Erlangen is a Middle Franconian city in Bavaria, Germany. It is the seat of the administrative district Erlangen-Höchstadt and with 113,752 inhabitants it is the smallest of the eight major cities in Bavaria; the number of inhabitants exceeded the limit of 100,000 in 1974. Together with Nuremberg, Fürth and Schwabach, Erlangen forms one of the three metropolises in Bavaria. Together with the surrounding area, these cities form the European Metropolitan Region of Nuremberg, one of 11 metropolitan areas in Germany. Together with the cities of Nuremberg and Fürth, Erlangen forms a triangle of cities, which represents the heartland of the Nuremberg conurbation. An element of the city that goes back a long way in history, but is still noticeable, is the settlement of Huguenots after the withdrawal of the Edict of Nantes in 1685. Today, the city is dominated by the Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg and the Siemens technology group. Erlangen is located on the edge of the Middle Franconian Basin and at the floodplain of the Regnitz river.
The river divides the city into two halfs of equal sizes. In the western part of the city the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal lies parallel to the Regnitz; the following municipalities or non-municipal areas are adjacent to the city of Erlangen. They are listed clockwise, starting in the north: The unincorporated area Mark, the municipalities Möhrendorf, Marloffstein and Buckenhof and the forest area Buckenhofer Forst, the independent cities of Nuremberg and Fürth, the municipality Obermichelbach, the city of Herzogenaurach and the municipality Hessdorf. Erlangen consists of nine districts and 40 statistical districts, 39 of which are inhabited. In addition, the urban area is subdivided into twelve land registry and land law relevant districts whose boundaries deviate from those of the statistical districts; the districts and statistical districts are formerly independent municipalities, but include newer settlements which names have been coined as district names. The traditional and subjectively perceived boundaries of neighborhoods deviate from the official ones.
Erlangen is divided into the following Gemarkungen: Some still common names of historical districts were not taken into account with the official designations. Examples are: Brucker Werksiedlung Erba-Siedlung Essenbach Heusteg Königsmühle Paprika-Siedlung Schallershof Siedlung Sonnenblick Stadtrandsiedlung St. Johann Werker Zollhaus Erlangen is located in a transition zone from maritime to continental climate: the city is low in precipitation, as usual in continental climate, but warm with an annual mean temperature of 8.5 °C. The castle mountain in particular protects the area of the core city from cold polar air. In contrast, the Regnitzgrund is the cause of frequent fog. In the prehistory of Bavaria, the Regnitz valley played an important role as a passageway from north to south. In Spardorf a blade scraper was found in loess deposits, which could be attributed to the Gravettians, which places it at an age of about 25,000 years. Due to the barren soils in the area farming and settlements could only be detected at the end of the Neolithic.
The "Erlanger Zeichensteine" in the Mark-Forst north of the city originated in this time period. The stone plates were resused as grave borders in the Urnfield period. Once investigated in 1913, it was found that the burial mound in Kosbach contained finds from the urnfield time as well as from the Hallstatt and La Tène period. Next to the hill, the so-called "Kosbacher Altar", originated in the late Hallstatt period, was constructed; the altar is unique in this form and consists of a square stone setting with four upright, figural pillars at the corners and one under the center. The reconstruction of the site can be visited in the area, the middle guard is exhibited in the Erlangen city museum. Erlangen is first mentioned by name in a document from 1002; the origin of the name Erlangen is not clear. Attempts of local research to derive the name of alder and anger, do not meet toponymical standards; as early as 976, Emperor Otto II had donated the church of St. Martin in Forchheim with accessories to the diocese of Würzburg.
Emperor Henry II confirmed this donation in 1002 and authorized its transfer from the bishopric to the newly founded Haug Abbey. In contrast to the certificate of Otto II, the accessories, which included the "villa erlangon" located in Radenzgau, were described in more detail here. At that time the Bavarian Nordgau extended to the Regnitz in the west and to the Schwabach in the north. Villa Erlangon must therefore have been located outside of these borders and thus not in the area of today's Erlangen Altstadt. However, as the name Erlangen is unique to today's town in Germany, the certificate could have only referred to it; the document provides an additional piece of evidence: In 1002, Henry II bestowed further areas west of the Regnitz, including one mile from the Schwabach estuary to the east, one mile fro
The Regnitz is a river in Franconia, Germany. It is 63.7 km in length. The river is formed by the confluence of the rivers Rednitz and Pegnitz, which meet in the city of Fürth. From there the Regnitz runs northwards through the cities of Forchheim, it meets the Main near the city of Bamberg. Including its source rivers Rednitz and Franconian Rezat, it is 187.4 km long. Small portions of the Regnitz near Bamberg are incorporated into a canal connecting the Main with the Danube: the Rhine-Main-Danube Canal, which runs parallel most of the way from Bamberg to Fürth. Between Fürth and Forchheim a lot of watermills were used from Middle Ages till 19th century; some were reconstructed. Bogner, Franz X.: Rednitz und Regnitz. Eine Luftbildreise von Weißenburg bis Bamberg. Verlag Fränkischer Tag, Bamberg, ISBN 978-3-936897-47-0
Fürth is a city in northern Bavaria, Germany, in the administrative division of Middle Franconia. It is now contiguous with the larger city of Nuremberg, the centres of the two cities being only 7 km apart. Fürth is one of 23 "major centres" in Bavaria. Fürth, Nuremberg and some smaller towns form the "Middle Franconian Conurbation", one of the 11 German metropolitan regions. Fürth celebrated its thousandth anniversary in 2007, its first mention being on 1 November 1007; the historic centre of the town is to the east and south of the rivers Rednitz and Pegnitz, which join to form the Regnitz to the northwest of the Old Town. To the west of the town, on the far side of the Main-Danube Canal, is the Fürth municipal forest. To the east of Fürth, at the same latitude, lies Nuremberg, to the north is the fertile market-gardening area known as the Knoblauchsland, some of, within the borders of the urban district of Fürth. To the south of the town is an area consisting of wide roads, the canal, meadows.
The following towns and municipalities share borders with Fürth. Beyond the town proper, the urban district comprises another 20 localities: The first mention of the settlement of Fürth, which had already existed for some time, was in a document dated 1 November 1007, in which the Emperor Heinrich II donated his property in Fürth to the newly created Bishopric of Bamberg; the name "Fürth" derives from the German word for "ford", as the first settlements originated around a ford. In the following years, Fürth was granted market privileges, but these were lost to the neighbouring Nuremberg, under Heinrich III. From 1062 onward, Fürth was again permitted to have a market, but by that time Nuremberg was the more important town. In the following centuries, the town was under varying authority, involving the Bishopric of Bamberg, the Principality of Ansbach and the City of Nuremberg. For a long time, the character of the settlement remained agricultural, in 1600 the population was still only between 1000 and 2000.
In the Thirty Years War, Fürth was completely destroyed by fire. In 1835, the first German railway was opened between Fürth. Throughout the Cold War, Fürth had a significant NATO presence the U. S. Army, due to its proximity to both the East German and Czech borders. In the course of time, a number of municipalities or other administrative divisions were integrated into the urban district of Fürth: 1 January 1899: the western part of the municipality of Höfen, including Weikershof 1 January 1900: the municipality of Poppenreuth 1 January 1901: the municipality of Dambach (to the west of the current Südstadt, as well as Unterfürberg and Oberfürberg 1 January 1918: Atzenhof 1 January 1918: the municipality of Unterfarrnbach 3 December 1923: the municipality of Burgfarrnbach 1 July 1927: the municipality of Ronhof, Kronach 1 July 1972: the municipality of Sack, including Bislohe, north of the Knoblauchsland and is not separately listed in official documents. 1 July 1972: the municipality of Stadeln 1 July 1972: the municipality of Vach (to the north of Fürth, north of the river Zenn and west of river Regnitz 1 July 1972: Herboldshof and Steinach parts of the municipality of Boxdorf In the Middle Ages and early Renaissance, the population of Fürth grew owing to the numerous wars and famines.
In the Thirty Years War, the town lost about half its population. When Croatian soldiers set fire to Fürth in 1634, it burned for several days, was completely destroyed. At the end of the war, the population was a mere 800. In 1685, Reformed Christians from France, or Huguenots, settled in Fürth. By 1700 the restoration of the town had been completed, the population rose to about 6000. With the beginning of industrialization in the 19th century, the population began to increase rapidly. In 1800 Fürth had a population of 12,000. In 1950 the population of the town exceeded 100,000. At the end of 2005, as recorded by the Bavarian Statistical Office, the population was 113,076, a historical record; this makes Fürth the second largest town in Middle Franconia, after Nuremberg, the seventh largest town in Bavaria. As of 2015, the proportion of foreign nationals in Fürth is about 18 percent; the following table shows the population of Fürth over time. Up to 1818 the figures are estimates. ¹ Census result The population of Fürth was under the Bishopric of Würzburg and from 1007 it belonged to the Bishopric of Bamberg.
In 1524, as part of the Reformation, it became a Protestant town like Nuremberg, it remained so for many years. However, because of the connections with Bamberg, there were always some Catholics in the town. After 1792, the Prot
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
The Rhine–Main–Danube Canal, in Bavaria, connects the Main and the Danube rivers across the European Watershed, running from Bamberg via Nuremberg to Kelheim. The canal connects the North Sea and Atlantic Ocean to the Black Sea, providing a navigable artery between the Rhine delta, the Danube Delta in south-eastern Romania and south-western Ukraine; the present canal is 171 kilometres long. Projects for connecting the Danube and Rhine basins by canal have a long history. In 793, the Emperor Charlemagne ordered the construction of a canal—the Fossa Carolina —connecting the Swabian Rezat, a tributary of the Rednitz, to the Altmühl near Treuchtlingen. Between 1836 and 1846 the Ludwig Canal, named for King Ludwig I of Bavaria, was built between Bamberg and Kelheim; this canal had a narrow channel, with many locks, a shortage of water in the peak section, so the operation of the waterway soon became uneconomic—especially given the advancing construction of the railway network in the southern German countryside.
The canal was abandoned in 1950, after a decision was made to not repair damage it had suffered during World War II. In 1917, the Landtag of Bavaria passed a law calling for the development of a major shipping route "between Aschaffenburg and Passau", with the capacity to carry the 1,200-ton ships used on the Rhine. On 13 June 1921, Bavaria and the German Reich concluded an agreement to build the „Main-Donau-Wasserstraße". Under this plan, in addition to the expansion of the Main and Danube, a new channel linking the rivers was to be created; the Rhein-Main-Donau AG was founded on 30 December 1921 to undertake the project. To finance the waterway, the RMD was given control of the water resources of the Main, Danube and Altmühl, Regnitz; the first concrete plans for the new waterway emerged in 1938, for the so-called Mindorfer Linie south of Nurenberg. As early as 1939 the first preparatory work began at Thalmässing in Landkreis Roth. However, after the war this route was dropped. By 1962, the Main's channel had been expanded as far upstream as Bamberg.
In 1966, the Duisburger Vertrag, an agreement between Bavaria and the Federal Republic of Germany, was reached for financing the completion of the project. The contract was signed on 16 September of that year in Duisburg by Federal Transport Minister Hans-Christoph Seebohm, Federal Finance Minister Rolf Dahlgrün, Bavarian Prime Minister Alfons Goppel and the Bavarian Finance Minister Konrad Pöhner; the last section to be built, between Nuremberg and Kelheim, became politically controversial in the 1970s and 1980s because of the 34-kilometre long section through the Altmühl valley. On 25 September 1992, the canal was completed; the equivalent of some 2.3 billion euros were invested in the construction from 1960 to 1992. 20 percent of that went for environmental protection projects. From Bamberg to Fürth the canal follows the valley of a tributary of the Main. From Fürth to beyond Roth it follows the valley of a tributary of the Regnitz, it joins the river Altmühl near Dietfurt. From Dietfurt to Kelheim on the Danube the canal follows the Altmühl valley.
The cross-section of the waterway is trapezoidal, with 31 metres width at the bottom, 55 metres width at the water surface, 4 metres of water depth, a side grade of 1:3. The channel is a Waterway Class Vb; the channel in the Kelheim-bound Bamberg lock has a depth of 2.70 metres. In the few sections with a rectangular profile, the width is 43 metres; the length of the canal is 171 kilometres. This is the highest point on Earth, reached by commercial watercraft from the sea; the height difference along the north ramp of the canal—from the Main at Bamberg to the crest elevation—is 175 metres, with 11 locks. From the crest elevation down to the Altmühl at Dietfurt is a drop of 51 metres through three locks; the further difference in elevation of 17 metres along the Altmühl, with two more locks, makes a total of 68 metres for the south ramp. This means. Along the course of the canal there are 16 locks with lifting heights of up to 25 metres; the 16 locks are managed from four remote control centres. These centres are manned with one worker on the night shift, two on the day shift.
The locks were modernized from 2001 to 2007, replacing the outdated relay technology with computers and a PLC. The cost was $1.3 million per lock. The summit water level is maintained by pumping water from the canal stretches below. Thirteen locks are designed to conserve water, which they do by piping first the top third, the middle third of the lock water into side tanks during the down cycle. On the up cycle, these tanks replenish first the bottom third and the middle third of the lock volume; the remaining top third is supplied by water from the upper level of the canal. There wer
Gothic architecture is a style that flourished in Europe during the High and Late Middle Ages. It was succeeded by Renaissance architecture. Originating in 12th-century France, it was used for cathedrals and churches, until the 16th century, its most prominent features included the use of the rib vault and the flying buttress, which allowed the weight of the roof to be counterbalanced by buttresses outside the building, giving greater height and more space for windows. Another important feature was the extensive use of stained glass, the rose window, to bring light and color to the interior. Another feature was the use of realistic statuary on the exterior over the portals, to illustrate biblical stories for the illiterate parishioners; these technologies had all existed in Romanesque architecture, but they were used in more innovative ways and more extensively in Gothic architecture to make buildings taller and stronger. The first notable example is considered to be the Abbey of Saint-Denis, near Paris, whose choir and facade were reconstructed with Gothic features.
The choir was completed in 1144. The style appeared in some civic architecture in northern Europe, notably in town halls and university buildings. A Gothic revival began in mid-18th-century England, spread through 19th century Europe and continued for ecclesiastical and university structures, into the 20th century. Gothic architecture was known during the period as opus francigenum, The term "Gothic architecture" originated in the 16th century, was very negative, suggesting barbaric. Giorgio Vasari used the term "barbarous German style" in his 1550 Lives of the Artists to describe what is now considered the Gothic style, in the introduction to the Lives he attributed various architectural features to "the Goths" whom he held responsible for destroying the ancient buildings after they conquered Rome, erecting new ones in this style; the Gothic style originated in the Ile-de-France region of northern France in the first half of the 12th century. A new dynasty of French Kings, the Capetians, had subdued the feudal lords, had become the most powerful rulers in France, with their capital in Paris.
They allied themselves with the bishops of the major cities of northern France, reduced the power of the feudal abbots and monasteries. Their rise coincided with an enormous growth of the population and prosperity of the cities of northern France; the Capetian Kings and their bishops wished to build new cathedrals as monuments of their power and religious faith. The church which served as the primary model for the style was the Abbey of St-Denis, which underwent reconstruction by the Abbot Suger, first in the choir and the facade, Suger was a close ally and biographer of the French King, Louis VII, a fervent Catholic and builder, the founder of the University of Paris. Suger remodeled the ambulatory of the Abbey, removed the enclosures that separated the chapels, replaced the existing structure with imposing pillars and rib vaults; this created higher and wider bays, into which he installed larger windows, which filled the end of the church with light. Soon afterwards he rebuilt the facade, adding three deep portals, each with a tympanum, an arch filled with sculpture illustrating biblical stories.
The new facade was flanked by two towers. He installed a small circular rose window over the central portal; this design became the prototype for a series of new French cathedrals. Sens Cathedral was the first Cathedral to be built in the new style. Other versions of the new style soon appeared in Noyon Cathedral; the Gothic style was adapted by some French monastic orders, notably the Cistercian order under Saint Bernard of Clairvaux It was used in an austere form without ornament at the new Cistercian Abbey of Fontenay and the church of Clairvaux Abbey, whose site is now occupied by a French prison. The new style was copied outside the Kingdom of France in the Duchy of Normandy. Early examples of Norman Gothic included Coutances Cathedral. Through the rule of the Angevin dynasty, the new style was introduced to England and spread from there to Low Countries, Spain, northern Italy and Sicily; the Gothic style did not replace the Romanesque everywhere in Europe. The Late Romanesque continued to flourish in the Holy Roman Empire under the Hohenstaufens and Rhineland.
From the end of the 12th century until the middle of the 13th century, the gothic style spread from the Île-de-France to appear in other cities of northern France. New structures in the style included Chartres Cathedral; the early type of rib vault used of Saint Denis and Notre Dame, with six parts, was modified to four parts, making it simpler and stronger. Amiens and Chartres were among the first to use the flying buttress. At Reims, the buttresses were given greater weight and strength by the addition of heavy stone pinnacles on top; these were decorated with statues of ange
Andrew Henry Vachss is an American crime fiction author, child protection consultant, attorney representing children and youths. Vachss' last name rhymes with "tax", he grew up in Manhattan on the Lower West Side. Before becoming a lawyer, Vachss held many front-line positions in child protection, he was a federal investigator in sexually transmitted diseases, a New York City social-services caseworker. He worked in Biafra. There he worked to find a land route to bring donated food and medical supplies across the border after the seaports were blocked and Red Cross airlifts banned by the Nigerian government. After he returned and recovered from his injuries, including malaria and malnutrition, Vachss studied community organizing in 1970 under Saul Alinsky, he ran a self-help center for urban migrants in Chicago. He managed a re-entry program for ex-convicts in Massachusetts, directed a maximum-security prison for violent juvenile offenders; as an attorney, Vachss represents only adolescents. In addition to his private practice, he serves as a law guardian in New York state.
In every child abuse or neglect case, state law requires the appointment of a law guardian, a lawyer who represents the child's interests during the legal proceedings. Andrew Vachss is the author of 33 novels and three collections of short stories, as well as poetry, song lyrics, graphic novels; as a novelist, he is best known for his Burke series of hardboiled mysteries. After completing the Burke novels, Vachss began two new series. Vachss released the first novel in the Dell & Dolly trilogy, entitled Aftershock, in 2013; the second novel, was released in 2014, Signwave, the final book, was published in June 2015. Radically departing from Vachss' familiar urban settings, the trilogy focuses on Dell, a former soldier and assassin, Dolly, a former nurse with Doctors Without Borders and the love of Dell's life. While living in the Pacific Northwest and Dolly use their war-honed skills to maintain a "heads on stakes" barrier against the predators who use their everyday positions in the community as camouflage in order to attack the vulnerable.
The Cross series uses distinctive supernatural aspects to further explore Vachss' argument that society's failure to protect its children is the greatest threat to the human species. In 2012, Vachss' published Blackjack: A Cross Novel, featuring the mercenary Cross Crew, introduced in earlier Vachss short stories as Chicago's most-feared criminal gang. Urban Renewal, the second novel in the Cross series, came out in 2014; the third in the series, Drawing Dead, was released in 2016. In addition to the Aftershock and Cross series, Vachss has written several stand-alone works; the first novel he published outside the Burke series was Shella. Released in 1993, Shella was the most polarizing of his works in terms of critical response. Vachss referred to Shella as his "beloved orphan" until the 2004 release of The Getaway Man, a tribute to the Gold Medal paperback originals of the 1960s. In 2005, Vachss released the epic Two Trains Running, a novel which takes place during a two-week span in 1959, a critical period in American history.
In form, Two Trains Running presents as a work composed of transcribed surveillance tapes, akin to a collage film constructed only of footage from a single source. His 2009 novel, focuses on the troubled lives of a band of homeless men in New York City, struggling to connect with and protect each other. In 2010, Vachss published two books: his novel The Weight, is a noir romance involving a professional thief and a young widow in hiding. Heart Transplant, an illustrated novel in an experimental design, tells the story of an abused and bullied young boy who finds his inner strength with the help of an unexpected mentor. That's How I Roll, released in 2012, chronicles the death-row narrative of a hired killer as he reveals the secrets of his past, both horrifying and tender. Vachss has collaborated on works with authors Joe R. Lansdale, he has created illustrated works with artists Frank Caruso and Geof Darrow. Vachss' latest graphic novel, was released in November 2014. Vachss has written non-fiction, including numerous articles and essays on child protection and a book on juvenile criminology.
His books have been translated into 20 languages, his shorter works have appeared in many publications, including Parade, Esquire and The New York Times. Vachss' literary awards include the Grand Prix de Littérature Policière for Strega. Andrew Vachss is the Writers Guild of America, his autobiographical essay was added by invitation to Contemporary Authors in 2003. Many of Vachss' novels feature the shadowy, unlicensed investigator Burke, an ex-con, career criminal, conflicted character. About his protagonist, Vachss says: If you look at Burke you'll see the prototypical abused child: hypervigilant, distrustful. He's so committed to his family of choice—not his DNA-biological family, which tortured him, or the state which raised him, but the family that he chose—that homicide is a natural consequence of injuring any of that family. He's not a hit man, but he shares th