Edmund Scientific Corporation
Edmund Scientific Corporation was a company based in Barrington, New Jersey that specialized in supplying surplus optics and other items via its mail order catalog and Factory Store. In 1942, amateur photographer Norman W. Edmund found it hard to find lenses; this led him to advertise lenses for sale in photography magazines. It was so successful he founded "'Edmund Salvage Corporation'", it soon changed its name to Edmund Scientific and made its name with ads in publications like Scientific American as a supplier of chipped lenses, war-surplus optics, low cost scientific gadgetry. Its advertisements caught the attention of hobbyists, amateur astronomers, high school students, cash-strapped researchers. Edmund Scientific was part of the post-World War II "war surplus" phenomenon, when the U. S. government sold off large quantities of materials. "Army and Navy Stores" were a national phenomenon and sold military-surplus clothing. Surplus electronics found an outlet in dozens of shops, in New York City's "Radio Row" and elsewhere.
A few developed national mail-order businesses. Edmund was, the only known supplier of surplus optics; the core of Edmund's offerings was surplus lenses. These were single-element lenses, shipped in 2.5-by-4.25-inch coin envelopes, with the approximate diameter and focal length stenciled on them. Reflecting their salvage and surplus origins, available diameters and focal lengths did not fall into regular progressions. Edmund published crudely printed, stapled "books" describing experiments that could be performed with their lenses, plans for building telescopes and other optical equipment. Edmund sold lens "kits"; the 10-lens kit cost less than US$10 and included a booklet of plans for instruments which could be built with them. Unlike Heathkits, which were complete kits requiring only soldering and assembly, Edmund's "kits" consisted of only the lenses. A great deal of skill and effort would have been needed to fashion the telescopes, microscopes, or opaque projectors described. With single-element lenses, the quality of the resulting optics was not high.
Edmund sold high-quality, black cardboard tubes needed for many of the projects. Following Sputnik, Edmund was able to capitalize on a growing national interest in science and astronomy, they expanded their business into a full line of telescopes and telescope kits as well as equipment and supplies for other scientific fields such as physics, chemistry, microscopy and meteorology. They continued to grow as a supplier to teachers and schools with demonstration devices and kits which covered most fields of science. Edmund's catalog became a source for optical and mechanical parts essential to amateur telescope making, including hard-to-find items such as optical glass blanks, pitch-lap ingredients, a series of grit abrasives for grinding and polishing astronomical objective mirrors by hand. A compilation of Edmund's earlier pamphlets published as the book "All About Telescopes" offered many designs for telescopes of all sizes and configurations, which directed the builder to the relative Edmund catalog part numbers needed for each design.
The "Factory Store" in Barrington, New Jersey had a number of bins and shelves full of rare surplus items which never made it into the catalogs. Edmund's catered to the 1960s generation by expanding and highlighting their line of projectors, color wheels, black lights and other optical devices which could be used by rock bands and in psychedelic light shows. Other items catering to the counterculture were added to the catalog covering the fields of Biofeedback, ESP, Kirlian photography, Pyramid power, alternative energy. In 1971, in the Whole Earth Catalog of items "relevant to independent education", Stewart Brand noted: "Edmund is the best source we know of for low-cost scientific gadgetry. Many of the items we found independently... turned up in the Edmund catalog, so we were obliged to recommend that in this area we've been precluded." Some sources claim that certain of the original polyhedral dice used in the Dungeons & Dragons role-playing game system were obtained from Edmund Scientific.
In the 1970s, as the viability of Edmund's business model waned, Norman Edmund's son Robert Edmund refashioned the business into two new ones, Edmund Scientifics and Edmund Optics. Edmund Scientifics marketed to consumers and specialized in science-themed toys, vaguely high-tech household gadgets, "science gifts." Edmund Optics did not have a public showroom like Edmund Scientifics, although the two organizations shared the same building. The large back room of Edmund Scientifics still sold military surplus from World War II and other wars well into the 1980s and into the mid-1990s; some of the items in the surplus room were from other non-American militaries. None of these items were in the mail-order catalogs, they sold other surplus wares of interest to hobbyists, including specialized motors and other miscellaneous electronics, parts from toys, other household items. In line with their focus on optics, Edmund Scientifics's entrance vestibule housed a pale-blue working World War II Japanese submarine periscope.
Children were drawn to this periscope. Drawing on the periscope's popularity, sometime in the 1970s a hall of mirrors, complete with black lights, was installed toward the rear of the building; the Barrington, New Jersey, store closed in 2001 after Edmund Scientific was acquired by Science Kit and Boreal Laboratories. Beginning in 2000, Edmund Optics offered a variety of experimental grade and stock clearance items via a print catalog and online under a separate business named Anchor Optics
Claremont is a city on the eastern edge of Los Angeles County, United States, 30.3 miles east of downtown Los Angeles. It is in the Pomona Valley, at the foothills of the San Gabriel Mountains, has a population, as of the 2015 United States Census estimate, of 36,283 people. Claremont is known as the home of the Claremont Colleges and other educational institutions, for its tree-lined streets with numerous historic buildings. In July 2007, it was rated by CNN/Money magazine as the fifth best place to live in the United States, was the highest rated place in California on the list, it was named the best suburb in the West by Sunset Magazine in 2016, which described it as a "small city that blends worldly sophistication with small-town appeal." In 2018, Niche rated Claremont as the 17th best place to live in the Los Angeles area out of 658 communities it evaluated, based on crime, cost of living, job opportunities, local amenities. Due to its large number of trees and residents with doctoral degrees, as well as its proximity to the renowned Claremont Colleges, it is sometimes referred to as "The City of Trees and PhDs."The city is residential, with a significant portion of its commercial activity located in "The Village," a popular collection of street-front small stores, art galleries and restaurants adjacent to and west of the Claremont Colleges.
The Village was expanded in 2007, adding a controversial multi-use development that includes a cinema, a boutique hotel, retail space, a parking structure on the site of an old citrus packing plant west of Indian Hill Boulevard. Claremont has been a winner of the National Arbor Day Association's Tree City USA award for 22 consecutive years; when the city incorporated in 1907, local citizens started what has become the city's tree-planting tradition. Claremont is one of the few remaining places in North America with American Elm trees that have not been exposed to Dutch elm disease; the stately trees line Indian Hill Boulevard in the vicinity of the city's Memorial Park. The Claremont Institute, a conservative think tank, is located in nearby Upland, CA; the city hosts several large retirement communities, among them Pilgrim Place, the Claremont Manor and Mt. San Antonio Gardens; the citrus groves and open space which once dominated the northern portion of the city have been replaced by residential developments of large homes.
Construction of Stone Canyon Preserve, one of the final residential tract developments in the north of the city, commenced in 2003 as part of a complicated agreement between Pomona College and the City of Claremont which resulted in the creation of the 1,740-acre Wilderness Park. The foothill area includes the Padua Hills Theatre, a historic site constructed in 1930 and the Claraboya residential area. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 13.35 square miles, of which 13.3 square miles is land and 0.05 square miles is water. Claremont is located at the eastern end of Los Angeles County and borders the cities of Upland and Montclair in San Bernardino County, as well as the cities of Pomona and La Verne in Los Angeles County, it is geographically located in the San Gabriel Valley. Claremont is 24 miles east of Pasadena and 30 miles east of downtown Los Angeles. Claremont has a Mediterranean climate. In the summer months, temperatures can rise above 100 °F. In the autumn months, Claremont can receive gusty winds known as the "Santa Ana Winds", which can bring fire danger to nearby foothills.
In the winter, most of its annual rainfall occurs. Snow is rare but can be viewed in the nearby San Gabriel Mountains. In early summer, Claremont can receive overcast weather due to its strong onshore flow from the ocean known as "May Gray" or "June Gloom"; the 2010 United States Census reported that Claremont had a population of 34,926. The population density was 2,589.7 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Claremont was 24,666 White, 1,651 African American, 172 Native American, 4,564 Asian, 38 Pacific Islander, 2,015 from other races, 1,820 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6,919 persons; the Census reported that 29,802 people lived in households, 4,926 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 198 were institutionalized. There were 11,608 households, out of which 3,576 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 6,305 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 1,223 had a female householder with no husband present, 397 had a male householder with no wife present.
There were 429 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 138 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 2,957 households were made up of individuals and 1,556 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57. There were 7,925 families; the population was spread out with 6,459 people under the age of 18, 6,778 people aged 18 to 24, 6,940 people aged 25 to 44, 8,979 people aged 45 to 64, 5,770 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38.6 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.7 males. There were 12,156 housing units at an average density of 901.3 per square mile, of which 7,700 were owner-occupied, 3,908 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 0.9%. 21
UGI Corporation is an energy distribution company headquartered in King of Prussia, with extensive operations in the United States and Europe. In July 2014 the company disclosed it was acquiring Totalgaz S. A.'s LPG distribution operations in France for €450 million. UGI was incorporated in 1882 as United Gas Improvement Co. In 1903, United Gas Improvement owned the majority of the stock of the Equitable Illuminating Gas Light Company; the latter utility operated the Philadelphia Gas Works at the time. United Gas Improvement formed the United Electric Company of New Jersey in 1899. United Electric consolidated several electric and lighting utilities into a single holding company. New Jersey's Public Service Corporation took over United Electric from UGI in 1907. United Electric was merged into Public Service Electric & Gas. In October 1964, Industrial Gases, Inc. of Pittsburgh filed an antitrust suit in federal district court charging United Gas Improvement with attempting to eliminate competition in sales of bottled propane gas in Pittsburgh.
The Philadelphia Gas Works division of UGI challenged a ruling of the Federal Power Commission. The FPC lowered the maximum price that natural gas producers could charge to sixteen cents per 1,000 cubic feet of gas; this mandate was upheld by the United States Supreme Court in May 1968. In February 1968, the company changed its name to UGI Corporation. Under the UGI Utilities, Inc. UGI serves more than 600,000 natural gas and 60,000 electricity customers across 45 counties in eastern and central Pennsylvania, including customers of UGI Penn Natural Gas and UGI Central Penn Gas. UGI Utilities operates in the urban areas in and around Harrisburg, Reading, Bethlehem, Hazleton, Wilkes-Barre, Lock Haven, Stroudsburg, Huntingdon, Lewisburg and Williamsport. UGI's propane holdings include control of AmeriGas Partners, L. P. NYSE: APU, the largest propane marketer in the United States. UGI owns AvantiGas and Flaga in Europe. UGI markets a variety of energy products and operates premier interstate and intrastate transmission and gas storage assets in the Marcellus Shale producing region through their UGI Energy Services company, based in Wyomissing, Pennsylvania.
The information here is current to May, 2017 Marvin Schlanger has been non-executive Chairman of the Board since January 28, 2016, since the retirement of Lon Greenberg. He was presiding director of the board during Greenberg's term as Executive Chair and non-Executive Chair. John Walsh is President and CEO, succeeding Lon Greenberg on April 1, 2013. UGI Corporation website
Hayes is a suburban area of South East London in the London Borough of Bromley. It is located south of Bromley, 11 miles south east of Charing Cross; the name Hayes is recorded from 1177 as hoese from the Anglo-Saxon meaning "a settlement in open land overgrown with shrubs and rough bushes". It formed an ancient, civil, parish of Kent of around 1,282 acres; the village stood at the junction of Hayes Lane, leading north to Bromley, what is now known as Pickhurst Lane, leading west to West Wickham. The centre of the old village is now called Hayes Street; the village school was here. Parts of the church date back to the thirteenth century; the public house on Hayes Lane, is called "The George". Hayes Street Farm, still shown on modern maps, is to the north of the village centre. Both William Pitt the Elder, 1st Earl of Chatham, William Pitt the Younger lived at Hayes Place; the house was demolished in 1933 and the site redeveloped, but its occupants are remembered in such road names as Chatham and Pittsmead Avenues.
Prior to being demolished, Hayes Place was owned by the Hambro family and a couple of roads bear the family names. Although the parish church of Hayes can trace its history back over 800 years, local villains joined Jack Cade in his rebellion of 1450, the story of Hayes became significant a little over a century ago, when Hayes became a popular place in which to live because bankers and those who were "something in the City" bought property in the area. Between 1801, when the population was just 382, 1921, it had tripled to 1010; the branch railway from Elmers End known as the West Wickham and Hayes Railway, was opened on 29 May 1882. Hayes station is a terminus. During the second world war, an anti-aircraft gun battery was locally based on Hayes Common, the soldiers of the 1st Canadian Division who manned it were barracked in local homes. Throughout the 20th century, the Hayes village area continued to thrive. Further commercial development occurred on Station Approach because the increased traffic through the railway terminus created an incentive for growth.
In the old village area, the former village school was converted to a second, smaller village hall when the local primary school opened in 1937. To cope with the increase in commuter traffic, the station was rebuilt in 1935, Station Approach became the main shopping area, including a Post Office, petrol station, two mini-supermarkets and numerous small shops, it contains a public house called The New Inn. Much of the area to the west and north-west of the original village has been taken over by suburbia. West Wickham and Bromley are joined with Hayes. To the east and south, the open space of Hayes Common precludes building of any kind. Grandfields Nursery in West Common Road was hit by a V-2 rocket in the late afternoon of 9 February 1945, killing four people, including three members of the Grandfield family. Our Lady of the Rosary Catholic Church was built on the site; the old village area along Hayes Street known as'Old Hayes', today contains some small shops, though the local post office closed in 2004.
The timbered cottage on the eastern side of Hayes Street was the village bakery it became a newsagents called "The Walnut Tree", until 2006, when it changed to residential use. The former village school remains a second village hall, it is popular, many of its pupils go on to Hayes School in West Common Road. The shopping area in Old Hayes functions as a second hub for commercial businesses, running along Hayes street opposite the church building, it consists of the public house, "The George", a mini-market, several hairdressers, a cycle shop, two coffee shops and a fish and chip shop. Next to the church is the village public library, occupying the old rectory building, is surrounded by the library gardens, a small area of parkland containing tennis courts. Hayes Street Farm continues to play an important role in the village setting. Several public pathways and popular walking routes run through the farmland, regular car boot sales are hosted on the farm fields. There is a group called Hayes Village Association which meet to inform people about local issues.
They liaise with Bromley Council on planning matters and they give a voice to residents and businesses on a variety of issues. HVA produce a quarterly magazine with local interest articles and events, as well as details of businesses in the locality. There are numerous playing fields and sports grounds around the periphery of Hayes: such as the Metropolitan Police Sports Ground at the Warren, it is home, since 1927, to the world-famous Blackheath Harriers Athletics Club at their clubhouse The Sydney Wooderson Centre. Hayes Town FC. Members of the Surrey South Eastern Combination, based at Coney Hall FC's Tiepigs Lane ground. Beccehamians RFC – a Rugby Union Club founded in 1933 plays competitive rugby at Sparrows Den at the bottom of Corkscrew Hill near West Wickham. Hayes Cricket Club, based at the Warman Sp
The Pep Boys: Manny, Moe & Jack is an American automotive aftermarket retail and service chain. They are referred to as the "founders of the automotive aftermarket". Named Pep Auto Supply Company, the Company was founded in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1921 by Emanuel Rosenfeld, Maurice L. Strauss, W. Graham Jackson, Moe Radavitz. Headquartered in the Philadelphia neighborhood of East Falls, Pep Boys provides name-brand tires, automotive maintenance and repair and expert advice for the do-it-yourselfer, commercial auto parts delivery, fleet maintenance and repair to customers across the U. S. with Just Brakes, its wholly owned subsidiary. Pep Boys operates more than 8,300 service bays in over 930 locations in Puerto Rico; the original "Pep Boys" were Emanuel "Manny" Rosenfeld, Maurice "Moe" Strauss, Graham "Jack" Jackson, Moe Radavitz, four friends who, in August 1921, chipped in $200 apiece to open a single auto parts store. They dubbed it Pep Auto Supply Company after noticing a shipment of Pep Valve grinding compound on the shelves.
The name of the company emerged in pieces. “The Pep Boys” came from a policeman who worked near the store: Every time the officer stopped a car for driving without lights during nighttime hours, he would tell the driver, "Go see the boys at Pep" for a replacement oil wick. A few years on a trip to California, Moe Strauss noticed that many successful West Coast businesses used their owners' first names. One he liked in particular was a dress shop called "Minnie and Mabel's"; as soon as Strauss returned to Philadelphia, the Company’s name was changed to "The Pep Boys – Manny, Moe & Jack". ). Soon, the partners had commissioned the Manny and Jack caricatures that still serve as the company's logo; when Jackson left in 1925, his caricature was replaced with that of Isadore Strauss. In 1929, Izzy Strauss left to form his own auto supply business in Brooklyn, Strauss Stores, which merged with Roth & Schlenger Home and Auto to form R&S Strauss, the ancestor of Strauss Discount Auto known as Strauss Auto, which closed its doors on June 4, 2012.
The company name's reference to "Jack" remained unchanged. No further changes were made to the logo until 1990; the Great Depression struck in 1929, but Manny and Moe had not incurred business debts other than reasonable mortgages on store properties. Pep Boys was thereby insulated from the severe downturn. Although unemployment rates reached 40 percent in some areas and Moe did not lay off employees or cut salaries during the Depression. Instead, they added employees as part of an expansion. In 1933, Manny's brother, Murray Rosenfeld, opened the first West Coast Pep Boys store as part of a separate company named The Pep Boys - Manny, Moe & Jack of California and managed the Western operations. Within three years, Pep Boys of California had opened 11 stores. In 1945, Pep Boys went public, Manny Rosenfeld became the company's first corporate president, a position he held until his death in 1959. Moe Strauss served as president from 1960 to 1973 and remained chairman of the board of directors until his death in 1982.
In 1986, Mitch Leibovitz became the first non-founding family member to be named company president. Manny's grandson, Stuart Rosenfeld, Pep Boys' vice president of distribution, is the only founding family member in company management; the Strauss and Rosenfeld families continued to control one-fifth of the company's stock until the early 1990s. By 1969, the number of Pep Boys stores grew to 124. Service bays and service managers were added to each store. In the 1970s, all stores had self-serviced merchandising and a computerized inventory system was in use. In the 1980s came aggressive growth. Pep Boys moved to the New York Stock Exchange and enjoyed rapid expansion with the introduction of the “supercenter.” The store count grew to more than 700 and the company had more than 3,000 service bays. It generated more than $2 billion in annual sales. In the 1990s, growth continued with the opening of stores in Puerto Rico. In January 2003 Mitch Leibovitz announced his retirement. Larry Stevenson, from the Canadian book retailer Chapters, was named CEO that year and served until pressured by the company's two largest shareholders to resign in July 2006.
In March 2007, Jeffrey C. Rachor was named CEO. In April 2008, Pep Boys Chief Operating Officer Michael “Mike” R. Odell became Interim CEO with the resignation of Jeff Rachor. In September 2008, Odell was named CEO. In October 2009, Pep Boys acquired tire retailer Florida Tire; the acquisition gave Pep Boys ten tire centers in the Orlando market. In March 2011, Pep Boys acquired seven stores from tire retailer Big O Tires; the acquisition gave Pep Boys service and tire centers in Washington State, in the Pacific Northwest. In May 2011, Pep Boys acquired tire retailer Big 10 Tires; the acquisition gave Pep Boys an additional 84 service and tire centers in Alabama and Georgia, including concentrations around Atlanta and Orlando. In June 2011, Pep Boys acquired seven locations from automotive repair company My Mechanic; the acquisition gave Pep Boys additional locations in the Houston, Texas metropolitan area. In January 2012, Pep Boys announced that it had agreed to be acquired by The Gores Group, a Los Angeles-based private equity investment company, for $15 per share, or $1 billion.
But four months in May 2012, it was announced that the deal had fallen through. In September 2013, Pep Boys acquired 18 Discount Tire Centers in
Initial public offering
Initial public offering or stock market launch is a type of public offering in which shares of a company are sold to institutional investors and also retail investors. Through this process, colloquially known as floating, or going public, a held company is transformed into a public company. Initial public offerings can be used: to raise new equity capital for the company concerned. After the IPO, shares traded in the open market are known as the free float. Stock exchanges stipulate a minimum free float both in absolute terms and as a proportion of the total share capital. Although IPO offers many benefits, there are significant costs involved, chiefly those associated with the process such as banking and legal fees, the ongoing requirement to disclose important and sometimes sensitive information. Details of the proposed offering are disclosed to potential purchasers in the form of a lengthy document known as a prospectus. Most companies undertake an IPO with the assistance of an investment banking firm acting in the capacity of an underwriter.
Underwriters provide several services, including help with assessing the value of shares and establishing a public market for shares. Alternative methods such as the Dutch auction have been explored and applied for several IPOs; the earliest form of a company which issued public shares was the case of the publicani during the Roman Republic. Like modern joint-stock companies, the publicani were legal bodies independent of their members whose ownership was divided into shares, or partes. There is evidence that these shares were sold to public investors and traded in a type of over-the-counter market in the Forum, near the Temple of Castor and Pollux; the shares quaestors. Mere evidence remains of the prices for which partes were sold, the nature of initial public offerings, or a description of stock market behavior. Publicani lost favor with the rise of the Empire. In the early modern period, the Dutch were financial innovators who helped lay the foundations of modern financial systems; the first modern IPO occurred in March 1602 when the Dutch East India Company offered shares of the company to the public in order to raise capital.
The Dutch East India Company became the first company in history to issue bonds and shares of stock to the general public. In other words, the VOC was the first publicly traded company, because it was the first company to be actually listed on an official stock exchange. While the Italian city-states produced the first transferable government bonds, they did not develop the other ingredient necessary to produce a fledged capital market: corporate shareholders; as Edward Stringham notes, "companies with transferable shares date back to classical Rome, but these were not enduring endeavors and no considerable secondary market existed."In the United States, the first IPO was the public offering of Bank of North America around 1783. When a company lists its securities on a public exchange, the money paid by the investing public for the newly-issued shares goes directly to the company as well as to any early private investors who opt to sell all or a portion of their holdings as part of the larger IPO.
An IPO, allows a company to tap into a wide pool of potential investors to provide itself with capital for future growth, repayment of debt, or working capital. A company selling common shares is never required to repay the capital to its public investors; those investors must endure the unpredictable nature of the open market to price and trade their shares. After the IPO, when shares are traded in the open market, money passes between public investors. For early private investors who choose to sell shares as part of the IPO process, the IPO represents an opportunity to monetize their investment. After the IPO, once shares are traded in the open market, investors holding large blocks of shares can either sell those shares piecemeal in the open market or sell a large block of shares directly to the public, at a fixed price, through a secondary market offering; this type of offering is not dilutive. Once a company is listed, it is able to issue additional common shares in a number of different ways, one of, the follow-on offering.
This method provides capital for various corporate purposes through the issuance of equity without incurring any debt. This ability to raise large amounts of capital from the marketplace is a key reason many companies seek to go public. An IPO accords several benefits to the private company: Enlarging and diversifying equity base Enabling cheaper access to capital Increasing exposure and public image Attracting and retaining better management and employees through liquid equity participation Facilitating acquisitions Creating multiple financing opportunities: equity, convertible debt, cheaper bank loans, etc. There are several disadvantages to completing an initial public offering: Significant legal, account
Skalice (Znojmo District)
Skalice is a village and municipality in Znojmo District in the South Moravian Region of the Czech Republic. The municipality covers an area of 9.46 square kilometres, has a population of 554. Skalice lies 20 kilometres north-east of Znojmo, 39 km south-west of Brno, 181 km south-east of Prague. Czech Statistical Office: Municipalities of Znojmo District