Flushing is to become markedly red in the face and other areas of the skin, from various physiological conditions. Flushing is distinguished, despite a close physiological relation between them, from blushing, milder restricted to the face, cheeks or ears, assumed to reflect emotional stress, such as embarrassment, anger, or romantic stimulation. Flushing is a cardinal symptom of carcinoid syndrome—the syndrome that results from hormones being secreted into systemic circulation. Abrupt cessation of physical exertion abdominal cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome in patients who have had abdominal surgery alcohol flush reaction antiestrogens such as tamoxifen atropine poisoning body contact with warm or hot water butorphanol reaction with some narcotic analgesics caffeine consumption carbon monoxide poisoning carcinoid tumor chronic obstructive pulmonary disease emphysema cluster headache attack or headache compression of the nerve by the sixth thoracic vertebrae coughing severe coughing fits Cushing's syndrome dehydration dysautonomia emotions: anger, embarrassment fever Kratom fibromyalgia high doses of non flush free niacin histamines homocystinuria Horner's syndrome hot flush hyperglycaemia hyperstimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system the vagus nerve hyperthyroidism inflammation iron poisoning Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction keratosis pilaris rubra faceii Limerence mastocytosis medullary thyroid cancer mixing an antibiotic with alcohol pheochromocytoma polycythemia vera powerful vasodilators, such as dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers rosacea severe pain sexual arousal orgasm sexual intercourse sneezing some recreational drugs, such as alcohol, heroin and amphetamines spicy foods sunburn tachycardia vinpocetine Allergies Commonly referred to as the sex flush, vasocongestion of the skin can occur during all four phases of the human sexual response cycle.
Studies show that the sex flush occurs in 50–75% of females and 25% of males, yet not consistently. The sex flush tends to occur more under warmer conditions and may not appear at all under lower temperatures. During the female sex flush, pinkish spots develop under the breasts spread to the breasts, face, soles of the feet, over the entire body. Vasocongestion is responsible for the darkening of the clitoris and the walls of the vagina during sexual arousal. During the male sex flush, the coloration of the skin develops less than in the female, but starts with the epigastrium, spreads across the chest continues to the neck, forehead and sometimes, shoulders and forearms; the sex flush disappears soon after reaching orgasm, but in other cases it may take up to two hours or so, sometimes intense sweating occurs simultaneously. Cholinergic urticaria Erythema Pallor Rash
Blood plasma is a yellowish liquid component of blood that holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension. In other words, it is the liquid part of the blood that carries cells and proteins throughout the body, it makes up about 55% of the body's total blood volume. It is the intravascular fluid part of extracellular fluid, it is water, contains dissolved proteins, clotting factors, hormones, carbon dioxide and oxygen. It plays a vital role in an intravascular osmotic effect that keeps electrolyte concentration balanced and protects the body from infection and other blood disorders. Blood plasma is separated from the blood by spinning a tube of fresh blood containing an anticoagulant in a centrifuge until the blood cells fall to the bottom of the tube; the blood plasma is poured or drawn off. Blood plasma has a density of 1025 kg/m3, or 1.025 g/ml. Blood serum is blood plasma without clotting factors. Plasmapheresis is a medical therapy that involves blood plasma extraction and reintegration.
Fresh frozen plasma is on the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system. It is of critical importance in the treatment of many types of trauma which result in blood loss, is therefore kept stocked universally in all medical facilities capable of treating trauma or that pose a risk of patient blood loss such as surgical suite facilities. Blood plasma volume may be expanded by or drained to extravascular fluid when there are changes in Starling forces across capillary walls. For example, when blood pressure drops in circulatory shock, Starling forces drive fluid into the interstitium, causing third spacing. Standing still for a prolonged period will cause an increase in transcapillary hydrostatic pressure; as a result 12% of blood plasma volume will cross into the extravascular compartment. This causes an increase in hematocrit, serum total protein, blood viscosity and, as a result of increased concentration of coagulation factors, it causes orthostatic hypercoagulability.
Plasma was well-known when described by William Harvey in de Mortu Cordis in 1628, but knowledge of it extends as far back as Vesalius.. The discovery of fibrinogen by William Henson in ca 1770 made it easier to study plasma, as ordinarily, upon coming in contact with a foreign surface – something other than vascular endothelium – clotting factors become activated and clotting proceeds trapping RBCs etc in the plasma and preventing separation of plasma from the blood. Adding citrate and other anticoagulants is a recent advance. Note that, upon formation of a clot, the remaining clear fluid is Serum, plasma without the clotting factors; the use of blood plasma as a substitute for whole blood and for transfusion purposes was proposed in March 1918, in the correspondence columns of the British Medical Journal, by Gordon R. Ward. "Dried plasmas" in powder or strips of material format were developed and first used in World War II. Prior to the United States' involvement in the war, liquid plasma and whole blood were used.
The "Blood for Britain" program during the early 1940s was quite successful based on Charles Drew's contribution. A large project began in August 1940 to collect blood in New York City hospitals for the export of plasma to Britain. Drew was appointed medical supervisor of the "Plasma for Britain" project, his notable contribution at this time was to transform the test tube methods of many blood researchers into the first successful mass production techniques. The decision was made to develop a dried plasma package for the armed forces as it would reduce breakage and make the transportation and storage much simpler; the resulting dried. One bottle contained enough distilled water to reconstitute the dried plasma contained within the other bottle. In about three minutes, the plasma could stay fresh for around four hours; the Blood for Britain program operated for five months, with total collections of 15,000 people donating blood, with over 5,500 vials of blood plasma. Following the "Plasma for Britain" invention, Drew was named director of the Red Cross blood bank and assistant director of the National Research Council, in charge of blood collection for the United States Army and Navy.
Drew argued against the armed forces directive that blood/plasma was to be separated by the race of the donor. Drew insisted that there was no racial difference in human blood and that the policy would lead to needless deaths as soldiers and sailors were required to wait for "same race" blood. By the end of the war the American Red Cross had provided enough blood for over six million plasma packages. Most of the surplus plasma was returned to the United States for civilian use. Serum albumin replaced dried plasma for combat use during the Korean War. Plasma as a blood product prepared from blood donations is used in blood transfusions as fresh frozen plasma or plasma Frozen Within 24 Hours After Phlebotomy; when donating whole blood or packed red blood cell transfusions, O- is the most desirable and is considered a "universal donor," since it has neither A nor B antigens and can be safely transfused to most recipients. Type AB+ is the "universal recipient" type for PRBC donations. However, for plasma the situation is somewhat reverse
Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue. Epithelial tissues line the outer surfaces of organs and blood vessels throughout the body, as well as the inner surfaces of cavities in many internal organs. An example is the outermost layer of the skin. There are three principal shapes of epithelial cell: squamous and cuboidal; these can be arranged in a single layer of cells as simple epithelium, either squamous, columnar, or cuboidal, or in layers of two or more cells deep as stratified, either squamous, columnar or cuboidal. In some tissues, a layer of columnar cells may appear to be stratified due to the placement of the nuclei; this sort of tissue is called pseudostratified. All glands are made up of epithelial cells. Functions of epithelial cells include secretion, selective absorption, transcellular transport, sensing. Epithelial layers contain no blood vessels, so they must receive nourishment via diffusion of substances from the underlying connective tissue, through the basement membrane.
Cell junctions are well employed in epithelial tissues. In general, epithelial tissues are classified by the number of their layers and by the shape and function of the cells; the three principal shapes associated with epithelial cells are—squamous and columnar. Squamous epithelium has cells; this is found as the lining of the mouth, the blood vessels and in the alveoli of the lungs. Cuboidal epithelium has cells whose height and width are the same. Columnar epithelium has cells taller. By layer, epithelium is classed as either simple epithelium, only one cell thick or stratified epithelium having two or more cells in thickness or multi-layered – as stratified squamous epithelium, stratified cuboidal epithelium, stratified columnar epithelium, both types of layering can be made up of any of the cell shapes. However, when taller simple columnar epithelial cells are viewed in cross section showing several nuclei appearing at different heights, they can be confused with stratified epithelia; this kind of epithelium is therefore described as pseudostratified columnar epithelium.
Transitional epithelium has cells that can change from squamous to cuboidal, depending on the amount of tension on the epithelium. Simple epithelium is a single layer of cells with every cell in direct contact with the basement membrane that separates it from the underlying connective tissue. In general, it is found where filtration occur; the thinness of the epithelial barrier facilitates these processes. In general, simple epithelial tissues are classified by the shape of their cells; the four major classes of simple epithelium are: simple squamous. Simple squamous. Simple cuboidal: these cells may have secretory, absorptive, or excretory functions. Examples include small collecting ducts of kidney and salivary gland. Simple columnar. Non-ciliated epithelium can possess microvilli; some tissues are referred to as simple glandular columnar epithelium. These secrete mucus and are found in stomach and rectum. Pseudostratified columnar epithelium; the ciliated type is called respiratory epithelium as it is exclusively confined to the larger respiratory airways of the nasal cavity and bronchi.
Stratified epithelium differs from simple epithelium. It is therefore found where body linings have to withstand mechanical or chemical insult such that layers can be abraded and lost without exposing subepithelial layers. Cells flatten as the layers become more apical, though in their most basal layers the cells can be squamous, cuboidal or columnar. Stratified epithelia can have the following specializations: The basic cell types are squamous and columnar classed by their shape. Cells of epithelial tissue are scutoid shaped packed and form a continuous sheet, they have no intercellular spaces. All epithelia is separated from underlying tissues by an extracellular fibrous basement membrane; the lining of the mouth, lung alveoli and kidney tubules are all made of epithelial tissue. The lining of the blood and lymphatic vessels are of a specialised form of epithelium called endothelium. Epithelium lines both the outside and the inside cavities and lumina of bodies; the outermost layer of human skin is composed of dead stratified squamous, keratinized epithelial cells.
Tissues that line the inside of the mouth, the esophagus, the vagina, part of the rectum are composed of nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium. Other surfaces that separate body cavities from the outside environment are lined by simple squamous, columnar, or pseudostratified epithelial cells. Other epithelial cells line the insides of the lungs, the gastrointestinal tract, the reproductive and urinary tracts, make up the exocrine and endocrine glands; the outer surface of the cornea is covered with fast-growing regenerated epithelial cells. A specialised form of epithelium – endothelium forms the inner lining of blood vessels and the heart, is known as vascular endotheliu