Automobiles Ettore Bugatti was a French car manufacturer of high-performance automobiles, founded in 1909 in the then-German city of Molsheim, Alsace by the Italian-born industrial designer Ettore Bugatti. The cars were known for their many race victories. Famous Bugattis include the Type 35 Grand Prix cars, the Type 41 "Royale", the Type 57 "Atlantic" and the Type 55 sports car; the death of Ettore Bugatti in 1947 proved to be the end for the marque, the death of his son Jean Bugatti in 1939 ensured there was not a successor to lead the factory. No more than about 8,000 cars were made; the company struggled financially, released one last model in the 1950s, before being purchased for its airplane parts business in 1963. In the 1990s, an Italian entrepreneur revived it as a builder of limited production exclusive sports cars. Today, the name is owned by the Volkswagen Group. Founder Ettore Bugatti was born in Milan and the automobile company that bears his name was founded in 1909 in Molsheim located in the Alsace region, part of the German Empire from 1871 to 1919.
The company was known both for the level of detail of its engineering in its automobiles, for the artistic manner in which the designs were executed, given the artistic nature of Ettore's family. During the war Ettore Bugatti was sent away to Milan and to Paris, but as soon as hostilities had been concluded he returned to his factory at Molsheim. Less than four months after the Versailles Treaty formalised the transfer of Alsace from Germany to France, Bugatti was able to obtain, at the last minute, a stand at the 15th Paris motor show in October 1919, he exhibited three light cars, all of them based on their pre-war equivalents, each fitted with the same overhead camshaft 4-cylinder 1,368cc engine with four valves per cylinder. Smallest of the three was a "Type 13" with a racing body and using a chassis with a 2,000 mm wheelbase; the others were a "Type 22" and a "Type 23" with wheelbases of 2,400 mm respectively. The company enjoyed great success in early Grand Prix motor racing: in 1929 a entered Bugatti won the first Monaco Grand Prix.
Racing success culminated with driver Jean-Pierre Wimille winning the 24 hours of Le Mans twice. Bugatti cars were successful in racing; the little Bugatti Type 10 swept the top four positions at its first race. The 1924 Bugatti Type 35 is one of the most successful racing cars; the Type 35 was developed by Bugatti with master engineer and racing driver Jean Chassagne who drove it in the car’s first Grand Prix in 1924 Lyon. Bugattis swept to victory in the Targa Florio for five years straight from 1925 through 1929. Louis Chiron held the most podiums in Bugatti cars, the modern marque revival Bugatti Automobiles S. A. S. named the 1999 Bugatti 18/3 Chiron concept car in his honour. But it was the final racing success at Le Mans, most remembered—Jean-Pierre Wimille and Pierre Veyron won the 1939 race with just one car and meagre resources. In the 1930s, Ettore Bugatti got involved in the creation of a racer airplane, hoping to beat the Germans in the Deutsch de la Meurthe prize; this would be the Bugatti 100P.
It was designed by Belgian engineer Louis de Monge who had applied Bugatti Brescia engines in his "Type 7.5" lifting body. Ettore Bugatti designed a successful motorised railcar, the Autorail Bugatti; the death of Ettore Bugatti's son, Jean Bugatti, on 11 August 1939 marked a turning point in the company's fortunes. Jean died. World War II left the Molsheim factory in the company lost control of the property. During the war, Bugatti planned a new factory at a northwestern suburb of Paris. After the war, Bugatti designed and planned to build a series of new cars, including the Type 73 road car and Type 73C single seat racing car, but in all Bugatti built only five Type 73 cars. Development of a 375 cc supercharged car was stopped when Ettore Bugatti died on 21 August 1947. Following Ettore Bugatti's death, the business declined further and made its last appearance as a business in its own right at a Paris Motor Show in October 1952. After a long decline, the original incarnation of Bugatti ceased operations in 1952.
Bugattis are noticeably focused on design. Engine blocks were hand scraped to ensure that the surfaces were so flat that gaskets were not required for sealing, many of the exposed surfaces of the engine compartment featured guilloché finishes on them, safety wires had been threaded through every fastener in intricately laced patterns. Rather than bolt the springs to the axles as most manufacturers did, Bugatti's axles were forged such that the spring passed through a sized opening in the axle, a much more elegant solution requiring fewer parts, he famously described his arch competitor Bentley's cars as "the world's fastest lorries" for focusing on durability. According to Bugatti, "weight was the enemy". Relatives of Harold Carr found a rare 1937 Bugatti Type 57S Atalante when cataloguing the doctor's belongings after his death in 2009. Carr's Type 57S is notable because it was owned by British race car driver Earl Howe; because much of the car's original equipment is intact, it can be restored without relying on replacement parts.
On 10 July 2009, a 1925 Bugatti Brescia Type 22 which had lain at the bottom of Lake Maggiore on the border of Switzerland and Italy for 75 years was recovered from the lake. The Mullin Mu
Leland Stanford Junior University is a private research university in Stanford, California. Stanford is known for its academic strength, proximity to Silicon Valley, ranking as one of the world's top universities; the university was founded in 1885 by Leland and Jane Stanford in memory of their only child, Leland Stanford Jr. who had died of typhoid fever at age 15 the previous year. Stanford was a U. S. Senator and former Governor of California who made his fortune as a railroad tycoon; the school admitted its first students on October 1, 1891, as a coeducational and non-denominational institution. Stanford University struggled financially after the death of Leland Stanford in 1893 and again after much of the campus was damaged by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Following World War II, Provost Frederick Terman supported faculty and graduates' entrepreneurialism to build self-sufficient local industry in what would be known as Silicon Valley; the university is one of the top fundraising institutions in the country, becoming the first school to raise more than a billion dollars in a year.
The university is organized around three traditional schools consisting of 40 academic departments at the undergraduate and graduate level and four professional schools that focus on graduate programs in Law, Medicine and Business. Stanford's undergraduate program is the most selective in the United States by acceptance rate. Students compete in 36 varsity sports, the university is one of two private institutions in the Division I FBS Pac-12 Conference, it has gained the most for a university. Stanford athletes have won 512 individual championships, Stanford has won the NACDA Directors' Cup for 24 consecutive years, beginning in 1994–1995. In addition, Stanford students and alumni have won 270 Olympic medals including 139 gold medals; as of October 2018, 83 Nobel laureates, 27 Turing Award laureates, 8 Fields Medalists have been affiliated with Stanford as students, faculty or staff. In addition, Stanford University is noted for its entrepreneurship and is one of the most successful universities in attracting funding for start-ups.
Stanford alumni have founded a large number of companies, which combined produce more than $2.7 trillion in annual revenue and have created 5.4 million jobs as of 2011 equivalent to the 10th largest economy in the world. Stanford is the alma mater of 30 living billionaires and 17 astronauts, is one of the leading producers of members of the United States Congress. Stanford University was founded in 1885 by Leland and Jane Stanford, dedicated to Leland Stanford Jr, their only child; the institution opened in 1891 on Stanford's previous Palo Alto farm. Despite being impacted by earthquakes in both 1906 and 1989, the campus was rebuilt each time. In 1919, The Hoover Institution on War and Peace was started by Herbert Hoover to preserve artifacts related to World War I; the Stanford Medical Center, completed in 1959, is a teaching hospital with over 800 beds. The SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, established in 1962, performs research in particle physics. Jane and Leland Stanford modeled their university after the great eastern universities, most Cornell University and Harvard University.
Stanford opened being called the "Cornell of the West" in 1891 due to faculty being former Cornell affiliates including its first president, David Starr Jordan. Both Cornell and Stanford were among the first to have higher education be accessible and open to women as well as to men. Cornell is credited as one of the first American universities to adopt this radical departure from traditional education, Stanford became an early adopter as well. Most of Stanford University is on one of the largest in the United States, it is located on the San Francisco Peninsula, in the northwest part of the Santa Clara Valley 37 miles southeast of San Francisco and 20 miles northwest of San Jose. In 2008, 60% of this land remained undeveloped. Stanford's main campus includes a census-designated place within unincorporated Santa Clara County, although some of the university land is within the city limits of Palo Alto; the campus includes much land in unincorporated San Mateo County, as well as in the city limits of Menlo Park and Portola Valley.
The academic central campus is adjacent to Palo Alto, bounded by El Camino Real, Stanford Avenue, Junipero Serra Boulevard, Sand Hill Road. The United States Postal Service has assigned it two ZIP Codes: 94305 for campus mail and 94309 for P. O. box mail. It lies within area code 650. Stanford operates or intends to operate in various locations outside of its central campus. On the founding grant: Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve is a 1,200-acre natural reserve south of the central campus owned by the university and used by wildlife biologists for research. SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is a facility west of the central campus operated by the university for the Department of Energy, it contains the longest linear particle accelerator in the world, 2 miles on 426 acres of land. Golf course and a seasonal lake: The university has its own golf course and a seasonal lake, both home to the vulnerable California tiger salamander; as of 2012 Lake Laguni
Belmont is a city in San Mateo County in the U. S. state of California. It is in the San Francisco Bay Area, on the San Francisco Peninsula halfway between San Francisco and San Jose, it was part of Rancho de las Pulgas, for which one of its main roads, the Alameda de las Pulgas, is named. The city was incorporated in 1926, its population was 25,835 at the 2010 census. Ralston Hall is a historic landmark built by Bank of California founder William Chapman Ralston on the campus of Notre Dame de Namur University, it was built around a villa owned by Count Cipriani, an Italian aristocrat. The locally famous "Waterdog Lake" is located in the foothills and highlands of Belmont. One of two surviving structures from the Panama-Pacific International Exposition is on Belmont Avenue; the building was brought to Belmont by E. D. Swift shortly after the exposition closed in 1915. Swift owned a large amount of land in the area. Belmont has attracted national attention for a smoking ordinance passed in January 2009 which bans smoking in all businesses and multi-story apartments and condominiums.
The name seems to derive from the Italian "bel monte," which means "beautiful mountain." It was named such because of its "symmetrically rounded eminence" nearby. Belmont is located at 37°31′5″N 122°17′30″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.20 square miles of which 4.6 square miles is land and 0.19% is water. The 2010 United States Census reported that Belmont had a population of 25,835; the population density was 5,579.8 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Belmont was 17,455 White, 420 African American, 72 Native American, 5,151 Asian, 198 Pacific Islander, 964 from other races, 1,572 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2,977 persons; the Census reported that 25,321 people lived in households, 394 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 120 were institutionalized. There were 10,575 households, out of which 3,251 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 5,630 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 830 had a female householder with no husband present, 391 had a male householder with no wife present.
There were 510 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 96 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 2,904 households were made up of individuals and 997 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39. There were 6,851 families; the population was spread out with 5,395 people under the age of 18, 1,668 people aged 18 to 24, 7,645 people aged 25 to 44, 7,284 people aged 45 to 64, 3,843 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40.9 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.5 males. There were 11,028 housing units at an average density of 2,381.8 per square mile, of which 6,280 were owner-occupied, 4,295 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 0.7%. 16,473 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 8,848 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 25,123 people, 10,418 households, 6,542 families residing in the city; the population density was 5,551.1 people per square mile.
There were 10,577 housing units at an average density of 2,337.1 per square mile. There were 10,418 households out of which 26.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.6% were married couples living together, 7.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.2% were non-families. 27.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.89. In the city, the population was spread out with 19.3% under the age of 18, 6.5% from 18 to 24, 35.9% from 25 to 44, 25.1% from 45 to 64, 13.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.6 males. According to a 2007 estimate, the median income for a household in the city was $99,739, the median income for a family was $122,515. Males had a median income of $63,281 versus $46,957 for females; the per capita income for the city was $42,812.
About 1.7% of families and 4.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.2% of those under age 18 and 4.8% of those age 65 and over. In May 2009, Belmont was ranked 11th on Forbes list of "America's Top 25 Towns to Live Well." In the California State Legislature, Belmont is in the 13th Senate District, represented by Democrat Jerry Hill, in the 22nd Assembly District, represented by Democrat Kevin Mullin. Federally, Belmont is in California's 14th congressional district, represented by Democrat Jackie Speier. According to the California Secretary of State, as of February 10, 2019, Belmont has 15,827 registered voters. Of those, 7,678 are registered Democrats, 2,540 are registered Republicans, 4,994 have declined to state a political party; the city is served by the Belmont Public Library of the San Mateo County Libraries, a member of the Peninsula Library System. The city has a number of parks; this includes Twin Pines Park, Waterdog Lake Ope
DARPA Grand Challenge
The DARPA Grand Challenge is a prize competition for American autonomous vehicles, funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the most prominent research organization of the United States Department of Defense. Congress has authorized DARPA to award cash prizes to further DARPA's mission to sponsor revolutionary, high-payoff research that bridges the gap between fundamental discoveries and military use; the initial DARPA Grand Challenge was created to spur the development of technologies needed to create the first autonomous ground vehicles capable of completing a substantial off-road course within a limited time. The third event, the DARPA Urban Challenge extended the initial Challenge to autonomous operation in a mock urban environment; the most recent Challenge, the 2012 DARPA Robotics Challenge, focused on autonomous emergency-maintenance robots. Autonomous vehicles have been an international pursuit for many years, from endeavors in Japan, Italy, the European Union, the United States of America, other countries.
DARPA funded the development of the first autonomous robot beginning in 1966 with the Shakey the robot project at Stanford Research Institute, now SRI International. The first autonomous ground vehicle capable of driving on and off roads was developed by DARPA as part of the Strategic Computing Initiative beginning in 1984 leading to demonstrations of autonomous navigation by the Autonomous Land Vehicle and the Navlab; the Grand Challenge was the first long distance competition for driverless cars in the world. The U. S. Congress authorized DARPA to offer prize money for the first Grand Challenge to facilitate robotic development, with the ultimate goal of making one-third of ground military forces autonomous by 2015. Following the 2004 event, Dr. Tony Tether, the director of DARPA, announced that the prize money had been increased to $2 million for the next event, claimed on October 9, 2005; the first and third places in the 2007 Urban Challenge received $2 million, $1 million, $500,000, respectively.
The competition was open to teams and organizations from around the world, as long as there were at least one U. S. citizen on the roster. Teams have participated from high schools, universities and other organizations. More than 100 teams registered in the first year, bringing a wide variety of technological skills to the race. In the second year, 195 teams from 36 U. S. states and 4 foreign countries entered the race. The first competition of the DARPA Grand Challenge was held on March 13, 2004 in the Mojave Desert region of the United States, along a 150-mile route that follows along the path of Interstate 15 from just before Barstow, California to just past the California–Nevada border in Primm. None of the robot vehicles finished the route. Carnegie Mellon University's Red Team and car Sandstorm traveled the farthest distance, completing 11.78 km of the course before getting hung up on a rock after making a switchback turn. No winner was declared, the cash prize was not given. Therefore, a second DARPA Grand Challenge event was scheduled for 2005.
The second competition of the DARPA Grand Challenge began at 6:40am on October 8, 2005. All but one of the 23 finalists in the 2005 race surpassed the 11.78 km distance completed by the best vehicle in the 2004 race. Five vehicles completed the 212 km course: Vehicles in the 2005 race passed through three narrow tunnels and negotiated more than 100 sharp left and right turns; the race concluded through Beer Bottle Pass, a winding mountain pass with a sheer drop-off on one side and a rock face on the other. Although the 2004 course required more elevation gain and some sharp switchbacks were required near the beginning of the route, the course had far fewer curves and wider roads than the 2005 course; the natural rivalry between the teams from Stanford and Carnegie Mellon was played out during the race. Mechanical problems plagued H1ghlander. Gray Team's entry was a miracle in itself, as the team from the suburbs of New Orleans was caught in Hurricane Katrina a few short weeks before the race.
The fifth finisher, Terramax, a 30,000 pound entry from Oshkosh Truck, finished on the second day. The huge truck spent the night idling on the course, but was nimble in picking its way down the narrow roads of Beer Bottle Pass; the third competition of the DARPA Grand Challenge, known as the "Urban Challenge", took place on November 3, 2007 at the site of the now-closed George Air Force Base, in Victorville, California. The course involved a 96 km urban area course. Rules included obeying all traffic regulations while negotiating with other traffic and obstacles and merging into traffic. Unlike previous challenges, the 2007 Urban Challenge organizers divided competitors into two "tracks," A and B. All Track A and Track B teams were part of the same competition circuit, but the teams chosen for the Track A program received US $1 million in funding; these 11 teams represented major universities and large corporate interests such as CMU teaming with GM as Tartan Racing, Stanford teaming with Volkswagen, Virginia Tech teaming with TORC Technologies as VictorTango, Oshkosh Truck, Raytheon, Autono
A self-driving car known as a robot car, autonomous car, or driverless car, is a vehicle, capable of sensing its environment and moving with little or no human input. Autonomous cars combine a variety of sensors to perceive their surroundings, such as radar, sonar, GPS, odometry and inertial measurement units. Advanced control systems interpret sensory information to identify appropriate navigation paths, as well as obstacles and relevant signage. Experiments have been conducted on automated driving systems since at least the 1920s; the first automated car was developed in 1977, by Japan's Tsukuba Mechanical Engineering Laboratory. The vehicle tracked white street markers, which were interpreted by two cameras on the vehicle, using an analog computer for signal processing; the vehicle reached speeds up with the support of an elevated rail. Autonomous prototype cars appeared in the 1980s, with Carnegie Mellon University's Navlab and ALV projects funded by DARPA starting in 1984 and Mercedes-Benz and Bundeswehr University Munich's EUREKA Prometheus Project in 1987.
By 1985, the ALV had demonstrated self-driving speeds on two-lane roads of 31 kilometres per hour with obstacle avoidance added in 1986 and off-road driving in day and nighttime conditions by 1987. From the 1960s through the second DARPA Grand Challenge in 2005, automated vehicle research in the U. S. was funded by DARPA, the US Army, the U. S. Navy, yielding incremental advances in speeds, driving competence in more complex conditions and sensor systems. Companies and research organizations have developed prototypes; the U. S. allocated $650 million in 1991 for research on the National Automated Highway System, which demonstrated automated driving through a combination of automation, embedded in the highway with automated technology in vehicles and cooperative networking between the vehicles and with the highway infrastructure. The program concluded with a successful demonstration in 1997 but without clear direction or funding to implement the system on a larger scale. Funded by the National Automated Highway System and DARPA, the Carnegie Mellon University Navlab drove 4,584 kilometres across America in 1995, 4,501 kilometres or 98% of it autonomously.
Navlab's record achievement stood unmatched for two decades until 2015 when Delphi improved it by piloting an Audi, augmented with Delphi technology, over 5,472 kilometres through 15 states while remaining in self-driving mode 99% of the time. In 2015, the US states of Nevada, California and Michigan, together with Washington, D. C. allowed the testing of automated cars on public roads. In 2017, Audi stated that its latest A8 would be automated at speeds of up to 60 kilometres per hour using its "Audi AI." The driver would not have to do safety checks such as gripping the steering wheel. The Audi A8 was claimed to be the first production car to reach level 3 automated driving, Audi would be the first manufacturer to use laser scanners in addition to cameras and ultrasonic sensors for their system. In November 2017, Waymo announced that it had begun testing driverless cars without a safety driver in the driver position. In October 2018, Waymo announced that its test vehicles had traveled in automated mode for over 10,000,000 miles, increasing by about 1,000,000 miles per month.
In December 2018, Waymo was the first to commercialize a autonomous taxi service in the U. S. There is some inconsistency in terminology used in the self-driving car industry. Various organizations have proposed to define an consistent vocabulary; such confusion has been documented in SAE J3016 which states that "Some vernacular usages associate autonomous with full driving automation, while other usages apply it to all levels of driving automation, some state legislation has defined it to correspond to any ADS at or above level 3." Modern vehicles provide automated features such as keeping the car within its lane, speed controls or emergency braking. Nonetheless, differences remain between a autonomous self-driving car on one hand and driver assistance technologies on the other hand. According to the BBC, confusion between those concepts leads to deaths. Association of British Insurers considers the usage of the word autonomous in marketing for modern cars to be dangerous, because car ads make motorists think'autonomous' and'autopilot' means a vehicle can drive itself, when they still rely on the driver to ensure safety.
Technology alone still is not able to drive the car. When some car makers suggest or claim vehicles are self-driving, when they are only automated, drivers risk becoming excessively confident, leading to crashes, while self-driving cars are still a long way off in the UK. Autonomous means self-governing. Many historical projects related to vehicle automation have been automated subject to a heavy reliance on artificial aids in their environment, such as magnetic strips. Autonomous control implies satisfactory performance under significant uncertainties in the environment and the ability to compensate for system failures without external intervention. One approach is to implement communication networks both in the immediate vicinity and farther away; such outside influences in the decision process reduce an individual vehicle's autonomy, while still not requiring human intervention. Wood et al. wrote, "This Article uses the term'autonomous,' instead of the term'automated.' " The term
SEAT, S. A. is a Spanish automobile manufacturer with its head office in Spain. It was founded on May 9, 1950, by the Instituto Nacional de Industria, a Spanish state-owned industrial holding company, it became the largest supplier of cars in Spain. In 1986 the Spanish government sold SEAT to the German Volkswagen Group of which it remains a wholly owned subsidiary; the headquarters of SEAT, S. A. are located at SEAT's industrial complex in Martorell near Barcelona. By 2000 annual production peaked at over 500,000 units. SEAT today is the only major Spanish car manufacturer with the ability and the infrastructure to develop its own cars in-house, its headquarters and main manufacturing facilities are located in Martorell, an industrial town located some 30 kilometres northwest of Barcelona, with a production capacity of around 500,000 units per annum. The plant was opened by King Juan Carlos of Spain on February 22, 1993, replaced SEAT's former assembly plant by the coast in Barcelona's freeport zone.
A rail connection between SEAT's Martorell and Zona Franca complexes facilitates vehicle and parts transportation between the two sites. The industrial complex in Martorell hosts the facilities of SEAT Sport, SEAT's Technical Center and Development Center, Design Center, Prototypes Centre of Development, SEAT Service Center, as well as the Genuine Parts Centre for SEAT, Audi and Škoda brands; the development and assembly facilities are some of the newest within the Volkswagen Group, with the ability to produce cars not only for its own brand but for other Volkswagen Group brands, such as Volkswagen and Audi. For example, the development and design of several Audi models and several Audi development projects took place there, from 2011 onwards the Martorell plant manufactures the Audi Q3 small SUV; the Barcelona Zona Franca site includes the SEAT Training Centre, the Zona Franca Press Shop factory, producing stamped body parts, the Barcelona Gearbox del Prat plant, producing gearboxes not only for SEAT but for other Volkswagen Group marques.
Another plant owned directly by SEAT from 1975 was the Landaben plant in Pamplona, but in December 1993 its ownership was transferred to the Volkswagen Group subsidiary "Volkswagen-Audi-Espana, S. A.", the site today is producing Volkswagen cars in Spain. However, SEAT's Martorell site still provides support to Volkswagen's operations in the Pamplona plant when necessary, as it did after a serious fire in the paint shop in the Landaben VW plant in April 2007. Factories of the Volkswagen Group producing SEAT models include the Bratislava site in Slovakia, the Palmela AutoEuropa factory in Portugal, the Sidi Khettab factory in Algeria, while in the past other plants were involved too in producing SEAT models, such as the factories in Germany and Belgium. Future plans include a new Research and development centre in the city of Barcelona in the field of environmental and energy efficiency for the entire Volkswagen Group and the launch of a project on the city's urban mobility, as well as a SEAT museum in the Zona Franca's'Nave A122' site hosting all production and prototype models presented by SEAT together with some special or limited edition vehicles with historical value for the brand and the automotive history of Spain.
Among SEAT's subsidiaries, the SEAT Deutschland GmbH subsidiary company is based in Mörfelden-Walldorf and apart from its commercial activities has the further responsibility of operating SEAT's electronic platform, the SEAT IT Services Network. In Wolfsburg, Germany, in the middle of a lake inside the Autostadt, the Volkswagen Group's corporate theme park, is SEAT's thematic pavilion, one of the largest pavilions in the park. In its 60 years, there was only a short period from 1953 to 1965 when the firm produced its cars for the domestic Spanish market. In 1965 and in a rather symbolic move, the company exported some 150 units of its SEAT 600 model destined for Colombia by air freight for the first time, until two years in 1967 SEAT reached a deal over the renegotiation of its licence contract with Fiat which allowed the Spanish firm to form an international distribution network for its cars and thereafter start its export operations massively to more than twelve different countries, entering the export market in 1969.
Until the early 1980s, most SEAT exports were sold with Fiat badging. As a response to SEAT's bid for independence, Fiat committed themselves to selling 200,000 SEAT-built cars a year from 1981, compared to 120,000 the year before. At the end of 1983, just after SEAT had won its legal battle with Fiat, a quarter of the production went to Egypt and Latin America. In Europe, they were represented in West Germany, France, Italy and Greece; the UK, various Scandinavian markets were planned to be added in 1984. This was with the Fura to follow; the exponential growth in exports in the 70´s happened under the leadership of Juan Sánchez Cortés and the export director José María García-Courel. To date, the company has launched its own mode