Bayons is a French commune in the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur region of south-eastern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Bayonnais or Bayonnaises, Bayons is located in the Massif des Monges some 20 km south by south-east of Gap and 15 km north-east of Sisteron. Access to the commune is by the D1 road from Clamensane in the west which passes through the commune, Bayons is situated in a vast Cirque surrounded by high mountains, through which the Sasse flows - exiting through a narrow clue. The commune was formed from the merger of four communes in 1973, Bayons, Esparron-la-Bâtie, except for Astoin, the communes joined to Bayons in 1973 are located in parallel valleys perpendicular to the Sasse and downstream from Bayons. The commune is located in a region of mountainous relief and has a Mediterranean climate with challenging features as well as a mountain climate and it is traversed by some tumultuous rivers. Agriculture in the area has always been difficult and this persuaded the government to propose the merger of the communes which took place on 1 April 1973.
Since the population has almost doubled, farms have been retained sometimes using regional quality labels, the communal economy is based on tourism but the majority of people in the commune work outside. During the last two major glaciations, the Riss glaciation and the Würm glaciation, there were many small glaciers in the commune, a glacier occupied the northern slope of the Tête des Monges. During the Riss glaciation, a diffluence from the Durance glacier crossed the Col des Sagnes, the Würm glaciation was less extensive and only reached Les Tourniquets. It was during this period that the Triassic gypsum and moraines were created that make the terrain unstable in this part of the valley. Another Riss glaciation diffluence reached the top of the Trente Pas torrent, the relief of the commune is mountainous, but very compartmentalized making communication difficult. It has partly shaped by glaciers. The main structural element is the Sasse valley, which drains several basins separated by Water gaps, the southernmost of these basins is the former commune of Reynier, semi-circular in shape with the diameter towards the north-east.
This diameter is a ridge of mountains rising between 1200 m and 1700 m separating the Reynier basin from the Esparron-la-Bâtie valley, from north to south, the Pategue, the Charène Ridge, Colle Ridge, the Citadelle, the Pinée ridge, the Maladrech Ridge to the south-east. Several mountains define a wide semicircle, on the north side they slope gently and form green mountain meadows. On the south and west side form a line of steeper slopes. This mountain forms a basin to the north, along the Sasse, in the middle of this basin is Le Puy, another mountain with a ridge in the south and an inclined slope to the north. North of Reynier basin, the Bayons gorge provides access to the valley of the Sasse
Departments of France
In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. There are 96 departments in metropolitan France and 5 overseas departments, each department is administered by an elected body called a departmental council. From 1800 to April 2015, they were called general councils, the departments were created in 1791 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régime provinces with a view to strengthen national unity, the title department is used to mean a part of a larger whole. Almost all of them were named after geographical features rather than after historical or cultural territories which could have their own loyalties. The earliest known suggestion of it is from 1764 in the writings of dArgenson and they have inspired similar divisions in many countries, some of them former French colonies. Most French departments are assigned a number, the Official Geographical Code. Some overseas departments have a three-digit number, the number is used, for example, in the postal code, and was until recently used for all vehicle registration plates.
For example, inhabitants of Loiret might refer to their department as the 45 and this reform project has since been abandoned. The first French territorial departments were proposed in 1665 by Marc-René dArgenson to serve as administrative areas purely for the Ponts et Chaussées infrastructure administration, before the French Revolution, France gained territory gradually through the annexation of a mosaic of independent entities. By the close of the Ancien Régime, it was organised into provinces, during the period of the Revolution, these were dissolved, partly in order to weaken old loyalties. Their boundaries served two purposes, Boundaries were chosen to break up Frances historical regions in an attempt to erase cultural differences, Boundaries were set so that every settlement in the country was within a days ride of the capital of the department. This was a security measure, intended to keep the national territory under close control. This measure was directly inspired by the Great Terror, during which the government had lost control of rural areas far from any centre of government.
The old nomenclature was carefully avoided in naming the new departments, most were named after an areas principal river or other physical features. Even Paris was in the department of Seine, the number of departments, initially 83, was increased to 130 by 1809 with the territorial gains of the Republic and of the First French Empire. Following Napoleons defeats in 1814-1815, the Congress of Vienna returned France to its pre-war size, in 1860, France acquired the County of Nice and Savoy, which led to the creation of three new departments. Two were added from the new Savoyard territory, while the department of Alpes-Maritimes was created from Nice, the 89 departments were given numbers based on their alphabetical order. The department of Bas-Rhin and parts of Meurthe, Moselle and Haut-Rhin were ceded to the German Empire in 1871, following Frances defeat in the Franco-Prussian War
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
Auzet is a French commune in the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur region of south-eastern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Auzetans or Auzetanes, Auzet is located some 45 km north-east of Sisteron and 35 km west by south-west of Barcelonnette. Access to the commune is by the D7 road from Seyne in the north passes through the length of the commune. Apart from the village there are the hamlets of LInfernet, LInfernet Haut, the commune is very rugged with snow-capped mountains and forested slopes with 1,168 hectares of forest. The area of the commune is 3,453 hectares and its altitude varies between 1,068 and 2,028 metres, the village is located at 1,180 m above sea level. The highest peaks are the Tête Grosse, Clot de Bouc, none of the 200 communes in the department is in a no seismic risk zone. Auzet is exposed to four other natural hazards, avalanche wildfire flood landslide Auzet is not exposed to any risk of technological origin identified by the prefecture, No risk prevention plan for foreseeable natural risks exists for the commune and there is no DICRIM.
In 2013 the commune built two certified passive buildings with four housing units at 1200 m altitude, the passive concept is the most advanced in the world and is the only one which can dispense with conventional heating. The heating power is provided by 10w/m2 of fresh air, the name Auzet appears for the first time in charters of 1058 under the name Ausitum. In referring to sheep belonging to the Abbey of Saint Victor, Marseille, in 1958 loggers discovered a deposit of iron and bronze objects dating from the La Tène period, spearheads and bits for horses. In 1351 reference was made to the community, or rather to its chaplain, from the 13th to the 18th century there was a mill in the ravine of Saint Andrieu. The death of Queen Joanna I re-opened a succession crisis at the head of the County of Provence with the cities of the Aix Union supporting Charles de Duras against Louis I of Anjou. The Auzet community supported Duras until 1386 switched sides to join the Angevins through patient negotiation by Marie of Blois, widow of Louis I, in the 18th century a fair was held in Auzet.
During the French Revolution the commune had a society formed after the end of 1792. During the Second World War a colony of Jewish children at the Col du Fanget was saved, joseph Isoard and his brother Armand with their wives Julie and Simone saved Jews from deportation and were therefore distinguished as Righteous among the Nations. List of Successive Mayors In 2010 the commune had 79 inhabitants, the evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held five years. Population Change Sources, Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 In 2009 the active population stood at 43 people including 7 unemployed and these workers are mostly employed and mostly work outside the commune
Beaujeu is a French commune in the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur region of south-eastern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Beaujolais or Beaujolaises, Beaujeu is located some 30 km east of Sisteron and 20 km north-east of Digne-les-Bains at an altitude of 880 m. Access to the commune is by the D900 road from Le Vernet in the north passes through the length of the commune. The commune is rugged and mountainous, an enormous number of streams rise all over the commune which mostly converge on the Arigéol which flows south to join the Bléone at La Javie. The mountains around Beaujeu are composed of black shale, blayeul Summit with a radio relay mast Chappe summit Col du Labouret on the D900 road The commune has 2793 hectares of woods and forests - 61% of its area. None of the 200 communes in the department is in a no seismic risk zone, Beaujeu faces four other natural hazards, Avalanche Forest fire Flood Landslide Beaujeu is exposed to a risk of technological origin, namely the carriage of dangerous goods on the highway.
There is no plan for prevention of foreseeable natural risks for the commune, the town has been subject to several natural disasters for flooding and landslides in 1986,1994, and 1996. The landslide on 18 May 1996 carried away two 20,000 volt power pylons, the term for the locality in 1147 comes from the Latin bellom jugum, meaning beautiful mountain. It became Bèl jog, a confusion with the Occitan bèl joc which means beau jeu in French, the name of the hamlet Clucheret seems to come from its status as a parish which would have earned it the name of Clocher. Beaujeu appears as Beaujou on the 1750 Cassini Map and as Beaujun on the 1790 version, in Ancient times the Bodiontici populated the Bléone valley as well as the Gauls who lived in the current commune of Beaujeu. The Bodiontici were defeated by Augustus at the time as the other people present on the Tropaeum Alpium before 14 BC. The commune was attached to the province of Alpes-Maritimes at the time of its creation, there were three distinct communities, each with its church at Beaujeu, Le Clucheret, and Saint-Pierre-des-Auches.
The Church of Saint Peter was originally built higher and the priory depended on the Augustinian Abbey of Valence, the locality appears for the first time in charters of 1147, and a Motte-and-bailey castle was built in the 11th century at a place called La Tour. The barony of Beaujeu extended over the communities of Mariaud and Clucheiret, a toll was established on the Col de Labouret road at the end of the Middle Ages. In 1309, William of Roumoules was reported as lord of Roumoules, Beaujeu, Bédéjun, Bras-dAsse, Majastres and Estoublon. The death of Queen Joanna I of Naples reopened a crisis of succession to head the county of Provence and the cities of the Union of Aix supported Charles, Duke of Durazzo, against Louis I of Anjou. The lord of Beaujeu and Mariaud, Gui Saint-Marcial, supported the Duke of Anjou in spring 1382, during the French Revolution the commune had a patriotic society, founded after the end of 1792. The French coup détat of 1851 committed by Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte against the French Second Republic provoked an uprising in the Lower Alps in defence of the Constitution
Aubenas-les-Alpes is a French commune in the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur region of south-eastern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Albascecois or Albascecoises, the commune has been awarded two flowers by the National Council of Towns and Villages in Bloom in the Competition of cities and villages in Bloom. Aubenas-les-Alpes lies in the Regional Natural Park of Luberon and in the Geological Reserve of Luberon some 18 km north-west of Manosque and 20 km west of La Brillanne, the village is at an altitude of 650m above sea level. Access to the commune is by road D555 which branches off the D5 some 4 km north of Saint-Michel-lObservatoire, there are other country roads to access the commune. Apart from the village there is the hamlet of Le Paraire in the north, the commune is mixed farmland and forest. The Largue river forms the border of the commune as it flows south to eventually join the Durance east of Manosque. Many tributaries rise in the commune and flow east to join the Largue including the Ravin dAiguebelle, the soils of the commune are formed on a substrate which is mainly limestone, this limestone is used to roof the housing.
The village is located on a hill of red marl of the Oligocene period and has yielded bones of large mammals. In the Aiguebelle valley fossils of plants and fish have been found, the areas of both deposits are classified as geological reserves and collecting of fossils is prohibited. Information panels are placed close by, a selection of fossils from there can be seen at the Vachères Museum, at the Natural Regional Park of Luberon Maison du Parc in Apt, and the National Museum of Natural History in Paris. Flint was exported all over the south-east of France as far as Italy by Neolithic man, none of the 200 communes of the department are in a no seismic risk zone. The commune of Aubenas-les-Alpes is exposed to three other natural hazards, forest fire, the commune is almost entirely rated with an average to high hazard, the commune is not exposed to any risk of technological origin as identified by the prefecture. There is no risk prevention plan for foreseeable natural risks for the commune, the locality appears for the first time in texts from the 11th century in the form de Albenassio.
According to Charles Rostaing, Aubenas comes from the Gallic alba with the suffixes -enne and -ate, according to Ernest Nègre, the name comes from the Roman name Albinus with the suffix -àtis. The Fénié propose another interpretation coming from the name Aubenas in the theme *Al-b-, none of these explanations can explain the form of the name Aubenas in Occitan which is aùbo meaning white poplar. The commune changed its name to Aubenas-les-Alpes in 1934, the territory of the commune was inhabited in the Middle Paleolithic period but it was especially in the Neolithic that the area experienced increased human activity. The quality of the flint outcroppings in the Largue valley allows its breakdown into large blades, due to the use of leverage, these materials were produced in large numbers and many of these workshops are known to be in the commune. These blades were distributed over a geographical area
Alpes-de-Haute-Provence is a French department in the south of France, it was formerly part of the province of Provence. Its inhabitants are called the Bas-Alpins or Bas-Alpines referring to the department of Basses-Alpes which was the name of the department until 13 April 1970. Bounded in the east by Italy, the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence department is surrounded by the departments of Alpes-Maritimes, Vaucluse, Drôme, in the Haute-Ubaye, the mountain peaks exceed 3000 m above sea level and all the passes are close to or above 2000 m in altitude. The relief of the land compartmentalises the region, the valleys are difficult to access so dividing the country into as many local areas which communicate very little with the outside. In 1877,55 communes only had access to trails or mule paths, the seismic hazard is moderate to medium with different faults such as the Durance located in the department. The main river is the Durance which runs in the west of the department and it is in the Durance valley that the most important traffic routes are found, the A51 highway and the railway main line.
Almost all of the department is in the watershed of the Durance except for the extreme south-east which are drained by the Var. The main tributaries of the Durance in the department are the Ubaye, the Bléone, the Asse, the Verdon on the bank, the Buëch, the Jabron. The Durance and its tributaries have a character, with a transition between the snow regime of the high valleys and the mediterranean rainfall regime in the lower mountains. The summer low water levels are severe and violent floods occur when heavy rains fall which is often in autumn. The Durance, Verdon, Bléone, and Buëch have had the construction of several dams, the climate of the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence department is a Mediterranean climate degrading by altitude and latitude. In between, the two influences mingle in the area of the Lower Alps, Haute-Provence is therefore very interesting for European astronomers looking for a partly cloudy night sky and untouched by light pollution. Many amateur observatories have been built and the Observatoire de Haute-Provence is one of the largest observatories in continental Europe and it is an active astronomy research centre.
Alpes-de-Haute-Provence is subdivided into 4 arrondissements,15 cantons and 199 communes, the population was once fairly evenly distributed in the territory, including in the mountainous areas where mountain agriculture was well developed. From the middle of the 19th century, however, it began to due to a strong rural exodus. There were more than 150,000 inhabitants in 1850 but it fell to less than 100,000 after the First World War. It was not until 1960 that the trend changed upwards quite strongly from less than 90,000 in 1954 to nearly 140,000 in 1999 and 153,000 in 2005. However, if this figure is close to the number of inhabitants had department 150 years earlier, the population is now concentrated in the valley of the Durance and the South West of the department, and agriculture employs less than ever before
Archail is a French commune in the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur region of south-eastern France. It is the second least populated commune in the department, the inhabitants of the commune are known as Archailois or Archailoises. Archail is located some 8 km north-east of Digne and some 5 km south of Le Brusquet, by road from Digne it is 14 km by a winding mountain road. The village is located in a basin at an altitude of 920m. Access to the commune is by the D22 road which runs east from Marcoux to Draix, a local road runs off the D22 in the northern tip of the commune and continues south through the commune to the village. The commune is mountainous and heavily forested but there is an area of farmland south-west of the village. Much of the consists of rounded hills of eroded black marl. The Pic de Couar is spectacular as is the Pas dArchail, the Ravine and Torrent of lAreste is in the south in the hills. A vast number of streams rise in the commune including, The Bouinenc, the Sauzeries Ravine, the Mouiroués Ravine, and its tributary and these all flow north to join the Bouinenc which continues west to join the Bléone.
None of the 200 communes of the department is in a no seismic risk zone, the Canton of La Javie to which Archail belongs is in Zone 1b according to the deterministic classification of 1991 and based on its seismic history. The Canton is in Zone 4 according to the probabilistic classification EC82011, the commune of Archail is exposed to two other natural hazards, forest fire, landslide. The area appears for the first time in texts around 1200 in the form Archallo, the origin of the name is Celtic-Ligurian and means in front of the rocks. The Historical Atlas of Provence indicates a spelling of Arcalhum, in Antiquity the Bodiontiques inhabited the Bléone valley and so were the Gallic people who lived in what is now the commune of Archail. The Bodiontiques were defeated by Augustus at the time as the other people present on the Tropaeum Alpium and were attached to the province of Alpes-Maritimes during its creation. According to Daniel Thiery, the community was reported in the Polyptych of Wadalde in 814 under the name Argario, the community of Archail was under the Viguerie of Digne.
In 1193 the lordship of Archail was given by the two lords of Saint-Julien to the Chapter of Digne, the lordship was divided between the Bishops of Digne and the Chapter of Digne before the French Revolution. These new lords strengthened their new possession and collected the population in a central location. As with many of the communes in the department, Archail had a well before the Jules Ferry laws
Allons is a French commune in the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur region of southeastern France. The village is situated at 1073 m altitude, the only access to the commune is via road D52 which runs south-east to the village from Road D955 some 6 km north-east of Saint-Andre-les-Alpes. The Ivoire flows into the Verdon which is a 165.9 km long river, a tributary of the Durance, the commune is a Drainage basin oriented east-west resulting in a large shady side and a large south-facing slope. On the shady side, there are Pine forests, there is a forest of beech trees growing near the village. A Riparian forest with abundant willow trees grows along the Ivoire stream, there is a railway station at the intersection of the roads called Allons-Argens Halt which is an optional stop on the metre-gauge Nice to Digne line of the Chemins de Fer de Provence. The commune was the subject of one disaster in 1994 for flooding. The village is mentioned for the first time in the charters of 1113 and this place name is formed from the Germanic proper name Alonius according to Ernest Nègre.
Charles Rostaing and Fénié argue that the name was formed from the orographic root Al- and this root is probably older than the Gallic. An oppidum occupied the site of Castellas in the Iron Age, augustus conquered the valley of the Verdon at the same time as the Alps, which he completed in 14 BC. It is difficult to know the name of the Gallic tribe that inhabited the valley nor the name of the civitas on which Allons depended in the High Empire, Civitas Saliniensum, or Sanitensium. At the end of the Roman Empire, the connection to Sanitensium, a bronze statue from Antiquity was once found in the commune. It is possible that the Chapel Saint-Domnin at La Moutiere was built on the occupied by the Allons community in the High Middle Ages in connection with a first monastery. On the opposite side of the valley there are names of Villas that reinforce this hypothesis. The site of the upper Town, in the valley is possibly contemporary, in 1072, Pons Sylvain owned an important part of the area, if not the entire valley.
He donated land to the abbey of Saint-Victor de Marseille which established the priory of Saint Martin there at the end of the 11th to the beginning of the 12th centuries. The village of Allons was created shortly after around a new church which was called Saint Martin, the fief belonged to the bishops of Senez and to the Abbey of St. Victor, Marseille. The Allons community was under the viguerie of Castellane and these buildings are similar to castles, the largest of them is that of Autane located on the square of the same name, it surprises by its large size and the 17th century style unusual in the region. Since the Revolution the castle has been divided between several owners, and several changes have been made - especially on the roof, the most important lords were the Requiston family
Aubignosc is a French commune in the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur region of south-eastern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Aubignoscais or Aubignoscaises, Aubignosc is located in the west of the Durance valley some 8 km south by south-east of Sisteron,21 km west of Digne-les-Bains and 36 km north by north-east of Manosque. Apart from the village there are the hamlets of Les Jardins, the village is located at 460 metres above sea level on the eastern slope of the valley of the Durance. The land is on the border of the Pre-Alps of Digne to the east, the altitude varies from 432 metres to 1,330 metres. South of the village is hilly terrain with carved valleys and gullies over 600 metres deep. There are the Redonnette Ravine, the Maurieu Ravine, the Côtes chaudes Ravine, the Trou de Loupe Ravine, the town has 734 hectares of woods and forests. The commune lies between Forcalquier, Digne-les-Bains to the east and Gap farther north, access to the commune is by the A51 autoroute from La Brillanne in the south passing through the east of the commune with Exit 21 in the commune and continuing north.
Route nationale N85 comes from Malijai in the south and joins the A51 in the commune, the D4085 comes from Sisteron in the north and joins the N85 in the commune. The D951 comes from Peipin in the north and passes south through the west of the commune, access to the village is by the D503 which branches off the D4085 in the commune and goes south-west to join the D951 in the commune. The nearest railway station served by the TER is located in Sisteron as well as a bus station, buses provide connections to the Digne-les-Bains - Château-Arnoux - Veynes service as well as the Digne - Avignon service. The aerodrome of Sisteron-Theze is located twenty kilometres to the north at Vaumeilh, there is a short hiking trail passing through the commune from north to south. The entire eastern border of the commune is formed by the Durance as it flows south to join the Rhone at Avignon. The Durance is both an Alpine and Mediterranean river with very specific morphology and it is called capricious and was once feared for its Flash floods as well as for its low flow.
Several intermittent streams trickle down the slopes and the Faillée gorge and they flow into the Riou stream which flows north or to the Ravine de Maurieu, both tributaries of the Durance. Related article, Geology of the Alps, none of the 200 communes of the department are in a no seismic risk zone. Farther south, along the Durance fault, the cantons of Peyruis, Les Mees, Manosque-Nord, Manosque-Sud-Est, Manosque-Sud-Ouest, and Valensole are in Zone 2. Aubignosc commune is exposed to three other natural hazards, forest fire, landslide, the commune has a high risk in a substantial part of its territory. Aubignosc is exposed to technological risks, risk of dam failure, risk of transporting hazardous materials by rail and this is from the transport of primary materials to its destination or finished products from the Arkema factory at Saint-Auban