2008 Summer Olympics
The 2008 Summer Olympic Games known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad and known as Beijing 2008, was an international multi-sport event, held from 8 to 24 August 2008 in Beijing, China. A total of 10,942 athletes from 204 National Olympic Committees competed in 28 sports and 302 events; this was the first time that China had hosted the Summer Olympics, but the third time that the Games had been held in East Asia, following the 1964 Olympics in Tokyo and the 1988 Olympics in Seoul, South Korea. These were the third Olympic Games staged in a socialist country, after the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow, Soviet Union, the 1984 Winter Olympics in Sarajevo, Yugoslavia. Beijing was awarded the 2008 Games over four competitors on 13 July 2001, having won a majority of votes from members of the International Olympic Committee after two rounds of voting; the Government of the People's Republic of China promoted the Games and invested in new facilities and transportation systems. A total of 37 venues were used to host the events, including twelve constructed for use at the Games.
The equestrian events were held in Hong Kong, making this the third Olympics for which the events were held under the jurisdiction of two different NOCs. The sailing events were contested in Qingdao, while the football events took place in several different cities; the official logo for the 2008 Games, titled "Dancing Beijing", featured a stylized calligraphic character jīng in reference to the host city. Beijing Olympics was watched by 3.5 billion people worldwide. Longest distance for an Olympic torch relay The event sets numerous world and Olympics records in the history of Sports, is the most expensive Summer Olympics of all time and second most expensive overall, after the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi; the opening ceremony was lauded by spectators and numerous international presses as spectacular and spellbinding, by many accounts "the greatest in the history of Olympics". An unprecedented 87 countries won at least one medal during the Games. China won the most gold medals, with 48, became only the seventh different team to top an overall Olympic medal tally, winning a total of 100 medals overall.
The United States placed second in the gold medal tally but won the highest number of medals overall, with a total of 112. The third place in the gold medal tally was achieved by Russia. Beijing has been selected to host the 2022 Winter Olympics. Beijing was elected as the host city for the 2008 Summer Olympics on 13 July 2001, during the 112th IOC Session in Moscow, defeating bids from Toronto, Paris and Osaka. Prior to the session, five other cities had submitted bids to the IOC, but failed to make the short list chosen by the IOC Executive Committee in 2000. After the first round of voting, Beijing held a significant lead over the other four candidates. Osaka was eliminated. In the second round, Beijing was supported by a majority of voters, eliminating the need for subsequent rounds. Toronto's bid was their 5th failure since 1960. Members of the IOC did not disclose their votes, but news reports speculated that broad international support led to China's selection from developing nations who had received assistance from China in the construction of stadiums.
The size of China, its increased enforcement of doping controls, sympathy concerning its loss of the 2000 Summer Olympics to Sydney were all factors in the decision. Eight years earlier, Beijing had led every round of voting for the 2000 Summer Olympics before losing to Sydney by two votes in the final round. Human rights concerns expressed by Amnesty International and politicians in both Europe and the United States were considered by the delegates, according to IOC Executive Director François Carrard. Carrard and others suggested. In addition, a number of IOC delegates, athletes expressed concern about heat and air quality during the Games, considering the high levels of air pollution in Beijing. China outlined plans to address these environmental concerns in its bid application; the Oxford Olympics Study 2016 estimates the outturn cost of the Beijing 2008 Summer Olympics at US$6.8 billion in 2015-dollars and cost overrun at 2% in real terms. This includes sports-related costs only, that is, operational costs incurred by the organizing committee for the purpose of staging the Games, e.g. expenditures for technology, workforce, security, catering and medical services, direct capital costs incurred by the host city and country or private investors to build the competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, media and press center, which are required to host the Games.
Indirect capital costs are not included, such as for road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or for hotel upgrades or other business investment incurred in preparation for the Games but not directly related to staging the Games. The Beijing Olympics' cost of US$6.8 billion compares with costs of US$4.6 billion for Rio 2016 and US$15 billion for London 2012. Average cost for the Summer Games since 1960 is US$5.2 billion. On 6 March 2009, the Beijing Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games reported that total spending on the games was "generally as much as that of the Athens 2004 Olympic Games", equivalen
Hong Kong the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China and abbreviated as HK, is a special administrative region on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in southern China. With over 7.4 million people of various nationalities in a 1,104-square-kilometre territory, Hong Kong is the world's fourth most densely populated region. Hong Kong became a colony of the British Empire after Qing Empire ceded Hong Kong Island at the end of the First Opium War in 1842; the colony expanded to the Kowloon Peninsula in 1860 after the Second Opium War, was further extended when Britain obtained a 99-year lease of the New Territories in 1898. The entire territory was transferred to China in 1997; as a special administrative region, Hong Kong's system of government is separate from that of mainland China and its people identify more as Hongkongers rather than Chinese. A sparsely populated area of farming and fishing villages, the territory has become one of the world's most significant financial centres and commercial ports.
It is the world's seventh-largest trading entity, its legal tender is the world's 13th-most traded currency. Although the city has one of the highest per capita incomes in the world, it has severe income inequality; the territory has the largest number of skyscrapers in most surrounding Victoria Harbour. Hong Kong ranks seventh on the UN Human Development Index, has the sixth-longest life expectancy in the world. Although over 90 per cent of its population uses public transportation, air pollution from neighbouring industrial areas of mainland China has resulted in a high level of atmospheric particulates; the name of the territory, first spelled "He-Ong-Kong" in 1780 referred to a small inlet between Aberdeen Island and the southern coast of Hong Kong Island. Aberdeen was an initial point of contact between local fishermen. Although the source of the romanised name is unknown, it is believed to be an early phonetic rendering of the Cantonese pronunciation hēung góng; the name translates as "fragrant harbour" or "incense harbour".
"Fragrant" may refer to the sweet taste of the harbour's freshwater influx from the Pearl River or to the odor from incense factories lining the coast of northern Kowloon. The incense was stored near Aberdeen Harbour for export. Sir John Davis offered an alternative origin; the simplified name Hong Kong was used by 1810 written as a single word. Hongkong was common until 1926, when the government adopted the two-word name; some corporations founded during the early colonial era still keep this name, including Hongkong Land, Hongkong Electric and Shanghai Hotels and the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation. The region is first known to have been occupied by humans during the Neolithic period, about 6,000 years ago. Early Hong Kong settlers were a semi-coastal people who migrated from inland and brought knowledge of rice cultivation; the Qin dynasty incorporated the Hong Kong area into China for the first time in 214 BCE, after conquering the indigenous Baiyue. The region was consolidated under the Nanyue kingdom after the Qin collapse, recaptured by China after the Han conquest.
During the Mongol conquest, the Southern Song court was located in modern-day Kowloon City before its final defeat in the 1279 Battle of Yamen. By the end of the Yuan dynasty, seven large families had settled in the region and owned most of the land. Settlers from nearby provinces migrated to Kowloon throughout the Ming dynasty; the earliest European visitor was Portuguese explorer Jorge Álvares, who arrived in 1513. Portuguese merchants established a trading post called in Hong Kong waters, began regular trade with southern China. Although the traders were expelled after military clashes in the 1520s, Portuguese-Chinese trade relations were reestablished by 1549. Portugal acquired a permanent lease for Macau in 1557. After the Qing conquest, maritime trade was banned under the Haijin policies; the Kangxi Emperor lifted the prohibition, allowing foreigners to enter Chinese ports in 1684. Qing authorities established the Canton System in 1757 to regulate trade more restricting non-Russian ships to the port of Canton.
Although European demand for Chinese commodities like tea and porcelain was high, Chinese interest in European manufactured goods was insignificant. To counter the trade imbalance, the British sold large amounts of Indian opium to China. Faced with a drug crisis, Qing officials pursued ever-more-aggressive actions to halt the opium trade; the Daoguang Emperor rejected proposals to legalise and tax opium, ordering imperial commissioner Lin Zexu to eradicate the opium trade in 1839. The commissioner destroyed opium stockpiles and halted all foreign trade, forcing a British military response and triggering the First Opium War; the Qing ceded Hong Kong Island in the Convention of Chuenpi. However, both countries did not ratify the agreement. After over a year of further hostilities, Hong Kong Island was formally ceded to the United Kingdom in the 1842 Treaty of Nanking. Administrative infrastructure was built up by early 1842, but piracy and hostile Qing policies towards Hong Kong prevented the government from attracting merchants.
The Taiping Rebellion, when many wealthy Chinese fled mainland turbulence and settled in the colon
A bodyguard is a type of security guard, or government law enforcement officer, or soldier who protects a person or a group of people—usually high-ranking public officials or officers, wealthy people, celebrities—from danger: theft, kidnapping, harassment, loss of confidential information, threats, or other criminal offences. The personnel team that protects a VIP is referred to as the VIP's security detail. Most important public figures, such as heads of state, heads of government, governors are protected by several bodyguards or by a team of bodyguards from a government agency, security forces, or police forces. In most countries where the head of state is their military leader, the leader's bodyguards have traditionally been royal guards, republican guards and other elite military units. Less-important public figures, or those with lower risk profiles, may be accompanied by a single bodyguard who doubles as a driver. A number of high-profile celebrities and CEOs use bodyguards. In some countries or regions, wealthy people may have a bodyguard.
In some cases, the security personnel use an armoured vehicle, which protects them and the VIP. The role of bodyguards is misunderstood by the public, because the typical layperson's only exposure to body-guarding is in dramatized action film depictions of the profession, in which bodyguards are depicted in firefights with attackers. In contrast to the exciting lifestyle depicted on the film screen, the role of a real-life bodyguard is much more mundane: it consists of planning routes, pre-searching rooms and buildings where the client will be visiting, researching the background of people that will have contact with the client, searching vehicles, attentively escorting the client on their day-to-day activities; the role of a bodyguard depends on several factors. First, it depends on the role of a given bodyguard in a close protection team. A bodyguard can be a driver-bodyguard, a close-protection officer, or part of an ancillary unit that provides support such as IED detection, electronic "bug" detection, counter-sniper monitoring, pre-searching facilities, background-checking people who will have contact with the client.
Second, the role of a bodyguard depends on the level of risk. A bodyguard protecting a client at high risk of assassination will be focusing on different roles than a bodyguard escorting a celebrity, being stalked by aggressive tabloid photographers; some bodyguards specialize in the close quarter protection of children of VIPs, to protect them from kidnapping or assassination. In some cases, bodyguards drive their clients, it is not sufficient for a client to be protected by a single driver-bodyguard, because this would mean that the bodyguard would have to leave the car unattended when they escort the client on foot. If the car is left unattended, this can lead to several risks: an explosive device may be attached to the car. If parking services tow away or disable the car the bodyguard cannot use the car to escape with the client in case there is a security threat while the client is at their meeting; the driver should be trained in evasive driving techniques, such as executing short-radius turns to change the direction of the vehicle, high-speed cornering, so on.
The car used by the client will be a large sedan with a low center of gravity and a powerful engine, such as a Jaguar, BMW or Mercedes Benz. In some countries, large trucks such as Suburbans are used for VIPs. At a minimum, the vehicle should have ballistic glass in the windows, some type of armor reinforcement to protect the client from gunfire, a foam-filled gas tank. "Run-flat tires" and armor protection for the driver are desirable. The car may be equipped with an additional battery. In Latin American countries, many armored cars will come with a siren and lights to use in situations were they need to get out of places quickly. Decoy convoys and vehicles are used to prevent tailing. In the event the convoy holding the client is compromised and ambushed, decoy convoys can act as a reinforcement force that can counter-attack a force, attacking the primary convoy; some clients rotate between residences in different cities when attending public events or meetings to prevent being tailed home or to a private location.
Depending on the laws in a bodyguard's jurisdiction and on which type of agency or security service they are in, bodyguards may be unarmed, armed with a less-le
Hong Kong Police Force
The Hong Kong Police Force is the largest disciplined service under the Security Bureau of Hong Kong. It is the world's second, Asia's first, police agency to operate with a modern policing system, it was formed on 1 May 1844 by the British Hong Kong government with a strength of 32 officers. In 1969, Queen Elizabeth II granted the'Royal' prefix and the HKPF became the Royal Hong Kong Police Force, only to be removed in 1997 upon the transfer of sovereignty of Hong Kong to China. Due to the one country, two systems principle, the mainland authorities may not interfere with Hong Kong's local law enforcement affairs. Thus, HKPF is independent from the jurisdiction of Ministry of Public Security of the People's Republic of China. Hong Kong has been ranked in the top ten positions in the Global Competitiveness Report in terms of its reliability of police services. Including the Hong Kong Auxiliary Police Force and civil servants, the force consists of about 34,000 personnel, which gave Hong Kong the second highest police officer/citizen ratio in the world in 2014.
The Marine Region with about 3,000 officers and a fleet of 143 vessels in 2009, was the largest such marine division of any civil police force. The Hong Kong Police has been serving Hong Kong since shortly after the island was established as a colony in 1841. On 30 April 1841, 12 weeks after the British landed in Hong Kong, Captain Charles Elliot established a police force in the new colony; the first chief of police was Captain William Caine, who served as the Chief Magistrate. The 1950s saw the commencement of Hong Kong's 40-year rise to global prominence, during which time the Hong Kong Police tackled many issues that have challenged Hong Kong's stability. Between 1949 and 1989, Hong Kong experienced several huge waves of immigration from mainland China, most notably 1958–62. In the 1970s and 1980s, large numbers of Vietnamese boat people arrived in Hong Kong, posing challenges first for marine police, secondly for officers who manned the dozens of camps in the territory and lastly for those who had to repatriate them.
The force was granted the Royal Charter in 1969 for its handling of the Hong Kong 1967 riots—renaming it: the Royal Hong Kong Police Force. The recruitment of Europeans to the force ceased in 1994, in 1995 the Royal Hong Kong Police took responsibility for patrolling the boundary with China. Prior to 1995, the British Army had operated the border patrol; the force played a prominent role in the process of handover of sovereignty in 1997 and performs ceremonial flag-raising each anniversary. In more recent history, the police force played a prominent role in handling the 2014 Hong Kong protests; the current crest of the force was adopted in 1997 so as to retire symbols of British sovereignty. Changes to the crest included: St Edward's Crown replaced with a bauhinia flower. Changes to the flag included replacing the Blue Ensign, featuring the old crest, with a single blue flag with the crest centred in the middle; the Force is commanded by the Commissioner of Police, assisted by two deputy commissioners.
For day-to-day policing, the Force is organised into six regions:Hong Kong Island. The Force Headquarters is made up of five departments: Support. Regions are autonomous in their day-to-day operation and management matters, each has its own headquarters, which comprises administration and operation wings, Emergency Units, as well as traffic and criminal investigation units; each region is divided into divisions and, in a few cases, sub-divisions. There are 23 districts; the policing of Hong Kong Island and the main towns of the New Territories follows a similar pattern. Responsibility for law and order on the Mass Transit Railway, which runs through most police districts, lies with the Railway District. Railway District based at 2 Siu Yip Street in Kwun Tong is responsible for patrols on the MTR. Police Force operational matters are coordinated by the Operations & Support Department. Land Operations and Support are divided into six regions, whereas marine matters are managed by the marine police—organised as one Marine Region.
Each land region comprises two wings, the operations wing and support wing, a traffic headquarters. The department is charged with the formulation and implementation of policies, the monitoring of activities and the efficient deployment of personnel and resources. Operations Wing coordinates counter-terrorism, internal security, anti-illegal-immigration measures, bomb disposal commitments and contingency planning for natural disasters—they are responsible for the Police Dog Unit; the Operations Wing consists of three sections: The Operations Bureau, the Police Tactical Unit, the Explosive Ordnance Disposal Bureau. Operations Bureau comprises the Operations Division, the Counter-Terrorism and Internal Security Division, the Key P
Special Branch is a label customarily used to identify units responsible for matters of national security and intelligence in British and Commonwealth police forces, as well as in Ireland and in Thailand. A Special Branch unit acquires and develops intelligence of a political or sensitive nature, conducts investigations to protect the State from perceived threats of subversion terrorism and other extremist political activity; the first Special Branch recorded, or Special Irish Branch, as it was known, was a unit of London's Metropolitan Police formed in March 1883 to combat the Irish Republican Brotherhood. The name became Special Branch as the unit's remit widened to include more than just IRA-related counterespionage. Most state police forces and the federal police had a Special Branch, they were tasked with monitoring the Communist Party of Australia and related political groups regarded as extremist or subversive. They focused on German and Japanese activity during World War II; the Commonwealth Police Force was formed in 1917 as "a form of federal special branch" under the War Precautions Act 1914.
It was disbanded in 1919. The Commonwealth Police Special Branch was established in 1957, it was absorbed into the Australian Federal Police in 1979. The Australian Federal Police Special Branch was renamed the Special Intelligence Branch in 1985 and merged into the Security Intelligence & Diplomatic Liaison Branch in 1995; the New South Wales Police Force Subversive Organisations Branch was formed in 1933. It was combined with the Commonwealth Police, Royal Australian Navy Police and Australian Army Police at the outbreak of World War II to form the Military/Police Intelligence Branch; the civilian component was formed back into the Police Subversive Organisations Branch in 1946, renamed Special Branch in 1948. The Royal Commission into the New South Wales Police Service found Special Branch was gathering information on people who posed no threat of politically motivated violence, as a result it was disbanded in 1997; the Queensland Police Special Bureau was formed on 30 July 1940 and renamed Special Branch on 7 April 1948.
It was criticised for being used for political purposes by the Bjelke-Petersen government in the 1970s and 1980s, such as enforcing laws against protests and investigating and harassing political opponents. It was disbanded in 1989 following a recommendation by the Fitzgerald Inquiry into police corruption; the Special Branch destroyed its records before Fitzgerald could subpoena them. South Australia Police formed an Intelligence Branch at the outbreak of World War II in 1939, disbanded in 1945. A Subversive Section was established in 1947 and renamed Special Branch in 1949, it amassed files on Australian Labor Party politicians, church leaders, trade unionists and so-called "pink files" on gay community activists at a time when homosexuality was still illegal. The South Australia Police was deliberately vague about the existence of Special Branch. In 1970, Commissioner Harold Salisbury told Premier Don Dunstan that Special Branch did not exist. A 1977 inquiry by Justice White of the Supreme Court of South Australia confirmed the existence and found the files were "scandalously inaccurate, irrelevant to security purposes and outrageously unfair to hundreds thousands, of loyal and worthy citizens".
Dunstan sacked Salisbury for misleading Parliament about the existence of the "pink files". Special Branch was disbanded in 1984; the Victoria Police Special Branch was formed in 1931 and disbanded in 1983. Similar work in monitoring terrorism is conducted by the Security Intelligence Group, established in 2000; the Security and Intelligence Branch known as Special Branch, is the main domestic intelligence and security service in the Commonwealth of the Bahamas. It is mandated to perform intelligence operations inside the Bahamas to ensure the safety of Bahamian citizens and foreigners; the branch is mandated to perform background checks on persons who have been recruited for jobs such as police officers and defence force officers and to check persons up for promotions. The Director of the Security Intelligence Branch holds the title "Assistant Commissioner"; the Bangladeshi Special Branch is the prime intelligence agency of Bangladesh. The Special Branch has twelve different sections through which it carries out the directives of the Government and around 64 district based offices, called District Special Branch and has offices in many Upazila/Thana areas.
All the members are recruited from the Bangladesh Police. The chief of the Special Branch has the rank of Additional Inspector General and reports directly to the Prime Minister of Bangladesh; this is the only intelligence agency of Bangladesh which works in all strategic and tactical levels. The organisation has the capability to work within and outside the country, it is responsible for internal affairs of the country and to collect intelligence on behalf of the security services. The RCMP Security Service was a counterintelligence unit or "Special Branch" from 1950 to 1984, it was replaced by the Canadian Security Intelligence Service. The Special Branch unit of the Fiji Police Force is classed as one of the best intelligence units in the Asia Pacific region. Similar to their Commonwealth counterparts, the Fijian Special Branch deals with matters of national security, they facilitate Interpol, counter terrorism, anti-espionage and VIP protection units. Entry into Special Branch is by recruitment.
Though it is a police unit, Special Branch recruits from the Republic of Fiji Military Forces. The unit's name was changed to the Fiji Police I
The Glock is a series of polymer-framed, short recoil-operated, locked-breech semi-automatic pistols designed and produced by Austrian manufacturer Glock Ges.m.b. H, it entered Austrian military and police service by 1982 after it was the top performer in reliability and safety tests. Despite initial resistance from the market to accept a perceived "plastic gun" due to both unfounded durability and reliability concerns, as well as fears that its use of a polymer frame might circumvent metal detectors in airports, Glock pistols have become the company's most profitable line of products as well as supplying national armed forces, security agencies, police forces in at least 48 countries. Glocks are popular firearms among civilians for recreational and competition shooting and self-defense, concealed carry or open carry; the company's founder, engineer Gaston Glock, had no experience with firearms design or manufacture at the time their first pistol, the Glock 17, was being prototyped. Glock did, have extensive experience in advanced synthetic polymers, knowledge of, instrumental in the company's design of the first commercially successful line of pistols with a polymer frame.
Glock introduced ferritic nitrocarburizing into the firearms industry as an anticorrosion surface treatment for metal gun parts. In 1980, the Austrian Armed Forces announced that it would seek tenders for a new, modern duty pistol to replace their World War II–era Walther P38 handguns; the Austrian Ministry of Defence formulated a list of 17 criteria for the new generation service pistol, including requirements that it would be self loading. After firing 15,000 rounds of standard ammunition, the pistol was to be inspected for wear; the pistol was to be used to fire an overpressure test cartridge generating 5,000 bar. The normal maximum operating pressure for the 9mm NATO is 2,520 bar. Glock became aware of the Austrian Army's planned procurement, in 1982 assembled a team of Europe's leading handgun experts from military and civilian sport-shooting circles to define the most desirable characteristics in a combat pistol. Within three months, Glock developed a working prototype that combined proven mechanisms and traits from previous pistol designs.
In addition the plan was to make extensive use of synthetic materials and modern manufacturing technologies, to make it a cost-effective candidate. Several samples of the 9×19mm Glock 17 were submitted for assessment trials in early 1982, after passing all of the exhaustive endurance and abuse tests, the Glock emerged as the winner; the handgun was adopted into service with the Austrian military and police forces in 1982 as the P80, with an initial order for 25,000 guns. The Glock 17 outperformed eight different pistols from five other established manufacturers; the results of the Austrian trials sparked a wave of interest in Western Europe and overseas in the United States, where a similar effort to select a service-wide replacement for the M1911 had been going on since the late 1970s. In late 1983, the United States Department of Defense inquired about the Glock pistol and received four samples of the Glock 17 for unofficial evaluation. Glock was invited to participate in the XM9 Personal Defense Pistol Trials, but declined because the DOD specifications would require extensive retooling of production equipment and providing 35 test samples in an unrealistic time frame.
Shortly thereafter, the Glock 17 was accepted into service with the Norwegian and Swedish armed forces, surpassing all prior NATO durability standards. As a result, the Glock 17 became a standard NATO-classified sidearm and was granted a NATO stock number. By 1992, some 350,000 pistols had been sold in more than 45 countries, including 250,000 in the United States alone. Starting in 2013 the British Army began replacing the Browning Hi-Power pistol with the Glock 17 Gen 4, due to concerns about weight and the external safety of the Hi-Power. Glock has updated its basic design several times throughout its production history. A mid-life upgrade to the Glock pistols involved the addition of checkering on the front strap and serrations to the back strap; these versions, introduced in 1988, were informally referred to as "second-generation" models. To meet American ATF regulations, a steel plate with a stamped serial number was embedded into the receiver in front of the trigger guard. In 1991, an integrated recoil spring assembly replaced the original two-piece recoil spring and tube design.
The magazine was modified, changing the floorplate and fitting the follower spring with a resistance insert at its base. In 1998, the frame was further modified with an accessory rail to allow the mounting of laser sights, tactical lights, other accessories. Thumb rests on both sides of the finger grooves on the front strap were added. Glock pistols with these upgrades are informally referred to as "third-generation" models. Third-generation models additionally featured a modified extractor that serves as a loaded chamber indicator, the locking block was
Heckler & Koch MP5
The MP5 is a 9x19mm Parabellum submachine gun, developed in the 1960s by a team of engineers from the German small arms manufacturer Heckler & Koch GmbH of Oberndorf am Neckar. There are over 100 variants including some semi-automatic versions; the MP5 is one of the most used submachine guns in the world, having been adopted by 40 nations and numerous military, law enforcement and security organizations. It was used by SWAT teams in North America, but has been supplanted by AR-15 variants in the 21st century. In 1999, Heckler & Koch developed the the MP5's successor. Heckler & Koch, encouraged by the success of the G3 automatic rifle, developed a family of small arms consisting of four types of firearms all based on a common G3 design layout and operating principle; the first type was chambered for 7.62×51mm NATO, the second for the 7.62×39mm M43 round, the third for the intermediate 5.56×45mm NATO caliber, the fourth type for the 9×19mm Parabellum pistol cartridge. The MP5 was created within the fourth group of firearms and was known as the HK54.
Work on the MP5 began in 1964 and two years it was adopted by the German Federal Police, border guard and army special forces. In 1980, the MP5 achieved iconic status as a result of its use on live television by SAS commandos in Operation Nimrod, where they stormed the Iranian Embassy in London, rescuing hostages and killing five terrorists; the MP5 has become a mainstay of SWAT units of law enforcement agencies in the United States since then. However, in the late 1990s, as a result of the North Hollywood shootout, police special response teams have supplanted most MP5s with AR-15-based rifles; the MP5 is manufactured under license in several nations including Greece, Mexico, Saudi Arabia, Sudan and the United Kingdom. The primary version of the MP5 family is the MP5A2, a lightweight, air-cooled, selective fire delayed blowback operated 9×19mm Parabellum weapon with a roller-delayed bolt, it fires from a closed bolt position. The fixed, free floating, cold hammer-forged barrel has 6 right-hand grooves with a 1 in 250 mm rifling twist rate and is pressed and pinned into the receiver.
The first MP5 models used a double-column straight box magazine, but since 1977 curved, steel magazines are used with a 15-round capacity or a 30-round capacity. The adjustable iron sights consist of a rotating rear diopter drum and a front post installed in a hooded ring; the rear sight is mechanically adjustable for both windage and elevation with the use of a special tool, being adjusted at the factory for firing at 25 metres with standard 8 grams FMJ 9×19mm NATO ammunition. The rear sight drum provides four apertures of varying diameters used to adjust the diopter system, according to the user's preference and tactical situation. Changing between apertures does not change the point of impact down range. For accurate shooting the user should select the smallest aperture that still allows an equal circle of light between the rear sight aperture and the outside of the front sight hood ring; the MP5 has a hammer firing mechanism. The trigger group is housed inside an interchangeable polymer trigger module and equipped with a three-position fire mode selector that serves as the manual safety toggle.
The "S" or Sicher position in white denotes weapon safe, "E" or Einzelfeuer in red represents single fire, "F" or Feuerstoß designates continuous fire. The SEF symbols appear on both sides of the plastic trigger group; the selector lever is actuated with the thumb of the shooting hand and is located only on the left side of the original SEF trigger group or on both sides of the ambidextrous trigger groups. The safety/selector is rotated into the various firing settings or safety position by depressing the tail end of the lever. Tactile clicks are present at each position to provide a positive stop and prevent inadvertent rotation; the "safe" setting disables the trigger by blocking the hammer release with a solid section of the safety axle located inside the trigger housing. The non-reciprocating cocking handle is located above the handguard and protrudes from the cocking handle tube at a 45° angle; this rigid control is attached to a tubular piece within the cocking lever housing called the cocking lever support, which in turn makes contact with the forward extension of the bolt group.
It is not however connected to the bolt carrier and therefore cannot be used as a forward assist to seat the bolt group. The cocking handle is held in a forward position by a spring detent located in the front end of the cocking lever support which engages in the cocking lever housing; the lever is locked back by pulling it to the rear and rotating it clockwise where it can be hooked into an indent in the cocking lever tube. The bolt rigidly engages the barrel extension—a cylindrical component welded to the receiver into which the barrel is pinned; the delay mechanism is of the same design as that used in the G3 rifle. The two-part bolt consists of a bolt head with a bolt carrier; the heavier bolt carrier lies up against the bolt head when the weapon is ready to fire and inclined planes on the front locking piece lie between the rollers and force them out into recesses in the barrel extension. When fired, expanding propellant