The Gallipoli peninsula is located in the southern part of East Thrace, the European part of Turkey, with the Aegean Sea to the west and the Dardanelles strait to the east. Gallipoli is the Italian form of the Greek name "Καλλίπολις", meaning "Beautiful City", the original name of the modern town of Gelibolu. In antiquity, the peninsula was known as the Thracian Chersonese; the peninsula runs in a south-westerly direction into the Aegean Sea, between the Dardanelles, the Gulf of Saros. In antiquity, it was protected by the Long Wall, a defensive structure built across the narrowest part of the peninsula near the ancient city of Agora; the isthmus traversed by the wall was only 36 stadia in breadth, but the length of the peninsula from this wall to its southern extremity, Cape Mastusia, was 420 stadia. In ancient times, the Gallipoli Peninsula was known as the Thracian Chersonesus to the Greeks and the Romans, it was the location of several prominent towns, including Cardia, Callipolis, Sestos and Elaeus.
The peninsula was renowned for its wheat. It benefited from its strategic importance on the main route between Europe and Asia, as well as from its control of the shipping route from Crimea; the city of Sestos was the main crossing-point on the Hellespont. According to Herodotus, the Thracian tribe of Dolonci held possession of Chersonesus before the Greek colonization. Settlers from Ancient Greece of Ionian and Aeolian stock, founded about 12 cities on the peninsula in the 7th century BC; the Athenian statesman Miltiades the Elder founded a major Athenian colony there around 560 BC. He took authority over the entire peninsula, building up its defences against incursions from the mainland, it passed to his nephew, the more famous Miltiades the Younger, around 524 BC. The peninsula was abandoned to the Persians in 493 BC after the outbreak of the Greco-Persian Wars; the Persians were expelled, after which the peninsula was for a time ruled over by Athens, which enrolled it into the Delian League in 478 BC.
The Athenians established a number of cleruchies on the Thracian Chersonese and sent an additional 1,000 settlers around 448 BC. Sparta gained control after the decisive battle of Aegospotami in 404 BC, but the peninsula subsequently reverted to the Athenians. In the 4th century BC, the Thracian Chersonese became the focus of a bitter territorial dispute between Athens and Macedon, whose king Philip II sought possession, it was ceded to Philip in 338 BC. After the death of Philip's son Alexander the Great in 323 BC, the Thracian Chersonese became the object of contention among Alexander's successors. Lysimachus established his capital Lysimachia here. In 278 BC, Celtic tribes from Galatia in Asia Minor settled in the area. In 196 BC, the Seleucid king Antiochus III seized the peninsula; this alarmed the Greeks and prompted them to seek the aid of the Romans, who conquered the Thracian Chersonese, which they gave to their ally Eumenes II of Pergamon in 188 BC. At the extinction of the Attalid dynasty in 133 BC it passed again to the Romans, who from 129 BC administered it in the Roman province of Asia.
It was subsequently made a state-owned territory and during the reign of the emperor Augustus it was imperial property. The Thracian Chersonese was part of the Eastern Roman Empire from its foundation in 330 AD. In 443 AD, Attila the Hun invaded the Gallipoli Peninsula during one of the last stages of his grand campaign that year, he captured both Callipolis and Sestus. Aside from a brief period from 1204 to 1235, when it was controlled by the Republic of Venice, the Byzantine Empire ruled the territory until 1356. During the night between 1 and 2 March 1354, a strong earthquake destroyed the city of Gallipoli and its city walls, weakening its defenses. After the devastating 1354 earthquake, the town of Gallipoli was besieged and captured by the Ottomans, making Gallipoli the first Ottoman stronghold in Europe, the staging area for their expansion across the Balkans, it was recaptured for Byzantium by the Savoyard Crusade in 1366, but the beleaguered Byzantines were forced to hand it back in September 1376.
The Greeks living there were allowed to continue their everyday life. In the 19th century, Gallipoli was a district in the Vilayet of Adrianople, with about thirty thousand inhabitants: comprising Greeks, Turks and Jews. Gallipoli became a major encampment for British and French forces in 1854 during the Crimean War, the harbour was a stopping-off point on the way to Istanbul British and French engineers constructed, in March 1854, an 11.5 km line of defence to protect the peninsula from a possible Russian attack and so keep control of the route to the Mediterranean Sea. Gallipoli did not experience any more wars until the First Balkan War, when the 1913 Battle of Bulair and several minor skirmishes took place here. A dispatch on 7 July 1913 reported that Ottoman troops treated Gallipoli's Greeks ‘with marked depravity’ as they ‘destroyed and burned all the Greek villages near Gallipoli’. Many villages were sacked and destroyed and some Greeks killed; the cause of this savagery of the Turks was their fear that if Thrace was declared autonomous the Greek population may be found numerically superior to the Muslims.
The Turkish Government, under p
Operation Bluecoat was an offensive in the Battle of Normandy, from 30 July until 7 August 1944, during the Second World War. The geographical objectives of the attack, undertaken by VIII Corps and XXX Corps of the British Second Army, were to secure the road junction of Vire and the high ground of Mont Pinçon. Operationally, the attack was made to exploit the success of Operation Cobra by the First US Army after it broke out on the western flank of the Normandy beachhead and tactically to exploit the withdrawal of the 2nd Panzer Division from the Caumont area, to take part in Unternehmen Lüttich a counter-offensive against the Americans. From 18–20 July, the British Second Army conducted Operation Goodwood in a southerly direction, south-east of Caen on the eastern flank of the Allied beachhead, which had forced the Germans to keep the bulk of their armoured units in the east around Caen. After Goodwood, Ultra revealed that the Germans planned to move the 21st Panzer Division out of the line, in preparation to moving it to the west sector of the front.
On 25 July, after a false start the day before, the United States First Army began Operation Cobra. The inter-army boundary between the British right flank and the US First Army was moved, with British forces taking over a sector manned by the US V Corps, against which were armed German infantry, which gave an opportunity for a new operation to keep tying down German armour; the VIII Corps headquarters and the 7th, 11th and Guards Armoured divisions of the British Second Army, commanded by Lieutenant-General Sir Miles Dempsey, were moved westwards toward Caumont on the western flank of British XXX Corps, to relieve the US V Corps. Dempsey planned to attack on 2 August but the speed of events forced him to advance the date. From 21 July the 2nd Panzer Division had been withdrawn from the area south of Caumont and relieved by the 326th Division, which took over a 10-mile front from the east of Villers-Bocage, next to the 276th Volksgrenadier Division, westwards to the Drôme river, the boundary between the LXXIV Korps of Panzergruppe West and the German 7th Army.
The 326th Division and east of Caumont, was up to strength and took over a large number of field defences and camouflaged firing positions, behind extensive minefields in the ideal defensive terrain of the Suisse Normande bocage. The British XXX Corps was to lead the attack with the 43rd Infantry Division to advance to the top of Bois du Homme; the left flank was to be protected by the 50th Infantry Division and the 7th Armoured Division was in reserve. On the right the western flank of XXX Corps was to be protected by the VIII Corps, with the 15th Infantry Division attacking south from Caumont and the 11th Armoured Division attacking cross-country further west, ready to exploit a German collapse by advancing towards Petit Aunay, 3.7 miles west of Saint-Martin-des-Besaces. A raid by over 1,000 bombers in preference to a preliminary artillery barrage was to prepare the way for the attack. Visibility was poor but the bombers placed 2,000 long tons of bombs; the damage to German equipment was slight because there was little of it in the target areas and because the 43rd and 50th divisions were held just beyond the start line, well north of the target areas in their sector.
The advance of the left flank units of the 11th Armoured Division through "Area A" made rapid progress. Many British units were held up by minefields, sunken roads, thick hedges and steep gullies but in the centre the attackers gained 5 miles. On 31 July, the 11th Armoured Division of VIII Corps exploited a German inter–army boundary weakness, when they discovered an undefended bridge 5 mi behind the German front, over the River Souleuvre. Reinforcing the opportunity with Cromwell tanks followed by further support units, they broke up the first German armoured units sent to counter-attack. British forces advanced to about 5 mi from Vire by 2 August, on the American side of the inter-army boundary. There was confusion as to who had the rights to use certain roads and the British attack was restricted and diverted south-east; the 7th Army was able to reinforce the town with troops from the 3rd Parachute Division, being forced south by the US V Corps and to move elements of the 9th SS Panzer Division south-west to close the gap between the 7th Army and Panzergruppe West.
The British advance was held up by these reinforcements. VIII Corps had to protect its eastern flank, because XXX Corps had not kept up the same rate of advance; the commander of XXX Corps, Lieutenant-General Gerard Bucknall, was dismissed on 2 August and the commander of the 7th Armoured Division, Major General George Erskine, was sacked the next day. Lieutenant General Brian Horrocks, a veteran of North Africa replaced Bucknall on 4 August; the 2nd Army advance was brought to a temporary halt on 4 August. Vire fell to an American night attack by the 116th Regiment of the US 29th Division against the defenders of the 363rd Division on 6 August. On the same day, the 43rd Division and tanks of the 13th/18th Royal Hussars captured Mont Pinçon. Operation Bluecoat kept German armoured units fixed on the British eastern front and continued the wearing down of the strength of German armoured formations in the area; the breakthrough in the centre of the Allied front surprised the Germans, when they were distracted by the Allied attacks at both ends of the Normandy bridgehead.
By the time of the American break-out at Avranches, there was little to no reserve strength left for Operation Luttich, the German counter-offensive, defeated by 12 August, leaving the 7th Army with no choice but
Cheddon Fitzpaine is a village and civil parish in Somerset, situated on the Quantock Hills 2 miles north of Taunton in the Taunton Deane district. The village is situated near the Bristol and Exeter Railway, the Bridgwater and Taunton Canal, the River Tone and has a population of 1,929. Flint and pottery uncovered during archaeological excavations demonstrate late Neolithic to early Bronze-age and Romano-British settlement sites near Maidenbrook and Nerrols; the name of the village was "Cedenon" meaning "wood valley" in 897. After the Norman Conquest it was granted to Roger Arundel and was passed down through his family; the parish of Cheddon Fitzpaine was part of the Taunton Deane Hundred. In the 16th century the manor was bought by Thomas More of Taunton Priory; the parish council has responsibility for local issues, including setting an annual precept to cover the council’s operating costs and producing annual accounts for public scrutiny. The parish council evaluates local planning applications and works with the local police, district council officers, neighbourhood watch groups on matters of crime and traffic.
The parish council's role includes initiating projects for the maintenance and repair of parish facilities, as well as consulting with the district council on the maintenance and improvement of highways, footpaths, public transport, street cleaning. Conservation matters and environmental issues are the responsibility of the council; the village falls within the Non-metropolitan district of Taunton Deane, formed on 1 April 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972, having been part of Taunton Rural District. The district council is responsible for local planning and building control, local roads, council housing, environmental health and fairs, refuse collection and recycling and crematoria, leisure services and tourism. Somerset County Council is responsible for running the largest and most expensive local services such as education, social services, main roads, public transport and fire services, trading standards, waste disposal and strategic planning, it is part of the Taunton Deane county constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
It elects one Member of Parliament by the first past the post system of election, part of the South West England constituency of the European Parliament which elects seven MEPs using the d'Hondt method of party-list proportional representation. Gadds Valley is an area of open grassland and woodland, designated as a local nature reserve. Pyrland Hall was built as a country house around 1760 for Sir William Yea and became a boys preparatory school; the nearby Hestercombe House and Gardens includes gardens designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens. Its restoration to Gertrude Jekyll's original plans have made it "one of the best Jekyll-Lutyens gardens open to the public on a regular basis", visited by 70,000 people per year; the estate is Grade I listed on the English Heritage Register of Parks and Gardens of Special Historic Interest in England. The site includes a 0.08 hectare biological Site of Special Scientific Interest as it is used as a roost site by Lesser Horseshoe Bats and has been designated as a Special Area of Conservation.
The house was used as the headquarters of the British 8th Corps in the Second World War, has been owned by Somerset County Council since 1951. It is used as an administrative centre and is the current base for the Somerset Fire and Rescue Service control room; the Anglican parish Church of St Mary has 15th century nave. The Old Rectory near the church was built around 1861 by Edward Jeboult and turned into 3 dwellings. Media related to Cheddon Fitzpaine at Wikimedia Commons
XXX Corps (United Kingdom)
XXX Corps was a corps of the British Army during the Second World War. The Corps provided extensive service in the North African Campaign at the Second Battle of El Alamein in late 1942, in the Tunisia Campaign and the Allied invasion of Sicily in 1943, after which it returned to the United Kingdom. XXX Corps played a major role in the Western Desert Campaign, where it was formed for the British armoured units in North Africa in preparation for Operation Crusader, the last British attempt to relieve the siege of Tobruk, it took severe casualties because of obsolete British tank tactics, but forced Erwin Rommel's Afrika Korps to withdraw to El Agheila in Central Libya. In 1942, Rommel had counter-attacked and driven the British back to Gazala, a few miles west of Tobruk; the plan of British Eighth Army Commander Neil Ritchie was to have XIII Corps hold the line, while XXX Corps would stop any attempt to outflank the position south of Bir Hachiem, held by the 1st Free French Brigade. They managed to slow Rommel's armour down and forced Rommel's tanks into "The Cauldron", the gap left in the British Lines by the destruction of the 150th Infantry Brigade, part of the 50th Infantry Division.
British counterattacks failed. The Free French at Bir Hachiem were forced to withdraw and Rommel was able to break out of the Cauldron. XXX Corps was forced to retreat to Mersa Matruh, held by the newly formed British X Corps; the Germans broke through, surrounded X Corps and pushed XXX Corps back to El Alamein. The depleted XXX Corps pulled back to El Alamein, the last defensible position west of the River Nile, it was the only place in the Western Desert campaign in which there would not be an open flank, due to the soft ground of the Qattara Depression south of the opposing forces and the Mediterranean Sea. The northern, coastal sector was assigned to XXX Corps. Due to significant previous casualties and equipment losses, XXX Corps was reinforced at Alamein by the attachment of units from other Commonwealth armies: the South African 1st South African Infantry Division and Australian 9th Australian Infantry Division; the corps's other main unit was the British 23rd Armoured Brigade Group. In July 1942, XXX Corps again sustained heavy casualties, at the First Battle of El Alamein, although a major Axis offensive was repelled.
Willoughby Norrie was replaced as corps commander by William Ramsden. In August, as a result of the previous defeats and losses, Prime Minister Winston Churchill dismissed Claude Auchinleck as commander-in-chief of Middle East Command and General Officer Commanding, Eighth Army. Auchinleck was replaced as Allied commander by Harold Alexander and as GOC, Eighth Army by William Gott. Gott was killed soon afterwards. At the end of August, Rommel again decided to attempt a breakthrough, this time at the southern end of the line attacking a ridge named Alam el Halfa. While this was directed at XIII Corps, XXX Corps was the subject of several diversionary raids. In September, Ramsden was replaced by Oliver Leese. XXX Corps was to be the focus of Montgomery's first major offensive, codenamed Operation Lightfoot. To the units mentioned were added the New Zealand 2nd Division, the British 51st Infantry Division and the Indian 4th Infantry Division, along with the British 9th Armoured Brigade. Montgomery's plan called for extensive retraining, as XXX Corps was to create a corridor through Axis minefields, for the tanks of X Corps.
On the night of 24 October, Lightfoot commenced with a prolonged and intense artillery bombardment, XXX Corps attacked. The corps sustained heavy casualties but the Australian, New Zealand, South African and Highland divisions continued to push the attack, creating several gaps in the minefields, before German resistance stopped further advances. To bring XXX Corps up to strength, 50th Infantry Division was added. Early on the morning of 2 November, X Corps and XXX Corps launched the fourth phase of Lightfoot, codenamed Operation Supercharge. By 4 November the tanks of X Corps had broken through and the Allies had won the second Battle of el Alamein; the Australian 9th Division was transferred to the South West Pacific theatre. The 1st South African Division was left in Egypt. After El Alamein, XXX Corps pushed forward steadily, it stopped its advance at the Mareth Line in Tunisia in late February 1943. On 19 March, XXX Corps launched an attack on the Mareth Line as part of Operation Pugilist, with the 50th and 51st infantry divisions in the lead.
They managed to create a gap but it was contained by Rommel's 15th Panzer Division. During Operation Supercharge II a force commanded by Lieutenant-General Brian Horrocks composed of the New Zealand Corps and 1st Armoured Division from X Corps exploited a flanking position established by the New Zealanders during Pugilist and broke the German flank defences on the night of the 26th/27th, forcing the outflanked German forces to withdraw northwards to Wadi Akrit. In mid-April, XXX Corps attempted to attack the position head on but made little progress against determined German and Italian resistance. By that time the British First Army had broken through the Ger
Pyrland Hall is a country house near Cheddon Fitzpaine in the English county of Somerset. It is a Grade II* listed building. Pyrland Hall was built around 1760 for Sir William Yea of the Yea baronets, it is a brick building with Bath stone dressings under hipped slate roofs. After the death of Sir Henry Lacy Yea, 3rd Baronet in 1864, the house was sold to Arthur Malet, it was acquired by a Mr G. R. Withington. During the early years of the Second World War, the house and gardens were used by the British Army as the main headquarters for VIII Corps, formed to command the defence of Somerset, Devon and Bristol; the rear headquarters were established with Personnel and Logistics staff. Since 1953, the King's Hall School has been housed in the hall; the hall sits within a 32-acre estate parts of which have been made into playing fields, is surrounded by National Trust owned farmland. Newbold, David John. "British planning and preparations to resist invasion on land, September 1939 - September 1940". Kclpure.kcl.ac.uk.
King's University of London. Retrieved 1 August 2015