grumman G-30 project only Grumman G-35 project only Grumman G-49 project only Grumman G-57 project only Grumman G-62 proj
Modern Marvels is an American worldwide television series that aired on the History Channel. The program focuses on how technologies are used in modern society, it is among History's first, longest-running programs, having first aired on History's first day of broadcasting on January 1, 1995, its last episode aired on April 11, 2015. Modern Marvels has produced over 650 one-hour episodes covering various topics involving science, electronics, engineering, industry, mass production and agriculture; each episode discusses the history and production of several related items. To fit the network's format, Modern Marvels focuses a significant portion of the episode on the history of the subject; the show began to premiere new episodes in January 2010, not having done so through all of 2009. In August 2010, History Channel began to air older episodes, edited to fit a 30-minute time slot, under the title Modern Marvels: Essentials. In October 2011, Modern Marvels began airing first-run episodes on History 2 in addition to its main run on History Channel.
Reruns of the series air on the digital broadcast network Quest. Modern Marvels aired a special spin-off called Engineering Disasters; these periodic episodes describe the circumstances of situations in which technology does not work such as building collapses and airplane crashes, resulting in spectacular failures. Including an episode on New Orleans and another on the 1970s, 24 original Engineering Disasters episodes have been on Modern Marvels; the packaging on the box set of Engineering Disasters 4-20 plus New Orleans describes the series as such: "Dark clouds with silver linings, Modern Marvels: Engineering Disasters presents the tragic, yet invaluable, handmaidens of technological progress." Distinct from other History Channel series, the introduction of Modern Marvels features visuals and sounds of a bolt being turned by a ratchet wrench, followed by a computer-generated sequence involving construction workers building and hanging the title. Several narrators were used in the history of the series.
The last and longest-running is Max Raphael, who has narrated other History Channel series, such as Command Decisions. The History Channel has repackaged some episodes that aired in other series and stand-alone specials into episodes of Modern Marvels, such as Ice Road Truckers, which aired in 2000 as part of the series Suicide Missions; these episodes are not narrated by Raphael. Bruce Nash is credited with creating the series. Don Cambou has acted as executive producer on over 350 episodes for Actuality Productions, the production company behind the series. Mega Builders How It's Made How Do They Do It? HowStuffWorks Official website Modern Marvels on IMDb Modern Marvels at TV.com
McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle
The McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle is an American twin-engine, all-weather tactical fighter aircraft designed by McDonnell Douglas to gain and maintain air supremacy in all aspects of aerial combat. Following reviews of proposals, the United States Air Force selected McDonnell Douglas's design in 1967 to meet the service's need for a dedicated air-superiority fighter; the Eagle first flew in July 1972, entered service in 1976. It is among the most successful modern fighters, with over 100 victories and no losses in aerial combat, with the majority of the kills by the Israeli Air Force; the Eagle has been exported to Israel and Saudi Arabia. The F-15 was envisioned as a pure air-superiority aircraft, its design included a secondary ground-attack capability, unused. The aircraft design proved flexible enough that an all-weather strike derivative, the F-15E Strike Eagle, an improved and enhanced version, developed, entered service in 1989 and has been exported to several nations; as of 2017, the aircraft is being produced in different variants with production set to end in 2022.
The F-15 can trace its origins to the early Vietnam War, when the U. S. Air Force and the U. S. Navy fought each other over future tactical aircraft. Defense Secretary Robert McNamara was pressing for both services to use as many common aircraft as possible if performance compromises were involved; as part of this policy, the USAF and Navy had embarked on the TFX program, aiming to deliver a medium-range interdiction aircraft for the Air Force that would serve as a long-range interceptor aircraft for the Navy. In January 1965, Secretary McNamara asked the Air Force to consider a new low-cost tactical fighter design for short-range roles and close air support to replace several types like the F-100 Super Sabre and various light bombers in service. Several existing designs could fill this role; the A-4 and A-7 were more capable in the attack role, while the F-5 less so, but could defend itself. If the Air Force chose a pure attack design, maintaining air superiority would be a priority for a new airframe.
The next month, a report on light tactical aircraft suggested the Air Force purchase the F-5 or A-7, consider a new higher-performance aircraft to ensure its air superiority. This point was reinforced after the loss of two Republic F-105 Thunderchief aircraft to obsolete MiG-15s or MiG-17s on 4 April 1965. In April 1965, Harold Brown, at that time director of the Department of Defense Research and Engineering, stated the favored position was to consider the F-5 and begin studies of an "F-X"; these early studies envisioned a production run of 800 to 1,000 aircraft and stressed maneuverability over speed. On 1 August, Gabriel Disosway took command of Tactical Air Command and reiterated calls for the F-X, but lowered the required performance from Mach 3.0 to 2.5 to lower costs. An official requirements document for an air superiority fighter was finalized in October 1965, sent out as a request for proposals to 13 companies on 8 December. Meanwhile, the Air Force chose the A-7 over the F-5 for the support role on 5 November 1965, giving further impetus for an air superiority design as the A-7 lacked any credible air-to-air capability.
Eight companies responded with proposals. Following a downselect, four companies were asked to provide further developments. In total, they developed some 500 design concepts. Typical designs featured variable-sweep wings, weight over 60,000 pounds, included a top speed of Mach 2.7 and a thrust-to-weight ratio of 0.75. When the proposals were studied in July 1966, the aircraft were the size and weight of the TFX F-111, like that aircraft, were designs that could not be considered an air-superiority fighter. Through this period, studies of combat over Vietnam were producing worrying results. Theory optimized aircraft for this role; the result was loaded aircraft with large radar and excellent speed, but limited maneuverability and lacking a gun. The canonical example was the McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II, used by the USAF, USN, U. S. Marine Corps to provide air superiority over Vietnam, the only fighter with enough power and maneuverability to be given the primary task of dealing with the threat of Soviet fighters while flying with visual engagement rules.
In practice, due to policy and practical reasons, aircraft were closing to visual range and maneuvering, placing the larger US aircraft at a disadvantage to the much less expensive day fighters such as the MiG-21. Missiles proved to be much less reliable than predicted at close range. Although improved training and the introduction of the M61 Vulcan cannon did much to address the disparity, these early outcomes led to considerable re-evaluation of the 1963 Project Forecast doctrine; this led to John Boyd's energy–maneuverability theory, which stressed that extra power and maneuverability were key aspects of a successful fighter design and these were more important than outright speed. Through tireless championing of the concepts and good timing with the "failure" of the initial F-X project, the "fighter mafia" pressed for a lightweight day fighter that could be built and operated in large numbers to ensure air superiority. In early 1967, they proposed that the ideal design had a thrust-to-weight ratio near 1:1, a maximum speed further reduced to Mach 2.3, a weight of 40,000 pounds, a wing loading of 80 lb/ft².
By this time