Western Defense Command
Western Defense Command was established on 17 March 1941 as the command formation of the U. S. Army responsible for coordinating the defense of the Pacific Coast region of the United States during World War II. A second major responsibility was the training of soldiers prior to their deployment overseas; the first Commanding General of WDC was Lieutenant General John L. DeWitt, who continued on in command of the Fourth U. S. Army. WDC headquarters were co-located at the existing Fourth Army headquarters at the Presidio of San Francisco. WDC's operational region covered the states of Washington, California, Montana, Nevada and Arizona, the Territory of Alaska. However, until 11 December 1941 the command was little more than a planning agency. On that date the Army coast defense and fighter assets on the West Coast were placed under the command, which until 20 March 1942 was known as the Western Theater of Operations reverted to the previous name. From 11 December 1941 until 1 November 1943 Alaska Defense Command was controlled through WDC.
The initial subordinate commands of the WDC in December 1941 were Fourth Army and Fourth Air Forces, the Ninth Corps Area. However, in January 1942 the Second Air Force was moved inland and placed under Air Force Combat Command. In April 1942 the Ninth Corps Area was removed from WDC command. In September 1943 Fourth Army and Second Air Force were separated from the WDC. On 14 February 1942, Western Defense Command sent a memorandum to Secretary of War Henry Stimson recommending that "Japanese and other subversive elements" be removed from the West Coast region; this led President Franklin D. Roosevelt to issue Executive Order 9066 on 19 February, which gave U. S. military commanders the authority to designate "military areas" and to exclude any or all people from them. On 2 March 1942, General DeWitt issued a proclamation that designated the western halves of Washington and California, the southern third of Arizona to be military areas from which Americans of Japanese ancestry would be excluded from that area.
The exclusion zone would be expanded to include the entire state of California. On 19 December 1941, General DeWitt had recommended to the Army's GHQ "that action be initiated at the earliest practicable date to collect all alien subjects fourteen years of age and over, of enemy nations and remove them to the Zone of the Interior." He felt differently about the necessity and practicality of locking up citizens as well, in a telephone conversation with Major General Allen W. Gullion on 26 December. Regardless of this, following the Roberts Commission report of 25 January 1942 accusing persons of Japanese ancestry of widespread espionage in Hawaii prior to Pearl Harbor, along with his perception of public opinion as anti-Japanese, he became a proponent of internment of Japanese and German and Italian-descended persons; the 44th Infantry Division was in the Pacific Northwest from February 1942 through February 1944, was available for mobile defense through at least February 1943. The 35th Infantry Division was available in California from December 1941 through March 1943.
The 3rd Infantry Division was available from December 1941 through August 1942. Several regimental combat teams regiments detached from divisions being "triangularized", were available to the WDC for mobile defense from early 1942; these included at least the 125th, 140th, 144th, 174th, 184th, 364th Infantry Regiments, along with two 155 mm gun battalions of the 54th Coast Artillery Regiment and elements of the 56th Coast Artillery Regiment. This lasted at least through late 1943. From June 1942 to August 1943, WDC was involved in the planning and execution of the Aleutian Islands Campaign, which succeeded in expelling Japanese forces from their toehold in North America on the islands of Attu and Kiska; the operation to re-capture Kiska Island, Operation Cottage, involved both U. S. troops and a brigade of Canadian troops from Pacific Command. Western Defense Command was disbanded on 6 March 1946; the following men served as Commanding General, Western Defense Command: Lieutenant General John L. DeWitt, 17 March 1941 – September 1943 Lieutenant General Delos C.
Emmons, September 1943 – June 1944 Major General Robert H. Lewis, June 1944 Major General Charles H. Bonesteel, Jr. June 1944 – November 1944 Major General Henry Conger Pratt, December 1944 – November 1945 Major General Harold R. Nichols, December 1945 General Joseph W. Stilwell, December 1945 – March 1946 Eastern Defense Command Central Defense Command Southern Defense Command Alaska Defense Command Caribbean Defense Command Conn, Stetson. Guarding the United States and its Outposts. United States Army in World War II. Washington, D. C.: Center of Military History, United States Army. Stanton, Shelby L.. World War II Order of Battle. Galahad Books. ISBN 0-88365-775-9
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
Western Allied invasion of Germany
The Western Allied invasion of Germany was coordinated by the Western Allies during the final months of hostilities in the European theatre of World War II. In preparation for the Allied invasion of Germany, a series of offensive operations were designed to seize and capture the east and west bank of the Rhine River. Operation Veritable and Operation Grenade in February 1945, Operation Lumberjack and Operation Undertone in March 1945. Allied invasion of Germany started with the Western Allies crossing the Rhine River on 22 March 1945 before fanning out and overrunning all of western Germany from the Baltic in the north to Austria in the south before the Germans surrendered on 8 May 1945; this is known as the "Central Europe Campaign" in United States military histories. By early 1945, events favored the Allied forces in Europe. On the Western Front the Allies had been fighting in Germany with campaigns against the Siegfried Line since the Battle of Aachen and the Battle of Hurtgen Forest in late 1944 and by January 1945 had pushed the Germans back to their starting points during the Battle of the Bulge.
The failure of this offensive exhausted Germany's strategic reserve, leaving it ill-prepared to resist the final Allied campaigns in Europe. Additional losses in the Rhineland further weakened the German Army, leaving shattered remnants of units to defend the east bank of the Rhine. On 7 March, the Allies seized the last remaining intact bridge across the Rhine at Remagen, had established a large bridgehead on the river's east bank. During Operation Lumberjack, Operation Plunder and Operation Undertone in March 1945, German casualties during February–March 1945 are estimated at 400,000 men, including 280,000 men captured as prisoners of war. On the Eastern Front, the Soviet Red Army with the Western Allies, had liberated most of Poland and began their offensive into Eastern Germany in February 1945, by March were within striking distance of Berlin; the initial advance into Romania, the First Jassy–Kishinev Offensive in April and May 1944 was a failure. The Red Army pushed deep into Hungary and eastern Czechoslovakia and temporarily halted at what is now the modern German border on the Oder–Neisse line.
These rapid advances on the Eastern Front destroyed additional veteran German combat units and limited German Führer Adolf Hitler's ability to reinforce his Rhine defenses. As such, with the Western Allies making final preparations for their powerful offensive into the German heartland, victory was imminent. At the beginning of 1945, the Supreme Commander of the Allied Expeditionary Force on the Western Front, General Dwight D. Eisenhower, had 73 divisions under his command in North-western Europe, of which 49 were infantry divisions, 20 armored divisions and four airborne divisions. Forty-nine of these divisions were American, 12 British, eight French, three Canadian and one Polish. Another seven American divisions arrived during February, along with the British 5th Infantry Division and I Canadian Corps, both of which had arrived from the fighting on the Italian Front; as the invasion of Germany commenced, General Eisenhower had a total of 90 full-strength divisions under his command, with the number of armored divisions now reaching 25.
The Allied front along the Rhine stretched 450 miles from the river's mouth at the North Sea in the Netherlands to the Swiss border in the south. The Allied forces along this line were organized into three army groups. In the north, from the North Sea to a point about 10 miles north of Cologne, was the 21st Army Group commanded by Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery. Within 21st Army Group the Canadian 1st Army held the left flank of the Allied line, with the British 2nd Army in the center and the U. S. 9th Army to the south. Holding the middle of the Allied line from the 9th Army's right flank to a point about 15 miles south of Mainz was the 12th Army Group under the command of Lieutenant General Omar Bradley. Bradley had two American armies, the U. S. 1st Army on the left and the U. S. 3rd Army on the right. Completing the Allied line to the Swiss border was the 6th Army Group commanded by Lieutenant General Jacob L. Devers, with the U. S. 7th Army in the north and the French 1st Army on the Allied right, southernmost, flank.
As these three army groups cleared out the Wehrmacht west of the Rhine, Eisenhower began to rethink his plans for the final drive across the Rhine and into the heart of Germany. General Eisenhower had planned to draw all his forces up to the west bank of the Rhine, using the river as a natural barrier to help cover the inactive sections of his line; the main thrust beyond the river was to be made in the north by Montgomery's 21 Army Group, elements of which were to proceed east to a juncture with the U. S. 1st Army as it made a secondary advance northeast from below the Ruhr River. If successful, this pincer movement would envelop the industrial Ruhr area, neutralizing the largest concentration of German industrial capacity left. Facing the Allies was Oberbefehlshaber West commanded by Generalfeldmarschall Albert Kesselring, who had taken over from Generalfeldmarschall Gerd von Rundstedt on 10 March. Although Kesselring brought an outstanding track record as a defensive strategist with him from the Italian Campaign, he did not have the resources to make a coherent defense.
During the fighting west of the Rhine up to March 1945, the German Army on the Western Front had been reduced to a strength of only 26 divisions, organized into three army
XVIII Airborne Corps
The XVIII Airborne Corps is a corps of the United States Army, in existence since 1942 and saw extensive service during World War II. The corps is designed for rapid deployment anywhere in the world and is referred to as "America's Contingency Corps", its headquarters are at North Carolina. Its command group includes: Commanding General: Lieutenant General Paul J. LaCamera Deputy Commanding General: Major General Brian J. McKiernan Deputy Commanding General: Brigadier General W. H. Fletcher, Canadian Army Command Sergeant Major: Command Sergeant Major Charles Albertson The corps was first activated on 17 January 1942, five weeks after the entry of the United States into World War II, as the II Armored Corps at Camp Polk, under the command of Major General William Henry Harrison Morris, Jr.. When the concept of armored corps proved unnecessary, II Armored Corps was re-designated as XVIII Corps on 9 October 1943 at the Presidio of Monterey, California. XVIII Corps deployed to Europe on 17 August 1944 and became the XVIII Airborne Corps on 25 August 1944 at Ogbourne St.
George, assuming command of the 82nd and 101st Airborne Divisions, as part of the preparation for Operation Market Garden. Prior to this time the two divisions were assigned to VII Corps and jumped into Normandy during Operation Overlord, the Allied invasion of Normandy, as part of VII Corps. Major General Matthew Bunker Ridgway, a professional and experienced airborne commander who had led the 82nd Airborne Division in Sicily and Normandy, was chosen to command the corps, which consisted of the 82nd and 101st Airborne Divisions and was part of the newly created First Allied Airborne Army; the corps was unable to see service in Operation Market Garden, with the British I Airborne Corps being chosen instead. Following the Battle of the Bulge, in which the corps played a significant part, all American airborne units on the Western Front fell under command of the corps. XVIII Airborne Corps planned and executed Operation Varsity, the airborne component of Operation Plunder, the crossing of the River Rhine into Germany.
It was one of the largest airborne operations of the war, with the British 6th and U. S. 17th Airborne Divisions under command. The U. S. 13th Airborne Division was to participate in the assault. However, due to a lack of a sufficient number of transports, the division was unable to take part. After taking part in the Western Allied invasion of Germany, the XVIII Airborne Corps, still under Ridgway, returned to the United States in June 1945 and was to take part in the invasion of Japan, codenamed Operation Downfall. However, the Japanese surrendered just weeks and XVIII Airborne Corps was inactivated on 15 October 1945 at Fort Campbell, Kentucky. 1st Infantry Division — 26 January 1945 – 12 February 1945. 4th Infantry Division 8th Infantry Division — 26 January 1945 – 10 July 1945. 17th Airborne Division — 12 August 1944 – 1 January 1945. 29th Infantry Division 30th Infantry Division — 21 December 1944 – 3 February 1945. 34th Infantry Division 75th Infantry Division — 29 December 1944 – 2 January 1945.
78th Infantry Division — 3 February 1945 – 12 February 1945. 82nd Airborne Division — 12 August 1944 – 17 September 1944. 84th Infantry Division — 20 December 1944 – 21 December 1944. 86th Infantry Division — 5 April 1945 – 22 April 1945. 89th Infantry Division 97th Infantry Division — 10 April 1945 – 22 April 1945. 101st Airborne Division — 12 August 1944 — 21 September 1944. 106th Infantry Division — 20 December 1944 – 6 February 1945. 3rd Armored Division — 19 December 1944 – 23 December 1944. 5th Armored Division — 4 May 1945 – 10 October 1945. 7th Armored Division — 20 December 1944 – 29 January 1945. 13th Armored Division — 10 April 1945 – 22 April 1945. The Corps was reactivated at Fort Bragg on 21 May 1951 under the command of Major General John W. Leonard. Since the corps has been the primary strategic response force, with subordinate units participating in over a dozen major operations in both combat and humanitarian roles in Central America and the CENTCOM area of responsibility. In 1958 the XVIII Airborne Corps was given the additional designation of the Strategic Army Corps.
The designation was, in reality, the assignment of an additional mission rather than a true designation. The additional mission was to provide a flexible strike capability that could deploy worldwide on short notice without declaration of an emergency; the 4th Infantry Division at Fort Lewis and the 101st Airborne Division at Fort Campbell, were designated as STRAC's first-line divisions, while the 1st Infantry Division at Fort Riley and the 82nd Airborne Division at Fort Bragg were to provide backup in the event of general war. The 5th Logistical Command at Fort Bragg, would provide the corps with logistics support, while Fort Bragg's XVIII Airborne Corps Artillery would control artillery units; the Corps deployed forces to the United States occupation of the Dominican Republic in 1965. The Corps deployed forces to the Vietnam War, to include the entire 101st Airborne division and the 3rd Brigade of the 82nd Airborne division. In 1967 elements of the Corps were deployed to Detroit to suppress riots, to The Congo to support the government there and to rescue civilian hostages as part of Operation Dragon Rouge.
In 1982 the Corps first rotated elements to the Sinai Peninsula as part of the Multinational For
Allied advance from Paris to the Rhine
The Allied advance from Paris to the Rhine known as the Siegfried Line Campaign, was a phase in the Western European Campaign of World War II. This phase spans from the end of the Battle of Normandy, or Operation Overlord, incorporating the German winter counter-offensive through the Ardennes and Operation Nordwind up to the Allies preparing to cross the Rhine in the early months of 1945; this corresponds with the official United States military European Theater of Operations Rhineland and Ardennes-Alsace Campaigns. German forces had been routed during the Allied break-out from Normandy; the Allies advanced against an enemy that put up little resistance. But after the liberation of Paris in late August 1944, the Allies paused to re-group and organise before continuing their advance from Paris to the River Rhine; the pause allowed the Germans to solidify their lines—something they had been unable to do west of Paris. By the middle of September 1944, the three Western Allied army groups. S. 12th Army Group in the center, the Franco-American 6th Army Group in the south, formed a broad front under the Supreme Allied Commander, General Dwight D. Eisenhower and his headquarters SHAEF.
While Montgomery and Bradley each favored direct thrusts into Germany, General Eisenhower disagreed. Instead, he chose a "broad-front" strategy, which allowed the Allies to gain ground from the beaten Germans in all sectors, allowed the advancing Allied forces to support each other, minimized the difficulty of supplying the most advanced forces; the rapid advance through France had caused considerable logistical strain, made worse by the lack of any major port other than the distant Cherbourg in western France. Although Antwerp was seen as the key to solving the Allied logistics problems, its port was not open to Allied shipping until the Scheldt estuary was clear of German forces; as the campaign progressed, all the belligerents, Allied as well as German, felt the effects of the lack of suitable replacements for front-line troops. There were two major defensive obstacles to the Allies; the first was the natural barriers made by the rivers of eastern France. The second was the Siegfried Line, which fell under the command, along with all Wehrmacht forces in the west, of Generalfeldmarschall Gerd von Rundstedt.
Although the breakout from Normandy had taken longer than planned, the advances until September had far exceeded expectations. Bradley, for example, by September had four more divisions than planned and all of his forces were 150 miles ahead of their expected position. One effect was that insufficient supplies could be delivered to the various fronts to maintain the advance: demand had exceeded the expected needs. Much war material still had to be brought ashore across the invasion beaches and through the one remaining Mulberry harbour. Although small harbours, such as Isigny, Port-en-Bessin, Courcelles, were being used, the major forward ports such as Calais, Dunkirk and Le Havre either remained in German hands as "fortresses" or had been systematically destroyed; the availability of Cherbourg had been valuable until the breakout, but the shortage of transport to carry supplies to the advancing armies became the limiting factor. Although fuel was pumped from Britain to Normandy via the Pluto pipeline, this still had to reach the fronts, which were advancing faster than the pipelines could be extended.
The railways had been destroyed by Allied attacks and would take much effort to repair, so fleets of trucks were needed in the interim. In an attempt to address this acute shortage of transport, three newly arrived U. S. infantry divisions—the 26th, 95th, 104th—were stripped of their trucks in order to haul supplies. Advancing divisions of the U. S. 12th Army Group left all their heavy artillery and half their medium artillery west of the Seine, freeing their trucks to move supplies for other units. Four British truck companies were loaned to the Americans. 1,500 other British trucks were found to have critical engine faults and were unusable, limiting assistance from that quarter. The Red Ball Express was an attempt to expedite deliveries by truck but capacity was inadequate for the circumstances; the 6th Army Group advancing from southern France were supplied adequately from Toulon and Marseille because it had captured ports intact and the local railway system was less damaged. This source supplied about 25% of the Allied needs.
The U. S. supply organization—Communications Zone —is perceived to have failed to expedite solutions and to have been far too bureaucratic, employing 11,000 staff. COMZ and its commander, General John C. H. Lee, were roundly criticised by other American generals. Failure to supply forward units led to unofficial arrangements, with pressed units "diverting" supplies intended for others. General Eisenhower felt he could not exert authority since COMZ was directly answerable to Washington and not to SHAEF, but General Eisenhower has been criticised for not exerting more pressure and influence than he did. At this time the main Allied supply lines still ran back to Normandy, presenting serious logistical problems; the solution was to get Antwerp into operation quickly. Although this major port had been captured intact, the mere occupation of Antwerp was not enough, because the 21st Army Group failed t
Remiremont is a town and commune in the Vosges department of northeastern France, situated in southern Grand Est. The town has been an abbatial centre since the 7th century, is an economic crossroads of the Moselle and Moselotte valleys, is a stepping stone for tourists wishing to explore the Vosges and neighbouring Alsace. Remiremont has got a police station, which covers his suburban area; the fire station realizes more than 2000 interventions per year. Remiremont is known as the La Belle des Vosges, its inhabitants are known as Romarimontains. Remiremont is located on the river Moselle, close to its confluence with the Moselotte and in the foothills of the Vosges mountains; the town is 25 km southeast of the departmental capital of Épinal,95 km south of Nancy, 27 km west of the ski resorts of Gérardmer and La Bresse. Remiremont is surrounded by low, forest-clad mountains; the town is connected with bigger cities by the E23 or N57, the E23 begins from Metz and goes to Lausannein Switzerland, goes through several big cities like Metz, Epinal and Besançon.
The N57, starts from Nancy and follows the E23 and goes through Charmes, Luxeuil-les-Bains, Besançon, Pontarlier an dshe stops on the swiss border. Remiremont is situated along the GR Footpath#7, a long-distance footpath which follows a part of the European continental divide between the Mediterranean to the south and the North Sea/English Channel/Atlantic to the north; the abbey contains an eleventh-century crypt in which the tombs of some of the former abbesses can be found. The church was consecrated in 1051, but as a whole the building belongs more to the late thirteenth century; the abbatial residence has been twice rebuilt in modern times, but the original plan and style have been preserved: the imposing front, the vestibule, the grand staircase. Some of the houses of the canonesses dating from the 17th and 18th centuries remain. Remiremont contains the'Statue of the Volunteer of 1792', created by the sculptor Paul-François Choppin in 1899; the statue commemorates the civic virtue of those who volunteered to defend France during the Revolutionary Wars.
It is the only remaining of the two originals produced. The town's principal shopping street is rue Charles de Gaulle; this street is lined by 18th-century arcades, providing a sheltered walkway for visiting the local boutiques and cafés. It is at the westernmost end of this street. Remiremont derives its name from Saint Romaric, one of the companions of Saint Columban of Luxeuil, who in the seventh century founded two communities in the area; the first was Remiremont Abbey, in the valley. The second was a convent located above the town on the hill now known as Saint-Mont. Many of the nuns' names, those of their patrons, are preserved in the convent's Liber Memorialis. Over time, the nuns moved from the upper site down into Remiremont itself and established themselves as a Benedictine convent. By the end of the 13th century, the nuns had abandoned their Benedictine lifestyle and become a community of secular canonesses, their members were extracted from those who could prove at least 200 years of noble descent.
Thanks to the patronage of the Dukes of Lorraine, the Kings of France, Holy Roman Emperors, the ladies of Remiremont attained considerable power. The abbess of Remiremont Abbey was raised to the status of Imperial Princess and consecrated by the Pope. In 1635, during the Thirty Years' War the town, where five-hundred Frenchmen were lodged, was stormed and plundered by Imperialist forces; the town was attacked by the French in 1638. However, under the guidance of the canonesses, the inhabitants managed to repel the siege; the town was ruined by the earthquake of 1682. Along with the rest of Lorraine, it was annexed by France in 1766; the church properties in the town were suppressed during the French Revolution. Following the end of the Franco-Prussian War in 1871, a defensive fort was built above the town, named fort du Parmont; this fort fell into German hands on 18 June 1940 as part of the Second World War, was used until 1960 as a munitions store by the US Army. Julien Absalon, cross-country mountain biker René Aubry, composer Nabil Baha, footballer Emmanuelle Riva, actress Jules Méline and former Prime Minister, 1896-1898 Odile Schweisguth, pioneer of Pediatric oncology Nicolas Janny, priest and grammarian, born in Metz, died in Remiremont Communes of the Vosges department This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed..
"Remiremont". Encyclopædia Britannica. 23. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 81–82. Betham-Edwards, Matilda. In the Heart of the Vosges: And Other Sketches by a "Devious Traveller"; the Council of Remiremont, anonymous - A satirical poem in which the abesses of Remiremont hold a council on the subject of love
Utah known as Utah Beach, was the code name for one of the five sectors of the Allied invasion of German-occupied France in the Normandy landings on June 6, 1944, during World War II. The westernmost of the five code-named landing beaches in Normandy, Utah is on the Cotentin Peninsula, west of the mouths of the Douve and Vire rivers. Amphibious landings at Utah were undertaken by United States Army troops, with sea transport, mine sweeping, a naval bombardment force provided by the United States Navy and Coast Guard as well as elements from the British and other Allied navies; the objective at Utah was to secure a beachhead on the Cotentin Peninsula, the location of important port facilities at Cherbourg. The amphibious assault by the US 4th Infantry Division and 70th Tank Battalion, was supported by airborne landings of the 82nd and 101st Airborne Division; the intention was to seal off the Cotentin Peninsula, prevent the Germans from reinforcing Cherbourg, capture the port as as possible.
Utah, along with Sword on the eastern flank, was added to the invasion plan in December 1943. These changes doubled the frontage of the invasion and necessitated a month-long delay so that additional landing craft and personnel could be assembled in England. Allied forces attacking Utah faced two battalions of the 919th Grenadier Regiment, part of the 709th Static Infantry Division. While improvements to fortifications had been undertaken under the leadership of Field Marshal Erwin Rommel beginning in October 1943, the troops assigned to defend the area were poorly equipped non-German conscripts. D-Day at Utah began at 01:30, when the first of the airborne units arrived, tasked with securing the key crossroads at Sainte-Mère-Église and controlling the causeways through the flooded farmland behind Utah so the infantry could advance inland. While some airborne objectives were met, many paratroopers landed far from their drop zones and were unable to fulfill their objectives on the first day. On the beach itself and tanks landed in four waves beginning at 06:30 and secured the immediate area with minimal casualties.
Meanwhile, engineers set to work clearing the area of obstacles and mines, additional waves of reinforcements continued to arrive. At the close of D-Day, Allied forces had only captured about half of the planned area and contingents of German defenders remained, but the beachhead was secure; the 4th Infantry Division landed 21,000 troops on Utah at the cost of only 197 casualties. Airborne troops arriving by parachute and glider numbered an additional 14,000 men, with 2,500 casualties. Around 700 men were lost in engineering units, 70th Tank Battalion, seaborne vessels sunk by the enemy. German losses are unknown. Cherbourg was captured on June 26, but by this time the Germans had destroyed the port facilities, which were not brought back into full operation until September; the decision to undertake a cross-channel invasion of continental Europe within the next year was taken at the Trident Conference, held in Washington in May 1943. The Allies planned to launch the invasion on May 1, 1944, a draft of the plan was accepted at the Quebec Conference in August 1943.
General Dwight D. Eisenhower was appointed commander of Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force. General Bernard Montgomery was named as commander of the 21st Army Group, which comprised all of the land forces involved in the invasion. On December 31, 1943, Eisenhower and Montgomery first saw the plan, which proposed amphibious landings by three divisions and two-thirds of an airborne division; the two generals insisted that the scale of the initial invasion be expanded to five divisions, with airborne descents by three divisions, to allow operations on a wider front. The change doubled the frontage of the invasion from 25 miles to 50 miles; this would allow for quicker offloading of men and materiel, make it more difficult for the Germans to respond, speed up the capture of the port at Cherbourg. Eisenhower and Lieutenant General Omar Bradley selected for Utah the VII Corps. Major General J. Lawton Collins, who had experience with amphibious operations in the Pacific Theater of Operations, replaced Major General Roscoe Woodruff as commander of VII Corps.
The coastline of Normandy was divided into seventeen sectors, with codenames using a spelling alphabet—from Able, west of Omaha, to Roger on the east flank of Sword. Eight further sectors were added. Sectors were further subdivided into beaches identified by the colors Green and White. Utah, the westernmost of the five landing beaches, is on the Cotentin Peninsula, west of the mouths of the Douve and Vire rivers; the terrain between Utah and the neighboring Omaha was swampy and difficult to cross, which meant that the troops landing at Utah would be isolated. The Germans had flooded the farmland behind Utah, restricting travel off the beach to a few narrow causeways. To help secure the terrain inland of the landing zone seal off the Cotentin Peninsula, prevent the Germans from reinforcing the port at Cherbourg, two airborne divisions were assigned to airdrop into German territory in the early hours of the invasion; the need to acquire or produce extra landing craft and troop carrier aircraft for the expanded operation meant that the invasion had to be delayed to June.
Production of landing craft was ramped up in late 1943 and continued into early 1944, existing craft were relocated from other theaters. More than 600 Douglas C-47 Skytrain transport aircraft and their crews took a circuitous route to England in early 1944 from Baer Field, bringing the number of available troop carrier planes to over a thousand. A