Ancient history as a term refers to the aggregate of past events from the beginning of writing and recorded human history and extending as far as the post-classical history. The phrase may be used either to refer to the period of the academic discipline; the span of recorded history is 5,000 years, beginning with Sumerian Cuneiform script. Ancient History covers all continents inhabited by humans in the 3,000 BC – 500 AD period; the broad term Ancient History is not to be confused with Classical Antiquity. The term classical antiquity is used to refer to Western History in the Ancient Mediterranean from the beginning of recorded Greek history in 776 BC; this coincides with the traditional date of the Founding of Rome in 753 BC, the beginning of the history of ancient Rome, the beginning of the Archaic period in Ancient Greece. The academic term "history" is not to be confused with colloquial references to times past. History is fundamentally the study of the past through documents, can be either scientific or humanistic.
Although the ending date of ancient history is disputed, some Western scholars use the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD, the closure of the Platonic Academy in 529 AD, the death of the emperor Justinian I in 565 AD, the coming of Islam or the rise of Charlemagne as the end of ancient and Classical European history. Outside of Europe the 450-500 time frame for the end of ancient times has had difficulty as a transition date from Ancient to Post-Classical times. During the time period of'Ancient History', starting from 3000 BC world population was exponentially increasing due to the Neolithic Revolution, in full progress. According to HYDE estimates from the Netherlands world population increased exponentially in this period. In 10,000 BC in Prehistory world population had stood at 2 million, rising to 45 million by 3,000 BC. By the rise of the Iron Age in 1,000 BC that population had risen to 72 million. By the end of the period in 500 AD world population stood at 209 million. In 3,500 years, world population increased by 100 times.
Historians have two major avenues which they take to better understand the ancient world: archaeology and the study of source texts. Primary sources are those sources closest to the origin of the idea under study. Primary sources have been distinguished from secondary sources, which cite, comment on, or build upon primary sources. Archaeology is the excavation and study of artifacts in an effort to interpret and reconstruct past human behavior. Archaeologists excavate the ruins of ancient cities looking for clues as to how the people of the time period lived; some important discoveries by archaeologists studying ancient history include: The Egyptian pyramids: giant tombs built by the ancient Egyptians beginning about 2600 BC as the final resting places of their royalty. The study of the ancient cities of Harappa, Mohenjo-daro, Lothal in India; the city of Pompeii: an ancient Roman city preserved by the eruption of a volcano in AD 79. Its state of preservation is so great that it is a valuable window into Roman culture and provided insight into the cultures of the Etruscans and the Samnites.
The Terracotta Army: the mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor in ancient China. The discovery of Knossos by Minos Kalokairinos and Sir Arthur Evans; the discovery of Troy by Heinrich Schliemann. Most of what is known of the ancient world comes from the accounts of antiquity's own historians. Although it is important to take into account the bias of each ancient author, their accounts are the basis for our understanding of the ancient past; some of the more notable ancient writers include Herodotus, Arrian, Polybius, Sima Qian, Livy, Josephus and Tacitus. A fundamental difficulty of studying ancient history is that recorded histories cannot document the entirety of human events, only a fraction of those documents have survived into the present day. Furthermore, the reliability of the information obtained from these surviving records must be considered. Few people were capable of writing histories, as literacy was not widespread in any culture until long after the end of ancient history; the earliest known systematic historical thought emerged in ancient Greece, beginning with Herodotus of Halicarnassus.
Thucydides eliminated divine causality in his account of the war between Athens and Sparta, establishing a rationalistic element which set a precedent for subsequent Western historical writings. He was the first to distinguish between cause and immediate origins of an event; the Roman Empire was an ancient culture with a high literacy rate, but many works by its most read historians are lost. For example, Livy, a Roman historian who lived in the 1st century BC, wrote a history of Rome called Ab Urbe Condita in 144 volumes. Indeed, only a minority of the work of any major Roman historian has survived. Click the above link to find a listed timeline that provides an overview for Ancient History, its context ranges from 3200 BC to 400 AD. Prehistory is the period before written history; the early human migrations in the Lower Paleolithic saw Homo erectus spread across Eurasia 1.8 million years ago. The controlled use of fire occurred 800,000 years ago in the Middle Paleolithic. 250,000 years ago, Homo sapiens emerged in Africa.
60–70,000 years ago, Homo sapiens migrated out of Africa along a coastal route to South and So
The Chattuarii or Attoarii were a Germanic tribe of the Franks. They lived north of the Rhine in the area of the modern border between Germany and the Netherlands, but moved southwards in the 4th century, as a Frankish tribe living on both sides of the Rhine. According to Velleius Paterculus, in 4 AD, the emperor Tiberius crossed the Rhine, first attacking a tribe which commentators interpret variously as the Cananefates or Chamavi, both being in the area of the modern Netherlands the Chattuari, the Bructeri between Ems and Lippe, somewhere to the north of the modern Ruhr district in Germany; this implies. Strabo mentions the Chattuari as one of the non-nomadic northern Germanic tribes in a group along with the Cherusci, the Chatti, the Gamabrivii. Strabo notes them as one of the tribes who allied under the Cherusci and were made poor after being defeated by Germanicus, they appeared at his triumph in 17 AD along with the Caülci, Bructeri, Cherusci, Chatti and Tubattii. There is no consensus on any connection between the Chattuarii and either the similar-sounding Chatti or, less the Chasuarii, who both lived in a similar region of Germany, are mentioned in Roman era texts.
The Chattuari appear again in the historical record in the 4th century, living on the Rhine amongst the first tribes to be known as Franks. Ammianus Marcellinus reports that Emperor Julian, crossed the Rhine border from Xanten and......entered the district belonging to a Frank tribe, called the Attuarii, men of a turbulent character, who at that moment were licentiously plundering the districts of Gaul. He attacked them unexpectedly while they were apprehensive of no hostile measures, but were reposing in fancied security, relying on the ruggedness and difficulty of the roads which led into their country, which no prince within their recollection had penetrated; some of them were settled in France pagus attuariorum south of Langres in the 3rd century. Under the Franks, the name of the Chattuari was used for what became two early medieval gaus on either side of the ride, north of the Ripuarian Franks, whose capital was in Cologne; the eastern side, they were near the Ruhr river, across the Rhine they settled near the Niers river, between Maas and Rhine, where the Romans had much earlier settled the Germanic Cugerni.
This western gau is mentioned in the Treaty of Meerssen, in the year 870 AD. The Chattuarii may appear in the poem Beowulf as "Hetwaras" where they appear to form a league together with the Hugas and the Frisians to fight against a Geatish raiding force from Denmark; the Geats are defeated and their king Hygelac is killed, Beowulf alone escaping. According to Widsith, the Hætwera were ruled by Hun. List of ancient Germanic peoples
Northern Europe is a general term for the geographical region in Europe, north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea, about 54°N. Narrower definitions may be based on other geographical factors such as ecology. A broader definition would include the area north of the Alps. Countries which are central-western, central or central-eastern are not considered part of either Northern or Southern Europe; when Europe was dominated by the Roman Empire, everything not near the Mediterranean region was termed Northern Europe, including southern Germany, all of the Low Countries, Austria. This meaning is still used today in some contexts, for example, discussions of the Northern Renaissance. Northern Europe might be defined as the British Isles, the peninsula of Jutland, the Baltic plain that lies to the east and the many islands that lie offshore from mainland Northern Europe and the main European continent. Nations included within this region are Denmark, the Faroe Islands, Iceland, Lithuania and Sweden, less the United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland, northern Germany, northern Belarus and northwest Russia.
The area is mountainous, including the northern volcanic islands of Iceland and Jan Mayen, the mountainous western seaboard and Scandinavia, includes part of a large eastern plain, with Lithuania, Latvia and Finland. The entire region's climate is at least mildly affected by the Gulf Stream. From the west climates vary from maritime subarctic climates. In the north and central climates are subarctic or Arctic and to the east climates are subarctic and temperate/continental. Just as both climate and relief are variable across the region, so too is vegetation, with sparse tundra in the north and high mountains, boreal forest on the north-eastern and central regions temperate coniferous forests and temperate broadleaf forests growing in the south and temperate east. Countries included in their entirety within the region, by population count: United Kingdom 66,040,229 Sweden 10,067,744 Denmark 5,769,603 Finland 5,513,000 Norway 5,282,223 Ireland 4,813,608 Lithuania 2,827,721 Latvia 1,940,740 Estonia 1,317,800 Iceland 341,284Countries in Northern Europe have developed economies and some of the highest standards of living in the world.
They score on surveys measuring quality of life, such as the Human Development Index. Aside from the United Kingdom, they have a small population relative to their size, most of whom live in cities. Most peoples living in Northern Europe are traditionally Protestant Christians, although many are non-practicing. There are growing numbers of non-religious people and people of other religions Muslims, due to immigration. In the United Kingdom, there are significant numbers of Indian religions such as Hindus and Sikhs, due to the large South Asian diaspora; the quality of education in much of Northern Europe is rated in international rankings, with Estonia and Finland topping the list among the OECD countries in Europe. The Hansa group in the European Union comprises most of the Northern European states. Media related to Northern Europe at Wikimedia Commons
Archaeology of Northern Europe
The archaeology of Northern Europe studies the prehistory of Scandinavia and the adjacent North European Plain corresponding to the territories of modern Sweden, Denmark, northern Germany and the Netherlands. The region entered the Mesolithic around the 7th millennium BCE; the transition to the Neolithic is characterized by the Funnelbeaker culture in the 4th millennium BCE. The Chalcolithic is marked by the arrival of the Corded Ware culture the first influence in the region of Indo-European expansion; the Nordic Bronze Age proper begins one millennium around 1500 BCE. The end of the Bronze Age is characterized by cultural contact with the Central European La Tène culture, contributing to the development of the Iron Age by the 4th century BCE the locus of Common Germanic culture. Northern Europe enters the protohistorical period in the early centuries CE, with the adoption of writing and ethnographic accounts by Roman authors; the following is a refined listing of Northern European archaeological periods, expanded from the basic three-age system with finer subdivisions and extension into the modern historical period.
During the 6th millennium BCE, the climate of Scandinavia was warmer and more humid than today. The bearers of the Nøstvet and Lihult cultures and the Kongemose culture were mesolithic hunter-gatherers; the Kongemose culture was replaced by the Ertebølle culture, adapting to the climatic changes and adopting the Neolithic Revolution, transitioning to the megalithic Funnelbeaker culture. The Pezmog 4 archaeological site along the Vychegda River was discovered in 1994. Pottery of early comb ware type appears there at the beginning of the 6th millennium BC. Pit–Comb Ware culture appeared in northern Europe as early 4200 BC, continued until c. 2000 BC. Some scholars argue. During the 4th millennium BCE, the Funnelbeaker culture expanded into Sweden up to Uppland; the Nøstvet and Lihult cultures were succeeded by the Pitted Ware culture Early Indo-European presence dates to the late 3rd millennium BCE, introducing the Nordic Bronze Age. The tripartite division of the Nordic Iron Age into "Pre-Roman Iron Age", "Roman Iron Age" and "Germanic Iron Age" is due to Swedish archaeologist Oscar Montelius.
The Pre-Roman Iron Age was the earliest part of the Iron Age in Scandinavia and North European Plain. Succeeding the Nordic Bronze Age, the Iron Age developed in contact with the Hallstatt culture in Central Europe. Archaeologists first made the decision to divide the Iron Age of Northern Europe into distinct pre-Roman and Roman Iron Ages after Emil Vedel unearthed a number of Iron Age artifacts in 1866 on the island of Bornholm, they did not exhibit the same permeating Roman influence seen in most other artifacts from the early centuries CE, indicating that parts of northern Europe had not yet come into contact with the Romans at the beginning of the Iron Age. Out of the Late Bronze Age Urnfield culture of the 12th century BCE developed the Early Iron Age Hallstatt culture of Central Europe from the eighth to sixth centuries BCE, followed by the La Tène culture of Central Europe. Albeit the metal iron came into wider use by metalsmiths in the Mediterranean as far back as c. 1300 BCE due to the Late Bronze Age collapse, the Pre-Roman Iron Age of Northern Europe started only as early as the 5th/4th to the 1st century BCE.
The Iron Age in northern Europe is markedly distinct from the Celtic La Tène culture south of it. The old long-range trading networks south-north between the Mediterranean cultures and Northern Europe had broken down at the end of the Nordic Bronze Age and caused a rapid and deep cultural change in Scandinavia. Bronze, an imported metal became scarce and iron, a local natural resource became more abundant, as the techniques for extracting and smithing it were acquired from their Central European Celtic neighbours. Iron was extracted from bog iron in peat bogs and the first iron objects to be fabricated were needles and edged tools such as swords and sickles; the rise of iron use in Scandinavia was slow, bog ore was only abundant in southwestern Jutland and it was not until 200–100 BCE, that the iron-working techniques were mastered and a productive smithing industry had evolved in the larger settlements. Iron products were known in Scandinavia during the Bronze Age, but they were a scarce imported material.
Imported bronze continued to be used during the Iron Age in Scandinavia, but it was now much scarcer and used for decoration. Funerary practices continued the Bronze Age tradition of burning corpses and placing the remains in urns, a characteristic of the Urnfield culture. During the previous centuries, influences from the Central European La Tène culture spread to Scandinavia from north-western Germany, there are finds from this period from all the provinces of southern Scandinavia. Archaeologists have found swords, shield bosses, scissors, pincers, needles, kettles, etc. from this time. Bronze continued to be used for torcs and kettles, the style of which were continuous from the Bronze Age; some of the most prominent finds from the pre-Roman Iron Age in northern Europe are the Gundestrup cauldron and the Dejbjerg wagons, two four-wheeled wagons of wood with bronze parts. The cultural change that ended the Nordic Bronze Age was affected by the expansion of Hallstatt culture from the south and accompanied by a changing climate, which caused a dramatic change in the flora and fauna.
In Scandinavia, this period is called the Findless Age due to the lack of archae
The Funnelbeaker culture, in short TRB or TBK was an archaeological culture in north-central Europe. It developed as a technological merger of local neolithic and mesolithic techno-complexes between the lower Elbe and middle Vistula rivers, introducing farming and husbandry as a major source of food to the pottery-using hunter-gatherers north of this line, it was preceded by Lengyel-influenced Stroke-ornamented ware culture groups/Late Lengyel and Baden-Boleráz in the southeast, Rössen groups in the southwest and the Ertebølle-Ellerbek groups in the north. The TRB techno-complex is divided into a northern group including modern northern Germany and southern Scandinavia, a western group in the Netherlands between the Zuiderzee and lower Elbe that originated in the Swifterbant culture, an eastern group centered on the Vistula catchment ranging from Oder to Bug, south-central groups around the middle and upper Elbe and Saale. In the southern and eastern groups, local sequences of variants emerged.
In the late 4th millennium BC, the Globular Amphora culture replaced most of the eastern and subsequently the southern TRB groups, reducing the TRB area to modern northern Germany and southern Scandinavia. The younger TRB in these areas was superseded by the Single Grave culture at about 2800 BC; the north-central European megaliths were built during the TRB era. The Funnelbeaker culture is named for its characteristic ceramics and amphorae with funnel-shaped tops, which were found in dolmen burials; the TRB ranges from the Elbe catchment in Germany and Bohemia with a western extension into the Netherlands, to southern Scandinavia in the north and to the Vistula catchment in today's Poland in the east. Variants of the Funnelbeaker culture in or near the Elbe catchment area include the Tiefstich pottery group in northern Germany as well as the cultures of the Baalberge group, the Salzmünde and Walternienburg and Bernburg whose centres were in Saxony-Anhalt. With the exception of some inland settlements such as Alvastra pile-dwelling, the settlements are located near those of the previous Ertebølle culture on the coast.
It was characterised by single-family daubed houses c. 12 m x 6 m. It was dominated by animal husbandry of sheep, cattle and goats, but there was hunting and fishing. One find assigned to the Funnelbeaker culture is the Bronocice pot from Poland, which shows the oldest known depiction of a wagon drawn by aurochs whose remains were found with the pot. Primitive wheat and barley was grown on small patches that were fast depleted, due to which the population moved small distances. There was mining and collection of flintstone, traded into regions lacking the stone, such as the Scandinavian hinterland; the culture used copper from Silesia daggers and axes. The houses were centered on a symbol of social cohesion. Burial practices were changed over time. Inhumation seems to have been the rule; the oldest graves consisted of wooden chambered cairns inside long barrows, but were made in the form of passage graves and dolmens. The structures were covered with a mound of earth and the entrance was blocked by a stone.
The Funnelbeaker culture marks the appearance of megalithic tombs at the coasts of the Baltic and of the North sea, an example of which are the Sieben Steinhäuser in northern Germany. The megalithic structures of Ireland and Portugal are somewhat older and have been connected to earlier archeological cultures of those areas. At graves, the people sacrificed ceramic vessels that contained food along with amber jewelry and flint-axes. Flint-axes and vessels were deposed in streams and lakes near the farmlands, all Sweden's 10,000 flint axes that have been found from this culture were sacrificed in water, they constructed large cult centres surrounded by pales and moats. The largest one is found at Sarup on Fyn, it is estimated to have taken 8000 workdays. Another cult centre at Stävie near Lund comprises 30,000 m2. In the context of the Kurgan hypothesis, the culture is seen as non-Indo-European, representing a culture of Neolithic origin, as opposed to the Indo-European-language-speaking peoples who intruded from the east.
Marija Gimbutas postulated that the political relationship between the aboriginal and intrusive cultures resulted in quick and smooth cultural morphosis into the Corded Ware culture. By contrast a number of other archaeologists in the past have proposed that the Corded Ware culture was a purely local development from Funnel Beaker, thus the question of continuity versus migration at the cusp of the cultural change was of interest to geneticists specialising in ancient DNA. A sample of Corded Ware people from Germany has been modelled as three-quarters Yamnaya, clear evidence of migration into the heartland of Europe from its eastern periphery. Ancient DNA extracted from three individuals ascribed to a TRB horizon in Gökhem, were found to possess mtDNA haplogroups H, J, T, it has been suggested that the Funnelbeaker culture was the origin of the gene allowing adults of Northern European descent to digest lactose. It was claimed that in the area inhabited by this culture, prevalence of the gene is u
Prehistoric Europe is the designation for the period of human presence in Europe before the start of recorded history, beginning in the Lower Paleolithic. As history progresses, considerable regional irregularities of cultural development emerge and increase; the region of the eastern Mediterranean is, due to its geographic proximity influenced and inspired by the classical Middle Eastern civilizations, adopts and develops the earliest systems of communal organization and writing. The Histories of Herodotus is the oldest known European text that seeks to systematically record traditions, public affairs and notable events. In contrast, the European regions furthest away from the ancient centers of civilization tended to be the slowest, regarding acculturation. In Northern and Eastern Europe in particular and systematic recording was only introduced in the context of Christianization, after 1000 CE. Dispersed, isolated finds of individual fossils of bone fragments, stone artifacts or assemblages that suggest Lower Paleolithic palaeo-human presence are rare and separated by thousands of years.
The karstic region of the Atapuerca Mountains in Spain represents the earliest known and reliably dated location of residence for more than a single generation and a group of individuals. Prolonged presence has been attested for Homo antecessor (or Homo erectus antecessor, Homo heidelbergensis and Neanderthals. Homo neanderthalensis emerged in Eurasia between 350,000 and 600,000 years ago as the earliest body of European people, that left behind a substantial tradition, a set of evaluable historic data through rich fossil record in Europe's limestone caves and a patchwork of occupation sites over large areas, including Mousterian cultural assemblages. Modern humans arrived in Mediterranean Europe during the Upper Paleolithic between 45,000 and 43,000 years ago, both species occupied a common habitat for several thousand years. Research has so far produced no universally accepted conclusive explanation as to what caused the Neanderthal's extinction between 40,000 and 28,000 years ago. Homo sapiens subsequently proceeded to populate the entire continent during the Mesolithic and advanced north, following the retreating ice sheets of the last glacial maximum.
A 2015 publication on ancient European DNA collected from Spain to Russia concluded that the original hunter-gatherer population had assimilated a wave of "farmers" who had arrived from the Near East during the Neolithic about 8,000 years ago. The Mesolithic era site Lepenski Vir in modern day Serbia, the earliest documented sedentary community of Europe with permanent buildings as well as monumental art precedes sites considered to be the oldest known by many centuries; the community's year round access to a food surplus prior to the introduction of agriculture was the basis for the sedentary lifestyle However, the earliest record for the adoption of elements of farming can be found in Starčevo, a community with close cultural ties. Belovode and Pločnik in Serbia, is the oldest reliably dated copper smelting site in Europe. Attributed to the Vinča culture, which on the contrary provides no links to the initiation of or a transition to the Chalcolithic or Copper age; the process of smelting bronze is an imported technology with debated origins and history of geographic cultural profusion.
It established in Europe about 3200 BC in the Aegean and production was centered around Cyprus, the primary source of copper for the Mediterranean for many centuries. The introduction of metallurgy which initiated unprecedented technological progress has been linked with the establishment of social stratification and distinction between rich and poor and precious metals as the means to fundamentally control the dynamics of culture and society; the European Iron Age culture originates in the East through the absorption of the technological principles obtained from the Hittites about 1200 BC arriving in Northern Europe by 500 BC. During the Iron Age, Central and most of Eastern Europe entered the historical period. Greek maritime colonization and Roman terrestrial conquest form the basis for the diffusion of literacy in large areas to this day; this tradition continued in an altered form and context for the most remote regions via the universal body of Christian texts, including the incorporation of Eastern European Slavic people and Russia into the Orthodox cultural sphere.
Latin and ancient Greek language continued to be the primary and best way to communicate and express ideas in Liberal arts education and the sciences all over Europe until the early modern period. The climatic record of the Paleolithic is characterized by the Pleistocene pattern of cyclic warmer and colder periods, including eight major cycles and numerous shorter episodes; the northern maximum of human occupation fluctuated in response to these changing conditions and successful settlement required constant adaption capabilities and problem solving. Most of Scandinavia, the North European Plain and Russia remained off limits for occupation during the Paleolithic and Mesolithic. Associated evidence, such as stone tools and settlement localities is more numerous than fossilized remains of the hominin occupants themselves; the simplest pebble tools with a few flakes struck off to create an edge were found in Dmanisi, Georgia and in Spain at sites in the Guadix-Baza basin and near Atapuerca. These Oldowan tool discoveries, called Mode 1-type assemblages are replaced by a more complex tradition, that included a range of hand axes and flake tools, the Acheulean, Mode 2-type assemblages.
Both types of tool sets are attributed to Homo erectus, the earliest an