Imatra is a town and municipality in eastern Finland. Imatra is dominated by the Vuoksi River and the border with Russia. On the other side of the border, 7 kilometres away from the centre of Imatra, lies the Russian town of Svetogorsk. St Petersburg is situated 210 km to the southeast, Finland's capital Helsinki is 230 km away and Lappeenranta, the nearest Finnish town, is 37 km away. Imatra belongs to the region of South Karelia; the main employers are pulp and paper manufacturer Stora Enso Oyj, the Town of Imatra, engineering steel manufacturer Ovako Bar Oy Ab, the Finnish Border Guard. As of October 2003, the total number of employees was 12,423; as of December 2004, 1,868 employees were employed by the Town of Imatra. As of 24 April 2017, the mayor of Imatra is Rami Hasu. An Art Nouveau or Jugend style castle known as Imatran Valtionhotelli, was built near the rapids in 1903 as a hotel for tourists from the Russian Imperial capital Saint Petersburg. During the Continuation War, Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim met with Adolf Hitler in secrecy near the town for the former's 75th birthday.
Imatra was founded in 1948 on the territory of three municipalities – Jääski and Joutseno. Finland ceded 11% of its territory to the Soviet Union after the Winter War. Jääski lost 85% of its territory and it was decided that a new municipality, should be established on the remaining 15% of Jääski and some areas of Ruokolahti and Joutseno; this is why the Imatra coat of arms has three flashes – in honour of those previous municipalities that granted areas to it. It gained its municipal charter in 1971. PaSa Bandy is a bandy club in Imatra. Imatra is the birthplace of National Hockey League players Jussi Petteri Nokelainen. In motorsport history, Imatra is best known for its road races from 1963 to 1986. From 1962 to 1982 it was the home of the Finnish motorcycle Grand Prix. Racing on the Imatra road circuit ended after fatal accident during the 1986 European Championship event. Racing resumed in 2016 as an International Road Racing Championship event. Imatra is twinned with: Ludvika, Sweden Salzgitter, Germany Zvolen, Slovakia Tikhvin, Russia Szigetvár, Hungary Narva-Jõesuu, Estonia Imatra shooting Media related to Imatra at Wikimedia Commons Town of Imatra – Official site Imatra travel guide from Wikivoyage goSaimaa.com – Travel information about Imatra
Under the Whyte notation for the classification of steam locomotives, 0-6-0 represents the wheel arrangement of no leading wheels, six powered and coupled driving wheels on three axles and no trailing wheels. This was the most common wheel arrangement used on both tender and tank locomotives in versions with both inside and outside cylinders. In the United Kingdom, the Whyte notation of wheel arrangement was often used for the classification of electric and diesel-electric locomotives with side-rod coupled driving wheels. Under the UIC classification, popular in Europe, this wheel arrangement is written as C if the wheels are coupled with rods or gears, or Co if they are independently driven, the latter being electric and diesel-electric locomotives; the 0-6-0 configuration was the most used wheel arrangement for both tender and tank steam locomotives. The type was widely used for diesel switchers; because they lack leading and trailing wheels, locomotives of this type have all their weight pressing down on their driving wheels and have a high tractive effort and factor of adhesion, making them comparatively strong engines for their size and fuel consumption.
On the other hand, the lack of unpowered leading wheels have the result that 0-6-0 locomotives are less stable at speed. They are therefore used on trains where high speed is unnecessary. Since 0-6-0 tender engines can pull heavy trains, albeit the type was used to pull short and medium distance freight trains such as pickup goods trains along both main and branch lines; the tank engine versions were used as switching locomotives since the smaller 0-4-0 types were not large enough to be versatile in this job. 0-8-0 and larger switching locomotives, on the other hand, were too big to be economical or usable on built railways such as dockyards and goods yards the sorts of places where switching locomotives were most needed. The earliest 0-6-0 locomotives had outside cylinders, as these were simpler to construct and maintain. However, once designers began to overcome the problem of the breakage of the crank axles, inside cylinder versions were found to be more stable. Thereafter this pattern was adopted in the United Kingdom, although outside cylinder versions were widely used.
Tank engine versions of the type began to be built in quantity in the mid-1850s and had become common by the mid-1860s. 0-6-0 locomotives were amongst the first types to be used. The earliest recorded example was the Royal George, built by Timothy Hackworth for the Stockton and Darlington Railway in 1827. Other early examples included the Vulcan, the first inside-cylinder type, built by Charles Tayleur and Company in 1835 for the Leicester and Swannington Railway, Hector, a Long Boiler locomotive, built by Kitson and Company in 1845 for the York and North Midland Railway. Derwent, a two-tender locomotive built in 1845 by William and Alfred Kitching for the Stockton and Darlington Railway, is preserved at Darlington Railway Centre and Museum. For a steam tank locomotive, the suffix indicates the type of tank or tanks: 0-6-0T - side tanks 0-6-0ST - saddle tank 0-6-0PT - pannier tanks 0-6-0WT - well tankOther steam locomotive suffixes include 0-6-0VB - vertical boiler 0-6-0F - fireless locomotive 0-6-0G - geared steam locomotiveFor a diesel locomotive, the suffix indicates the transmission type: 0-6-0DM - mechanical transmission 0-6-0DH - hydraulic transmission 0-6-0DE - electric transmission All the major continental European railways used 0-6-0s of one sort or another, though not in the proportions used in the United Kingdom.
As in the United States, European 0-6-0 locomotives were restricted to switching and station pilot duties, though they were widely used on short branch lines to haul passenger and freight trains. On most branch lines, though and more powerful tank engines tended to be favoured. In New South Wales, the Z19 class was a tender type with this wheel arrangement, as was the Victorian Railways Y class; the Dorrigo Railway Museum collection includes seven Locomotives of the 0-6-0 wheel arrangement, including two Z19 class, three 0-6-0 saddle tanks and two 0-6-0 side tanks. Tank locomotives used by Finland were the VR Class Vr1 and VR Class Vr4; the VR Class Vr1s were numbered 530 to 544, 656 to 670 and 787 to 799. They had outside cylinders and were operational from 1913 to 1975. Built by Tampella and Hanomag, they were nicknamed Chicken. Number 669 is preserved at the Finnish Railway Museum; the Vr4s were a class of only four locomotives, numbered 1400 to 1423 built as 0-6-0s by Vulcan Iron Works, United States, but modified to 0-6-2s in 1951-1955, re-classified as Vr5.
Finland’s tender locomotives were the classes C1, C2, C3, C4, C5 and C6. The Finnish Steam Locomotive Class C1s were a class of ten locomotives numbered 21 to 30, they were operational from 1869 to 1926. They were nicknamed Bristollari. Number 21, preserved at the Finnish Railway Museum, is the second oldest preserved locomotive in Finland; the eighteen Class C2s were numbered 31 to 43 and 48 to 52. They were nicknamed Bristollari; the C3 was a class of only two locomotives, numbered 74 and 75. The thirteen Class C4s were numbered 62 and 78 to 89; the fourteen Finnish Steam Locomotive Class C5s were numbered 101 to 114. They were operational from 1881 to 1930, they were nicknamed Bliksti. No 110 is preserved at the Finnish Railway Museum; the C6 was a solitary class of one locomotive, numbered 100. In New Zealand the 0-6-0 design was restricted to tank engines; the Hunslet-built M class of 1874 and Y class of 1923 provided 7 examples
Oy Tampella Ab was a Finnish heavy industry manufacturer, a maker of paper machines, military weaponry, as well as wood-based products such as packaging. The company was based in the city of Tampere; until 1963 the company was called Tampereen Pellava- ja Rauta-Teollisuus Osake-Yhtiö. In Swedish it was called Tammerfors Linne Jern-Manufakt. A. B.. In 1993 the company’s forest and packaging business was bought by Enso-Gutzeit Oy. Tampereen Pellava- ja Rautateollisuus Oy was a company based on the merger in 1861 of two factories - a linen mill and foundry - situated by the Tammerkoski rapids. After a modest start it grew to become an institution employing thousands of people in the centre of Tampere alone, more in its other units. In the 1950s the company's name was shortened to Tampella; the company went into decline during the 1980s and went bankrupt in 1990. This was at a time just before the economic recession of the early 1990s. After bankruptcy the company's operations were split and sold to various international, owners.
Among the company's products was the manufacture of linen: in times this was not an important product, but the company continued it for historic reasons. However, its main concern was steel products; these included grave crosses, mining drills, paper machines, steam boilers and turbines. The company produced cardboard and packaging at its Inkeroinen mill; the industrial activity, under the new ownership, in the centre of Tampere ceased and the machines stopped operating in 2000. Soon after this many of the buildings in the industrial complex have been taken into new uses as museums, cultural centres, artist's workshops etc. though some had been demolished. Other buildings were converted to new commercial uses, but many were demolished to make way for blocks of flats. Together with an Israeli cooperative organisation Solel Boneh, Tampella founded the Israeli defence contractor Soltam, in 1950. 122K/60, 122 mm field cannon, prototype 122K/57, 15 pieces of 122K/60 manufactured. The Israeli Soltam company became interested and the 152HX-K60 was developed 152HX-K60 155HX, 24 November 1971, 2 pieces, at least one of them was delivered to Soltam, Israel 155KAN68, manufactured for Soltam to Israel, 2 lots x 12 pieces each in 1970 - 1975, 12 pieces to Singapore, sub-type Pore M-68, a Soltam made 155KAN68 Philippines, Chile, South Africa, several hundreds.
M-68 had been the main cannon for the Israeli Defence Forces one 155KAN68 delivered to the Soviet union, barrel 10 February 1977, suspenser 11 March 1977 and launcher 9 February 1978 155HZ 155K74 developed from 155KAN68 sub-type Pore-13 155 K 83, prototype 155K74-83 155GH45T 155GH45 PAKISTAN, testing 1996-1997 in Pakistan 155K93 155HG52APU 155 K 98 152/50 T, a modernized version of 152 mm 45 caliber Pattern 1892 130 53 TK 47 Krh/35 60 Krh/34 81 Krh/34 81 Krh/38 81 Krh/58P 81 Krh/71Y 120 Krh/40 120 Krh/62A-H 120 Krh/85 160 Krh/58C 300 Krh/42 Finnish Railway Museum VR Group List of Finnish locomotives Jokioinen Museum Railway List of railway museums Worldwide Heritage railways List of heritage railways Restored trains Hanko–Hyvinkää railway History of rail transport in Finland VR Class Pr1 VR Class Hr1 VR Class Tk3 VR Class Hr11 Notes
Salzgitter is an independent city in southeast Lower Saxony, located between Hildesheim and Braunschweig. Together with Wolfsburg and Braunschweig, Salzgitter is one of the seven Oberzentren of Lower Saxony. With 101,079 inhabitants and 223.92 square kilometres, its area is the largest in Lower Saxony and one of the largest in Germany. Salzgitter originated as a conglomeration of several small towns and villages, is today made up of 31 boroughs, which are compact conurbations with wide stretches of open country between them; the main shopping street of the young city is in the borough of Lebenstedt, the central business district is in the borough of Salzgitter-Bad. The city is connected to the Elbe Lateral Canal by a distributary; the nearest metropolises are Braunschweig, about 23 kilometres to the northeast, Hanover, about 51 km to the northwest. The population of the City of Salzgitter has exceeded 100,000 inhabitants since its foundation in 1942, when it was still called Watenstedt-Salzgitter.
Beside Wolfsburg and Eisenhüttenstadt, Salzgitter is therefore one of the few cities in Germany founded during the 20th century. Until 31 March 1942, "Salzgitter" was the name of a town. From until 1951, "Salzgitter" was the name of a borough of the city Watenstedt-Salzgitter that existed at the time. In 1951, the borough Salzgitter was renamed Salzgitter-Bad. Salzgitter is located in a bride dell coated with loess, between the Oderwald Forest and the Salzgitter-Höhenzug; the city stretches up to 24 km from north to up to 19 km from east to west. The highest point is the hill Hamberg, located northwest of Salzgitter-Bad; the following cities and municipalities, listed clockwise beginning in the northeast, border on the city of Salzgitter. Braunschweig in the Landkreis Wolfenbüttel: City of Wolfenbüttel, Cramme, Flöthe, Gielde in the Landkreis Goslar: Liebenburg, Samtgemeinde Lutter am Barenberge in the Landkreis Wolfenbüttel: Sehlde, Elbe, Burgdorf bei Salzgitter in the Landkreis Hildesheim: Söhlde in the Landkreis Peine: Lengede, Vechelde The area of the City of Salzgitter consists of 31 boroughs: Bad, Beddingen, Bleckenstedt, Calbecht, Drütte, Engerode, Flachstöckheim, Gitter, Groß Mahner, Heerte, Immendorf, Lesse, Lobmachtersen, Osterlinde, Ringelheim, Sauingen, Thiede, Üfingen and Watenstedt.
These 31 boroughs are combined to 7 towns. Each town has an elected town council; the towns with their boroughs are: Town North: Lebenstedt, Bruchmachtersen, Engelnstedt Town Northeast: Thiede, Beddingen, Üfingen, Sauingen Town Northwest: Lichtenberg, Reppner, Lesse Town East: Hallendorf, Bleckenstedt, Drütte, Watenstedt Town South: Bad, Groß Mahner, Hohenrode Town Southeast: Flachstöckheim, Beinum, Ohlendorf Town West: Gebhardshagen, Engerode, Heerte Salzgitter originated in the beginning of the 14th century around salt springs near the village Verpstedt. The name was derived from the neighbouring village Gitter as "up dem solte to Gytere", which means "salt near Gitter". After 200 years of salt production at various springs, the peasants in the area, nowadays Salzgitter were chartered around 1350, but lost municipal law again when being transferred to the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg in the beginning of the 16th century. Salzgitter belonged to the diocese of Hildesheim; when the diocese was transferred to Prussia in 1803, the municipal law was reconfirmed, but taken away once more in 1815, when Salzgitter became part of the Kingdom of Hanover.
In 1830, a brine bath was established in Salzgitter. After the Kingdom of Hanover was transferred to Prussia in 1866, Salzgitter became a Prussian municipality, chartered again in 1929. Prior to that, the towns Vorsalz and Liebenhall had been incorporated. Salzgitter now belonged to the Landkreis of Goslar and included, apart from Salzgitter itself some small settlements like Gittertor, nowadays part of Salzgitter-Bad. In 1936, Kniestedt was incorporated. Due to the large iron ore body in Salzgitter, mentioned first in 1310, the National Socialists founded the "Reichswerke Hermann Göring" for ore mining and iron production in 1937. In order to facilitate an unobstructed development of the smelting works, a unique administration structure in the whole area was conceived. Therefore, it was decreed in the Order about the area settlement around the Hermann-Göring-Werke Salzgitter, effective from 1 April 1942, to form a unified city district. Towards this aim, the
Pasila is a part of Helsinki, both a central-northern neighbourhood and district, bordering the areas of Alppila to the south, Central Park to the west, Vallila to the east. The eastern and western parts of Pasila are separated by a large railroad classification yard, which, as Central Pasila, is under development planning by the city administration; the major sports and music venue Hartwall Arena is located at the junction of two main railway lines. Eastern Pasila is a commercially active district with its own Pasila railway station, a Holiday Inn hotel and the Helsinki Fair Centre, it is home to over 3,500 people. Most of the buildings in Eastern Pasila were built in the 1970s and are made of prefabricated concrete elements. Educational facilities in the area include the Helsinki Business College and Haaga–Helia University of Applied Sciences. Western Pasila was built during the 1980s, it is a residential area with 4,500 inhabitants. The apartment buildings in Western Pasila are skinned with red bricks.
The Finnish national broadcasting company Yle as well as the commercial MTV3 have their main premises in the northern end of the area. Helsinkis main Police station is located in Western Pasila. In the ranking of the best places where to live in Helsinki, Western Pasila is ranked 74th, Eastern Pasila is ranked 92nd, out of 94 different parts of Helsinki. Before the Pasila-suburb was built, there were old wooden houses in the whole Pasila area and the area was called Wooden Pasila. Today only few of the old wooden houses still exist. Media related to Pasila at Wikimedia Commons
Finnish Railway Museum
The Finnish Railway Museum is located in Hyvinkää, Finland. It was located in Helsinki; the museum was moved to Hyvinkää in 1974. The museum is on the original yard site of the Hanko -- Hyvinkää railway. In addition to the station building, there is a roundhouse and several other preserved buildings from the 1870s. Unique objects are including the only surviving imperial train of the Russian Emperor; the locomotives include the British Neilson and Company locomotive dating 1869, a British Beyer Peacock locomotive dating from 1868, a 2-10-0 steam locomotive Tr2 1319 ALCO No 75214 built 1947, one of 20 Russian locomotive class Ye sold to Finland. The museum has a live steam backyard railroad track, where train rides are offered to the public during special run days in the summer months. VR Group History of rail transport in Finland List of Finnish locomotives List of railway museums Worldwide Heritage railways List of heritage railways Restored trains Jokioinen Museum Railway Hanko–Hyvinkää railway VR Class Pr1 VR Class Hr1 VR Class Tk3 VR Class Hr11 Finnish Railway Museum Official website Steam Locomotives in Finland Including the Finnish Railway Museum Photographs of Finnish Steam Locomotives Youtube video of the Museum miniature railway in use Finnish website with locomotive technical data Nykarleby Jernväg Museum Railway Veturimuseo at Toijala
VR Class Pr1
VR Class Pr1 was a tank steam locomotive for local passenger services of Finnish railways. In the 1920s VR was concerned about the low power and speed of their existing class Vk1-3 class locomotives that were used in local services on the Helsinki commuter rail services. A decision was reached to order a new and powerful, by standards of that time, local traffic locomotive from Hanomag with the intention of licence manufacture of more units by Finnish locomotive works. At the same time a shunting locomotive based on a similar design, Vr3, was ordered; the classes share many parts such as frames and space for coal, but wheel arrangement and top speed are different because of their different roles. The locomotive was of tank design with small coal bunker in the rear, which limited operational range; the first batch of six locomotives was delivered in 1924 by Hanomag. Examples were manufactured in Finland with the last being delivered in 1926. Locomotives were placed in Helsinki local services after delivery.
They were designed for this. Since Helsinki was and is a dead-end terminus with no turntables, Pr1's were designed so that they could be run in both directions without turning the locomotive. Both ends had normal lights; the speed limit was 80 km/h in both directions. Pr1's were run with front / boiler end pointing at Helsinki central railway station. Pr1's pulled local wooden-carriage passenger trains, but they performed shunting duties at Helsinki harbours and pulled local freight; the Pr1 was considered to have a high tractive effort and it had good acceleration. Pr1's were among the rare locomotive types in Finland which were for some time oil-burning at the end of 1940's. Otherwise these locomotives were wood-burners; the era of Pr1's in passenger services came to an end in the 1960s with dieselization. The last passenger service run was in 1968; the locomotives were relegated to secondary freight duties, like gravel trains and some were moved to depots other than from Pasila. All of the locomotives were withdrawn by 1972.
All were scrapped except one. Remaining number 776 was repaired for 125th anniversary of VR in 1987, it was used in heritage traffic. The boiler time expired in late 1990s. 776 is now on display at Finnish Railway Museum. Finnish Railway Museum Steam Locomotives in Finland Including the Finnish Railway Museum