General is a trade name for Fujitsu General Limited of Japan's air conditioners. Fujitsu General manufactures and markets various air conditioning units and humidity control solutions under the General and Fujitsu brands in different markets. In India, General air conditioners are manufactured and marketed by ETA General Pvt. Ltd, a joint venture between Fujitsu General Limited and the ETA-Ascon group based in Dubai; the company is headquartered in Chennai. It has another manufacturing unit in Thailand
The Fujitsu M2351 "Eagle" was a hard disk drive with an SMD interface, used on many servers in the mid-1980s. It offered an unformatted capacity of 470 MB in 10 1⁄2 inches of 19-inch rack space, at a retail price of about US$10,000; the data density, access speed, use of a standard interface, price point combined to make it a popular product used by many system manufacturers, such as Sun Microsystems. The Eagle was popular at installations of DEC VAX systems, as third-party storage systems were dramatically more cost-effective and space-dense than those vendor-supplied; the model 2351A incorporated eleven platters rotating at 3,960 rpm, taking half a minute to spin up. The Eagle used 10.5-inch-diameter platters, unlike most of its competitors, which still used the 14-inch standard set in 1962 by the IBM 1311. One moving head accessed each data surface, one more head was dedicated to the servo mechanism; the model 2351AF added 60 fixed heads for access to a separate area of 1.7 MB. The Eagle achieved a data transfer rate of 1.8 MB/s.
Power consumption was about 600 watts. Specifications Image of an Eagle Disk enclosure Computer Museum article
An operating system is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage and other resources. For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware, although the application code is executed directly by the hardware and makes system calls to an OS function or is interrupted by it. Operating systems are found on many devices that contain a computer – from cellular phones and video game consoles to web servers and supercomputers; the dominant desktop operating system is Microsoft Windows with a market share of around 82.74%. MacOS by Apple Inc. is in second place, the varieties of Linux are collectively in third place. In the mobile sector, use in 2017 is up to 70% of Google's Android and according to third quarter 2016 data, Android on smartphones is dominant with 87.5 percent and a growth rate 10.3 percent per year, followed by Apple's iOS with 12.1 percent and a per year decrease in market share of 5.2 percent, while other operating systems amount to just 0.3 percent.
Linux distributions are dominant in supercomputing sectors. Other specialized classes of operating systems, such as embedded and real-time systems, exist for many applications. A single-tasking system can only run one program at a time, while a multi-tasking operating system allows more than one program to be running in concurrency; this is achieved by time-sharing, where the available processor time is divided between multiple processes. These processes are each interrupted in time slices by a task-scheduling subsystem of the operating system. Multi-tasking may be characterized in co-operative types. In preemptive multitasking, the operating system slices the CPU time and dedicates a slot to each of the programs. Unix-like operating systems, such as Solaris and Linux—as well as non-Unix-like, such as AmigaOS—support preemptive multitasking. Cooperative multitasking is achieved by relying on each process to provide time to the other processes in a defined manner. 16-bit versions of Microsoft Windows used cooperative multi-tasking.
32-bit versions of both Windows NT and Win9x, used preemptive multi-tasking. Single-user operating systems have no facilities to distinguish users, but may allow multiple programs to run in tandem. A multi-user operating system extends the basic concept of multi-tasking with facilities that identify processes and resources, such as disk space, belonging to multiple users, the system permits multiple users to interact with the system at the same time. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage and other resources to multiple users. A distributed operating system manages a group of distinct computers and makes them appear to be a single computer; the development of networked computers that could be linked and communicate with each other gave rise to distributed computing. Distributed computations are carried out on more than one machine; when computers in a group work in cooperation, they form a distributed system.
In an OS, distributed and cloud computing context, templating refers to creating a single virtual machine image as a guest operating system saving it as a tool for multiple running virtual machines. The technique is used both in virtualization and cloud computing management, is common in large server warehouses. Embedded operating systems are designed to be used in embedded computer systems, they are designed to operate on small machines like PDAs with less autonomy. They are able to operate with a limited number of resources, they are compact and efficient by design. Windows CE and Minix 3 are some examples of embedded operating systems. A real-time operating system is an operating system that guarantees to process events or data by a specific moment in time. A real-time operating system may be single- or multi-tasking, but when multitasking, it uses specialized scheduling algorithms so that a deterministic nature of behavior is achieved. An event-driven system switches between tasks based on their priorities or external events while time-sharing operating systems switch tasks based on clock interrupts.
A library operating system is one in which the services that a typical operating system provides, such as networking, are provided in the form of libraries and composed with the application and configuration code to construct a unikernel: a specialized, single address space, machine image that can be deployed to cloud or embedded environments. Early computers were built to perform a series of single tasks, like a calculator. Basic operating system features were developed in the 1950s, such as resident monitor functions that could automatically run different programs in succession to speed up processing. Operating systems did not exist in their more complex forms until the early 1960s. Hardware features were added, that enabled use of runtime libraries and parallel processing; when personal computers became popular in the 1980s, operating systems were made for them similar in concept to those used on larger computers. In the 1940s, the earliest electronic digital systems had no operating systems.
Electronic systems of this time were programmed on rows of mechanical switches or by jumper wires on plug boards. These were special-purpose systems that, for example, generated ballistics tables for the military or controlled the pri
The Fujitsu iPAD is a lightweight handheld device, introduced by Fujitsu, in 2002. It runs Microsoft's CE. NET operating system, it supports 802.11b wireless LAN to connect wirelessly with other company infrastructure. The device can support inventory management as well as credit card payments. In January 2010, when Apple announced the Apple iPad, there was a naming controversy between the two devices. To settle the trademark infringement allegation, Apple purchased the trademark rights from Fujitsu; some trademark analysts estimate that Apple paid Fujitsu over US$4 million in exchange for the March 17, 2010 assignment of Fujitsu's iPad trademark rights to Apple
PRIMERGY is Fujitsu's brand name for x86-architecture designed servers. The brand name "PRIMERGY" incorporates a complete family of servers ranging from single-socket over dual-socket to quad-socket systems. Eight- and more socket systems are branded differently with "PRIMEQUEST" whereas servers of Fujitsu in the UNIX/Mainframe world known as SPARC systems, are named "Fujitsu M10" and mainframes "BS2000". PRIMERGY exists since 20 years. Back in 1994, this brand name was used by Siemens Nixdorf Computers. Due to certain acquisitions and takeovers, PRIMERGY survived the time of the joint-venture between Fujitsu and Siemens, Fujitsu Siemens Computers until today. Fujitsu Server PRIMERGY are available in different form factors and height units. All PRIMERGY servers follow a dedicated naming scheme. First, it delivers information about the form factor of the system, secondly the number of sockets is given, thirdly, it incorporates the used processor family, a number for the feature-set of the system and lastly, the appendix gives insight about the system generation according to the Intel Xeon processor family generation development.
The abbreviation TX stands for tower servers. The current portfolio of PRIMERGY TX consists of the following: TX1310 M1 TX1320 M2 TX1330 M2 TX150 S8 TX2540 M1 TX2560 M2 The abbreviation RX stands for rack servers; the current portfolio of PRIMERGY RX consists of the following: RX1330 M2 RX2510 M2 RX2520 M1 RX2530 M2 RX2540 M2 RX2560 M2 RX4770 M2 The abbreviation BX stands for blade servers. The current portfolio of PRIMERGY BX consists of the following: Blade Chassis BX400 S1 BX600 S1 BX600 S2 BX600 S3 BX900 S2Server Blades BX2560 M2 BX2580 M2Storage Blades SX910 S1 SX940 S1 SX960 S1 SX980 S2 The abbreviation CX stands for scale-out or cloud Servers; the current portfolio of PRIMERGY CX consists of the following:Chassis CX400 M1 CX400 S2 CX420 S1Server Nodes CX2550 M2 CX2570 M2 CX250 S2 CX270 S2 CX272 S1 Some features in PRIMERGY servers are available in all systems. Cool-safe Advanced Thermal Design is Fujitsu's brand name for systems that can operate in higher ambient temperatures; the extended temperature range is from 5 °C-40 °C allowing to raising the temperature in a data center and thus saving on cooling costs.
ServerViev Suite is the administration software, used to manage Fujitsu's PRIMERGY and PRIMEQUEST servers or to integrate these servers in enterprise management solutions like Microsoft System Center, VMware vSphere and Nagios Core. To monitor other vendors' systems in ServerView their Management Information Base can be integrated. PRIMEQUEST is the brand-name for business- and mission-critical servers. FUJITSU Server PRIMEQUEST is an x86 architecture designed server, but with extended RAS-features. FUJITSU Integrated System PRIMEFLEX is Fujitsu's brand name for solutions, addressing different markets and customers. Many of the PRIMEFLEX solutions incorporate PRIMERGY server systems. PRIMEFLEX is a combination of hardware and service that are "pre-defined, pre-integrated and pre-tested". List of computer manufacturers List of Fujitsu products IPMI x86 Server Intel® Xeon® processor family http://www.fujitsu.com/fts/products/computing/servers/primergy/ http://www.fujitsu.com/global/about/corporate/history/ http://www.computerwoche.de/a/die-geschichte-von-fujitsu,2489910 White Paper: Integration of HP Servers into ServerView® Operations Manager
Fujitsu Ltd. is a Japanese multinational information technology equipment and services company headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. In 2015, it was the world's fourth-largest IT services provider measured by IT services revenue. Fortune named Fujitsu as a Global 500 company. Fujitsu chiefly makes computing products, but the company and its subsidiaries offer a diversity of products and services in the areas of personal computing, enterprise computing, including x86, SPARC and mainframe server products, as well as storage products, telecommunications, advanced microelectronics, air conditioning, it has 140,000 employees and its products and services are available in over 100 countries. Fujitsu is listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the Nikkei 225 and TOPIX indices. Fujitsu is the second oldest IT company after IBM and before Hewlett Packard, established on June 20, 1935, under the name Fuji Telecommunications Equipment Manufacturing, as a spin-off of the Fuji Electric Company, itself a joint venture between the Furukawa Electric Company and the German conglomerate Siemens, founded in 1923.
Despite its connections to the Furukawa zaibatsu, Fujitsu escaped the Allied occupation of Japan after the Second World War unscathed. In 1954, Fujitsu manufactured Japan's first computer, the FACOM 100 mainframe, in 1961 launched its second generation computers the FACOM 222 mainframe; the 1968 FACOM230 "5" Series marked the beginning of its third generation computers. Fujitsu offered mainframe computers from 1955 until at least 2002 Fujitsu's computer products have included minicomputers, small business computers and personal computers. In 1955, Fujitsu founded Kawasaki Frontale as a company football club. In 1967, the company's name was changed to the contraction Fujitsū. Since 1985, the company fields a company American football team, the Fujitsu Frontiers, who play in the corporate X-League, have appeared in 7 Japan X Bowls, winning two, winning two Rice Bowls. In 1971, Fujitsu signed an OEM agreement with the Canadian company Consolidated Computers Limited to distribute CCL's data entry product, Key-Edit.
Fujitsu joined both ICL who earlier began marketing Key-Edit in the British Commonwealth of countries as well as in both western and eastern Europe. Mers Kutt, inventor of Key-Edit and founder of CCL, was the common thread that led to Fujitsu’s association with ICL and Gene Amdahl. In 1986, Fujitsu and The Queen's University of Belfast business incubation unit established a joint venture called Kainos, a held software company based in Belfast, Northern Ireland. In 1990, Fujitsu acquired 80% of the UK-based computer company International Computers Limited for $1.29 billion. In September 1990, Fujitsu announced the launch of a new series of mainframe computers which were at that time the fastest in the world. In July 1991, Fujitsu acquired more than half of the Russian company KME-CS. In 1992, Fujitsu introduced the world's first 21-inch full-color plasma display, it was a hybrid, based upon the plasma display created at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and NHK STRL, achieving superior brightness.
In 1993, Fujitsu formed a flash memory manufacturing joint venture with Spansion. As part of the transaction, AMD contributed its flash memory group, Fab 25 in Texas, its R&D facilities and assembly plants in Thailand and China. From February 1989 until mid-1997, Fujitsu built the FM Towns PC variant, it started as a proprietary PC variant intended for multimedia applications and computer games, but became more compatible with regular PCs. In 1993, the FM Towns Marty was released. Fujitsu agreed to acquire the 58 percent of Amdahl Corporation that it did not own for around $850 million in July 1997. In April 1997, the company acquired a 30 percent stake in GLOVIA International, Inc. an El Segundo, Calif. manufacturing ERP software provider whose software it had begun integrating into its electronics plants starting in 1994. In June 1999 Fujitsu's historical connection with Siemens was revived, when the two companies agreed to merge their European computer operations into a new 50:50 joint venture called Fujitsu Siemens Computers, which became the world's fifth-largest computer manufacturing company.
In April 2000, Fujitsu acquired the remaining 70% of GLOVIA International. In April 2002 ICL re-branded itself as Fujitsu. On March 2, 2004, Fujitsu Computer Products of America lost a class action lawsuit over hard disk drives with defective chips and firmware. In October 2004, Fujitsu acquired the Australian subsidiary of Atos Origin, a systems implementation company with around 140 employees which specialized in SAP. In August 2007, Fujitsu signed a £500 million, 10-year deal with Reuters Group under which Reuters outsourced the majority of its internal IT department to Fujitsu; as part of the agreement around 300 Reuters staff and 200 contractors transferred to Fujitsu. In October 2007, Fujitsu announced that it would be establishing an offshore development centre in Noida, India with a capacity to house 1,200 employees, in an investment of US$10 million. In October 2007, Fujitsu's Australia and New Ze
Amdahl Corporation was an information technology company which specialized in IBM mainframe-compatible computer products, some of which were regarded as supercomputers competing with those from Cray Research. Founded in 1970 by Gene Amdahl, a former IBM computer engineer best known as chief architect of System/360, it has been a wholly owned subsidiary of Fujitsu since 1997; the company is located in California. From its first machine in 1975, Amdahl's business was to provide mainframe computers that were plug-compatible with contemporary IBM mainframes, but offering higher reliability, running somewhat faster, costing somewhat less, they had additional practical advantages as well, in terms of size, power requirements, or being air-cooled instead of requiring a chilled water supply. This offered a price/performance ratio superior to the IBM lineup, made Amdahl one of the few real competitors to "Big Blue" in the high-margin computer market segment; the company won about 8% of the mainframe business worldwide, but was a market leader in some regions, most notably in the Carolinas.
Proverbially, savvy IBM customers liked to have Amdahl coffee mugs visible in their offices when IBM salespeople came to visit. As the mainframe market began to change in the 1980s, Amdahl was diversified, becoming a major supplier of UNIX and open systems software and servers, data storage subsystems, data communications products, application development software, a variety of educational and consulting services. Amdahl launched its first product in 1975, the Amdahl 470/6, which competed directly against high-end models in IBM's then-current System/370 family; when IBM announced the introduction of Dynamic Address Translation, Amdahl announced the 470V/6 and dropped the 470/6. At the time of its introduction, the 470V/6 was less expensive but still faster than IBM's comparable offerings; the first two 470V/6 machines were delivered to the University of Michigan. For the next quarter century Amdahl and IBM competed aggressively against one another in the high-end mainframe market. At its peak, Amdahl had a 24% market share.
Amdahl owed some of its success to antitrust settlements between IBM and the U. S. Department of Justice, which ensured that Amdahl's customers could license IBM's mainframe software under reasonable terms. Gene Amdahl was committed to expanding the capabilities of the uniprocessor mainframe during the late 1970s and early 1980s. Amdahl engineers, working with Fujitsu circuit designers, developed unique, air-cooled chips which were based on high-speed emitter-coupled logic circuit macros; these chips were packaged in a chip package with a heat-dissipating cooling attachment mounted directly on the top of the chip. This patented technology allowed the Amdahl mainframes of this era to be air-cooled, unlike IBM systems that required chilled water and its supporting infrastructure. In the 470 systems, the chips were mounted in a 6-by-7 array on multi-layer cards, which were mounted in vertical columns; the cards had eight connectors that attached the micro-coaxial cables that interconnected the system components.
A conventional backplane was not used in the central processing units. The card columns held at least three cards per side; each column had two large "Tarzan" fans to move the considerable amount of air needed to cool the chips. Additional models of Amdahl uniprocessor systems included / 7 and / 8 systems; the 470V/8, first shipped in 1980, incorporated high speed 64 KB cache memories to improve performance, the first real hardware-based virtualization. Amdahl pioneered a variable-speed feature on the V5 and V7 systems that allowed the customer to run the CPUs at the higher level of performance of the V6 and V8 systems when desired; the customer was charged by the number of hours used. Some at Amdahl thought this feature would anger customers, but it became quite popular as customer management could now control expenses while still having greater performance available when necessary. In the 580 systems, the chips were mounted in an 11-by-11 array on multi-layer boards called Multi-Chip Carriers that were positioned in high-airflow for cooling.
The MCCs were mounted horizontally in a large rectangular frame. The MCCs slid into a complex physical connection system; the processor "side panels" interconnected the system, providing clock propagation delays that maintained race-free synchronous operation at high clock frequencies. This processor box was cooled by high-speed fans generating horizontal air flow across the MCCs. Gene Amdahl left the company. With Gene Amdahl's departure, increasing influence from Fujitsu, Amdahl entered the large-scale multiprocessor market in the mid-1980s with the 5870 and 5880 models. In the 1980s, Amdahl entered the IBM-compatible peripherals business in front-end processors and storage products, shipping its first 4705 communications controller in August 1980 and its first 6000 DASD in August 1982; these products were successful for a number of years with the support of Jack Lewis, the former CEO of Amdahl. The reliance upon a limited product line, restricted to containment within the complex business of mainframes and their valuable peripherals, constrained the company's hardware business when market forces shifted to x86-based processors.
This had been foreseen, leading to an increasing emphasis on software and consu