Insects or Insecta are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum. Definitions and circumscriptions vary; as used here, the term Insecta is synonymous with Ectognatha. Insects have a chitinous exoskeleton, a three-part body, three pairs of jointed legs, compound eyes and one pair of antennae. Insects are the most diverse group of animals; the total number of extant species is estimated at between ten million. Insects may be found in nearly all environments, although only a small number of species reside in the oceans, which are dominated by another arthropod group, crustaceans. Nearly all insects hatch from eggs. Insect growth is constrained by the inelastic exoskeleton and development involves a series of molts; the immature stages differ from the adults in structure and habitat, can include a passive pupal stage in those groups that undergo four-stage metamorphosis. Insects that undergo three-stage metamorphosis lack a pupal stage and adults develop through a series of nymphal stages.
The higher level relationship of the insects is unclear. Fossilized insects of enormous size have been found from the Paleozoic Era, including giant dragonflies with wingspans of 55 to 70 cm; the most diverse insect groups appear to have coevolved with flowering plants. Adult insects move about by walking, flying, or sometimes swimming; as it allows for rapid yet stable movement, many insects adopt a tripedal gait in which they walk with their legs touching the ground in alternating triangles, composed of the front & rear on one side with the middle on the other side. Insects are the only invertebrates to have evolved flight, all flying insects derive from one common ancestor. Many insects spend at least part of their lives under water, with larval adaptations that include gills, some adult insects are aquatic and have adaptations for swimming; some species, such as water striders, are capable of walking on the surface of water. Insects are solitary, but some, such as certain bees and termites, are social and live in large, well-organized colonies.
Some insects, such as earwigs, show maternal care, guarding their eggs and young. Insects can communicate with each other in a variety of ways. Male moths can sense the pheromones of female moths over great distances. Other species communicate with sounds: crickets stridulate, or rub their wings together, to attract a mate and repel other males. Lampyrid beetles communicate with light. Humans regard certain insects as pests, attempt to control them using insecticides, a host of other techniques; some insects damage crops by feeding on sap, fruits, or wood. Some species are parasitic, may vector diseases; some insects perform complex ecological roles. Insect pollinators are essential to the life cycle of many flowering plant species on which most organisms, including humans, are at least dependent. Many insects are considered ecologically beneficial as predators and a few provide direct economic benefit. Silkworms produce silk and honey bees produce honey and both have been domesticated by humans.
Insects are consumed as food in 80% of the world's nations, by people in 3000 ethnic groups. Human activities have effects on insect biodiversity; the word "insect" comes from the Latin word insectum, meaning "with a notched or divided body", or "cut into", from the neuter singular perfect passive participle of insectare, "to cut into, to cut up", from in- "into" and secare "to cut". A calque of Greek ἔντομον, "cut into sections", Pliny the Elder introduced the Latin designation as a loan-translation of the Greek word ἔντομος or "insect", Aristotle's term for this class of life in reference to their "notched" bodies. "Insect" first appears documented in English in 1601 in Holland's translation of Pliny. Translations of Aristotle's term form the usual word for "insect" in Welsh, Serbo-Croatian, etc; the precise definition of the taxon Insecta and the equivalent English name "insect" varies. In the broadest circumscription, Insecta sensu lato consists of all hexapods. Traditionally, insects defined in this way were divided into "Apterygota" —the wingless insects—and Pterygota—the winged insects.
However, modern phylogenetic studies have shown that "Apterygota" is not monophyletic, so does not form a good taxon. A narrower circumscription restricts insects to those hexapods with external mouthparts, comprises only the last three groups in the table. In this sense, Insecta sensu stricto is equivalent to Ectognatha. In the narrowest circumscription, insects are restricted to hexapods that are either winged or descended from winged ancestors. Insecta sensu strictissimo is equivalent to Pterygota. For the purposes of this article, the middle definition is used; the evolutionary relationship of insects to other animal groups remains unclear. Although traditionally grouped with millipedes and centiped
Hawaiian honeycreepers are small, passerine birds endemic to Hawaiʻi. They are related to the rosefinches in the genus Carpodacus, their great morphological diversity is the result of adaptive radiation in an insular environment. Before the introduction of molecular phylogenetic techniques, the relationship of the Hawaiian honeycreepers to other bird species was controversial; the honeycreepers were sometimes categorized as a family Drepanididae, other authorities considered them a subfamily, Drepanidinae, of Fringillidae, the finch family. The entire group was called "Drepanidini" in treatments where buntings and American sparrows are included in the finch family. Most the entire group has been subsumed into the finch subfamily Carduelinae; the group is divided into three tribes, but only provisionally so. Several taxa appear to be too basal to place into one of these, others are best considered incertae sedis; some unusual forms never seen alive by scientists, such as Xestospiza or Vangulifer, cannot be placed into any tribe.
Members of Psittirostrini, known as "Hawaiian finches", are granivorous with thick finch-like bills, songs like those of cardueline finches. The group once covered the islands. Finch-billed drepanids include the Laysan finch, the Nihoa finch, the Maui parrotbill and the palila, which may be the last remaining species left alive in this group. Extinct species include the four koa finches, the ʻōʻū, the Lānaʻi hookbill. Birds of the tribe Hemignathini are thin-billed billed species that feed on nectar and insects, include the ʻamakihis as well as the Hawaiʻi creeper and its allies, such as the nukupuʻu. Though these are green-plumaged birds, a few members of this group have yellow, red and/or gray feathers. Species in the tribe Drepanidini are nectarivorous, their songs contain nasal squeaks and whistles, it includes ʻapapane, ʻakohekohe and the extinct mamos. In the tribe Psittirostrini the males are more brightly colored than the females, but in the Hemignathini and Drepanidini they look similar.
Nearly all species of Hawaiian Honeycreepers have been noted as having a unique odor to their plumage, described by many researchers as "rather like that of old canvas tents". This "Drepanidine odor" is suspected by some as having a role in making the bird distasteful to predators. Today, the flowers of the native ʻōhiʻa lehua are favored by a number of nectarivorous honeycreepers; the wide range of bills in this group, from thick, finch-like bills to slender, downcurved bills for probing flowers have arisen through adaptive radiation, where an ancestral finch has evolved to fill a large number of ecological niches. Some 20 species of Hawaiian honeycreeper have become extinct in the recent past, many more in earlier times, between the arrival of the Polynesians who introduced the first rats, chickens and dogs, hunted and converted habitat for agriculture; the term "prehistoric" indicates species that became extinct between the initial human settlement of Hawaiʻi and European contact in 1778.
Subfamily Carduelinae Tribe Drepanidini Genus Ciridops Newton, 1892 – finch-like, fed on fruit of Pritchardia species Ciridops anna Dole, 1879 – ʻula ʻai hāwane Ciridops tenax Olson & James, 1991 stout-legged finch Genus Drepanis Temminck, 1820 – downcurved bills, nectarivores Drepanis funerea Newton, 1894 – black mamo Drepanis pacifica Gmelin, 1788 – Hawaiʻi mamo Drepanis coccinea Forster, 1780 – ʻiʻiwi Genus Himatione – thin-billed nectarivore Himatione sanguinea Gmelin, 1788 – ʻapapane Himatione fraithii – Laysan honeycreeper Genus Melamprosops Casey & Jacobi, 1974 – short pointed bill and snail specialist Melamprosops phaeosoma Casey & Jacobi, 1974 – poʻouli Genus Palmeria Rothschild, 1893 – thin-billed nectarivore, favors Metrosideros polymorpha Palmeria dolei Wilson, 1891 – ʻakohekohe Tribe Hemignathini Genus Aidemedia Olson & James, 1991 – straight thin bills, insectivoresAidemedia chascax Olson & James, 1991 – Oʻahu icterid-like gaper Aidemedia lutetiae Olson & James, 1991 – Maui Nui icterid-like gaper Aidemedia zanclops Olson & James, 1991 – sickle-billed gaper Genus Chlorodrepanis Olson & James, 1995 – pointed bills, insectivorous or nectarivorous Chlorodrepanis stejnegeri Pratt, 1989 – Kauaʻi ʻamakihi Chlorodrepanis flava Bloxam, 1827 – Oʻahu ʻamakihi Chlorodrepanis virens Cabanis, 1851 – Hawaiʻi ʻamakihi Genus Viridonia Viridonia sagittirostris Rothschild, 1892 – greater ʻamakihi Genus Hemignathus Lichtenstein, 1839 – pointed or long and downcurved bills, insectivorous or nectarivorous Hemignathus affinis – Maui nukupuʻu Hemignathus hanapepe – Kauaʻi nukupuʻu Hemignathus lucidus – Oʻahu nukupuʻu Hemignathus vorpalis James & Olson, 2003 – Giant nukupu'u Genus Heterorhynchus Hemignathus wilsoni Rothschild, 1893 – ʻakiapolaʻau Genus Magumma Magumma parva Stejneger, 1887 - ʻanianiau Genus Akialoa Olson & James, 1995 – pointed and downcurved bills, insectivorous or nectarivorous Akialoa ellisiana Gray, 1859 – Oʻahu ʻakialoa Akialoa lanaiensis Rothschild, 1893 – Maui Nui ʻakialoa Akialoa stejnegeri Wilson, 1889 – Kauaʻi ʻakialoa Akialoa obscura Cabanis, 1889 – lesser ʻakialoa Akialoa upupirostris – hoopoe-billed ʻakialoa Genus Loxops – small pointed bills with the tips offset a little horizontally, insectivores Lo
A passerine is any bird of the order Passeriformes, which includes more than half of all bird species. Sometimes known as perching birds or – less – as songbirds, passerines are distinguished from other orders of birds by the arrangement of their toes, which facilitates perching. With more than 110 families and some 6,409 identified species, Passeriformes is the largest order of birds and among the most diverse orders of terrestrial vertebrates. Passerines are divided into three clades, Acanthisitti and Passeri; the passerines contain several groups of brood parasites such as the viduas, cuckoo-finches, the cowbirds. Most passerines are omnivorous; the terms "passerine" and "Passeriformes" are derived from the scientific name of the house sparrow, Passer domesticus, from the Latin term passer, which refers to sparrows and similar small birds. The order is divided into three suborders, Tyranni and the basal Acanthisitti. Oscines have the best control of their syrinx muscles among birds, producing a wide range of songs and other vocalizations.
The acanthisittids or New Zealand wrens are tiny birds restricted to New Zealand, at least in modern times. Most passerines are smaller than typical members of other avian orders; the heaviest and altogether largest passerines are the thick-billed raven and the larger races of common raven, each exceeding 1.5 kg and 70 cm. The superb lyrebird and some birds-of-paradise, due to long tails or tail coverts, are longer overall; the smallest passerine is the short-tailed pygmy tyrant, at 4.2 g. The foot of a passerine has three toes directed forward and one toe directed backward, called anisodactyl arrangement; this arrangement enables the passerine birds to perch upon vertical surfaces, such as trees and cliffs. The toes have no webbing or joining, but in some cotingas, the second and third toes are united at their basal third; the hind toe joins the leg at the same level as the front toes. The passeriformes have this toe arrangement in common with hunting birds like falcons; the leg arrangement of passerine birds contains a special adaptation for perching.
A tendon in the rear of the leg running from the underside of the toes to the muscle behind the tibiotarsus will automatically be pulled and tighten when the leg bends, causing the foot to curl and become stiff when the bird lands on a branch. This enables passerines to sleep. Most passerine birds develop 12 tail feathers, although the superb lyrebird has 16. Certain species of passerines have stiff tail feathers, which help the birds balance themselves when perching upon vertical surfaces; some passerines in the family Ploceidae, are well known for their elaborate sexual ornaments, including long tails. A well-known example is the long-tailed widowbird; the chicks of passerines are altricial: blind and helpless when hatched from their eggs. Hence, the chicks require extensive parental care. Most passerines lay coloured eggs, in contrast with nonpasserines, most of whose eggs are white except in some ground-nesting groups such as Charadriiformes and nightjars, where camouflage is necessary, in some parasitic cuckoos, which match the passerine host's egg.
Vinous-throated parrotbill has two egg colours and blue. This can prevent the brood parasitic Common cuckoo. Clutches vary in size: some larger passerines of Australia such as lyrebirds and scrub-robins lay only a single egg, most smaller passerines in warmer climates lay between two and five, while in the higher latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, hole-nesting species like tits can lay up to a dozen and other species around five or six; the family Viduidae do not build their own nests, they lay eggs in other birds' nests. The evolutionary history of the passerine families and the relationships among them remained rather mysterious until the late 20th century. In many cases, passerine families were grouped together on the basis of morphological similarities that, it is now believed, are the result of convergent evolution, not a close genetic relationship. For example, the wrens of the Eurasia. Much research remains to be done, but advances in molecular biology and improved paleobiogeographical data are revealing a clearer picture of passerine origins and evolution that reconciles molecular affinities, the constraints of morphology and the specifics of the fossil record.
The first passerines are now thought to have evolved in the Southern Hemisphere in the late Paleocene or early Eocene, around 50 million years ago. The initial split was between the New Zealand wrens and all other passerines, the second split involved the Tyranni and the Passeri; the latter experienced a great radiation of forms out of the Australian continent. A major branch of the Passeri, parvorder Passerida, expanded deep into Eurasia and Africa, where a further explosive radiation of new lineages occurred; this led to three major Passerida lineages comprising about 4,000 species, which in addition to the Corvida and numerous minor linea
Lake Michigan is one of the five Great Lakes of North America and the only one located within the United States. The other four Great Lakes are shared by the U. S. and Canada. It is the second-largest of the Great Lakes by volume and the third-largest by surface area, after Lake Superior and Lake Huron. To the east, its basin is conjoined with that of Lake Huron through the wide Straits of Mackinac, giving it the same surface elevation as its easterly counterpart. Lake Michigan is shared, from west to east, by the U. S. states of Wisconsin, Illinois and Michigan. Ports along its shores include Chicago; the word "Michigan" referred to the lake itself, is believed to come from the Ojibwe word michi-gami meaning "great water". Some of the earliest human inhabitants of the Lake Michigan region were the Hopewell Indians, their culture declined after 800 AD, for the next few hundred years, the region was the home of peoples known as the Late Woodland Indians. In the early 17th century, when western European explorers made their first forays into the region, they encountered descendants of the Late Woodland Indians: the Chippewa.
The French explorer Jean Nicolet is believed to have been the first European to reach Lake Michigan in 1634 or 1638. In the earliest European maps of the region, the name of Lake Illinois has been found in addition to that of "Michigan", named for the Illinois Confederation of tribes. Lake Michigan is joined via the narrow, open-water Straits of Mackinac with Lake Huron, the combined body of water is sometimes called Michigan–Huron; the Straits of Mackinac were an important Native American and fur trade route. Located on the southern side of the Straits is the town of Mackinaw City, the site of Fort Michilimackinac, a reconstructed French fort founded in 1715, on the northern side is St. Ignace, site of a French Catholic mission to the Indians, founded in 1671. In 1673, Jacques Marquette, Louis Joliet and their crew of five Métis voyageurs followed Lake Michigan to Green Bay and up the Fox River, nearly to its headwaters, in their search for the Mississippi River, cf. Fox–Wisconsin Waterway.
The eastern end of the Straits was controlled by Fort Mackinac on Mackinac Island, a British colonial and early American military base and fur trade center, founded in 1781. With the advent of European exploration into the area in the late 17th century, Lake Michigan became part of a line of waterways leading from the Saint Lawrence River to the Mississippi River and thence to the Gulf of Mexico. French coureurs des bois and voyageurs established small ports and trading communities, such as Green Bay, on the lake during the late 17th and early 18th centuries. In the 19th century, Lake Michigan played a major role in the development of Chicago and the Midwestern United States west of the lake. For example, 90% of the grain shipped from Chicago travelled east over Lake Michigan during the antebellum years, only falling below 50% after the Civil War and the major expansion of railroad shipping; the first person to reach the deep bottom of Lake Michigan was J. Val Klump, a scientist at the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee.
Klump reached the bottom via submersible as part of a 1985 research expedition. In 2007, a row of stones paralleling an ancient shoreline was discovered by Mark Holley, professor of underwater archeology at Northwestern Michigan College; this formation lies 40 feet below the surface of the lake. One of the stones is said to have a carving resembling a mastodon. So far the formation has not been authenticated; the warming of Lake Michigan was the subject of a report by Purdue University in 2018. In each decade since 1980, steady increases in average surface temperature have occurred; this is to lead to decreasing native habitat and to adversely affect native species survival. Lake Michigan is the sole Great Lake wholly within the borders of the United States, it lies in the region known as the American Midwest. Lake Michigan has a surface area of 22,404 sq.mi. It is the larger half of Lake Michigan–Huron, the largest body of fresh water in the world by surface area, it is 307 miles long by 118 miles wide with a shoreline 1,640 miles long.
The lake's average depth is 46 fathoms 3 feet. It contains a volume of 1,180 cubic miles of water. Green Bay in the northwest is its largest bay. Grand Traverse Bay in its northeast is another large bay. Lake Michigan's deepest region, which lies in its northern-half, is called Chippewa Basin and is separated from South Chippewa Basin, by a shallower area called the Mid Lake Plateau. Twelve million people live along Lake Michigan's shores in the Chicago and Milwaukee metropolitan areas; the economy of many communities in northern Michigan and Door County, Wisconsin is supported by tourism, with large seasonal populations attracted by Lake Michigan. Seasonal residents have summer homes along the waterfront and return home for the winter; the southern
Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore
Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore is a United States National Lakeshore located along the northwest coast of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan in Leelanau and Benzie counties near Empire, Michigan. The park covers a 35-mile-long stretch of Lake Michigan's eastern coastline, as well as North and South Manitou islands; this Northern Michigan park was established because of its outstanding natural features, including forests, dune formations, ancient glacial phenomena. The lakeshore contains many cultural features including the 1871 South Manitou Island Lighthouse, three former stations of the Coast Guard and an extensive rural historic farm district. In 2011, the area won the title of "The Most Beautiful Place in America" from Good Morning America. In 2014, a section of the park was named the Sleeping Bear Dunes Wilderness by the United States Congress; the park was authorized on October 21, 1970. The park's creation was controversial because it involved the transfer of private property to public.
The federal government's stance at the time was that the Great Lakes were the "third coast" and had to be preserved much like Cape Hatteras or Big Sur, which are National Seashores. The residents living in what is now Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore believed themselves to be stewards of the land and did not want it to be overrun by tourists; the government won out, in part by supporting the local schools to offset the lost property tax revenue and by adding North Manitou Island to be included in the park. The park is named after an Ojibwe legend of the sleeping bear. According to the legend, an enormous forest fire on the western shore of Lake Michigan drove a mother bear and her two cubs into the lake for shelter, determined to reach the opposite shore. After many miles of swimming, the two cubs lagged behind; when the mother bear reached the shore, she waited on the top of a high bluff. The exhausted cubs drowned in the lake, but the mother bear stayed and waited in hopes that her cubs would appear.
Impressed by the mother bear's determination and faith, the Great Spirit created two islands to commemorate the cubs, the winds buried the sleeping bear under the sands of the dunes where she waits to this day. The "bear" was a small tree-covered knoll at the top edge of the bluff that, from the water, had the appearance of a sleeping bear. Wind and erosion have caused the "bear" to be reduced in size over the years. In 2014, 32,500 acres of the park were formally designated as the Sleeping Bear Dunes Wilderness by the Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore Conservation and Recreation Act; this was the first wilderness protection bill to be passed by the United States Congress in five years. Glen Haven existed as a company town from 1865 to 1931. A dock for Glen Arbor, the site soon became a fuel supply point for ships traveling up and down the lake. Here, Charles McCarty decided to open his own business and built a dock to supply the ships with wood. In 1863, McCarty built the Sleeping Bear House.
It was expanded a few years to accommodate travelers. In 1928, it was remodeled into the inn for summer vacationers; the General Store was established to supply the workers. Like most company towns, the workers were paid in company coupons, redeemable only at the company store; the Blacksmith Shop is. In 1878, David Henry Day arrived in the community. By this time, coal from the Appalachian coal fields was replacing wood on the steamships. Day was looking for another future to this small community. In 1860, Port Oneida had a population of 87 people. Thomas Kelderhouse had built a dock to sell wood to the passing steamships, he was able to sell fresh produce and maple sugar in season. A local story says; the area includes 16 historic farms. The farming community was abandoned due to hard farming conditions and declining timber sales. Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore is one of Michigan's most popular destinations for camping vacations the most popular; this popularity may be due to the fact it was named the "Most Beautiful Place in America" by Good Morning America in 2011.
There are a few campgrounds in the national lakeshore and they are grouped into D. H. Day Campground, Platte River Campground, a few camping areas on the Manitou Islands within, some other sites for backcountry or group camping. D. H. Day Campground is part of Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore and offers a moderate level of privacy and a beach on Lake Michigan. Campsites are rustic and more far apart than campsites at most campgrounds. Nearby points of interest include Empire Bluffs, the "dune climb", North Bar Lake. Campsites 1–31 allow the use of a generator, the remaining sites forbid generator use. Platte River Campground is part of Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore and offers a variety of campsites; some campsites are modern, some are "hike-in," and others are more rustic. Nearby points of interest include Platte River Point, the Platte River, Big Platte Lake; the north section of Sleeping Bear Dunes National Park is a short drive from Platte River Campground. Kayaking is a popular activity at the campground the kayak trail leading from the campground to Platte River Point Sleeping Bear Dunes has three main campgrounds on South Manitou Island, including the Weather Station Campground located on the south side of the island, the Bay Campground on the west shore of the island and the Popple Campground on the north shore.
In addition to federal campgrounds within the national lakeshore itself, ther
Wales is a country, part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, the Bristol Channel to the south, it had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2. Wales has over 1,680 miles of coastline and is mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon, its highest summit; the country has a changeable, maritime climate. Welsh national identity emerged among the Britons after the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the 5th century, Wales is regarded as one of the modern Celtic nations. Llywelyn ap Gruffudd's death in 1282 marked the completion of Edward I of England's conquest of Wales, though Owain Glyndŵr restored independence to Wales in the early 15th century; the whole of Wales was annexed by England and incorporated within the English legal system under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. Distinctive Welsh politics developed in the 19th century. Welsh liberalism, exemplified in the early 20th century by Lloyd George, was displaced by the growth of socialism and the Labour Party.
Welsh national feeling grew over the century. Established under the Government of Wales Act 1998, the National Assembly for Wales holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters. At the dawn of the Industrial Revolution, development of the mining and metallurgical industries transformed the country from an agricultural society into an industrial nation. Two-thirds of the population live in South Wales, including Cardiff, Swansea and the nearby valleys. Now that the country's traditional extractive and heavy industries have gone or are in decline, Wales' economy depends on the public sector and service industries and tourism. Although Wales shares its political and social history with the rest of Great Britain, a majority of the population in most areas speaks English as a first language, the country has retained a distinct cultural identity and is bilingual. Over 560,000 Welsh language speakers live in Wales, the language is spoken by a majority of the population in parts of the north and west.
From the late 19th century onwards, Wales acquired its popular image as the "land of song", in part due to the eisteddfod tradition. At many international sporting events, such as the FIFA World Cup, Rugby World Cup and the Commonwealth Games, Wales has its own national teams, though at the Olympic Games, Welsh athletes compete as part of a Great Britain team. Rugby union is seen as an expression of national consciousness; the English words "Wales" and "Welsh" derive from the same Germanic root, itself derived from the name of the Gaulish people known to the Romans as Volcae and which came to refer indiscriminately to all non-Germanic peoples. The Old English-speaking Anglo-Saxons came to use the term Wælisc when referring to the Britons in particular, Wēalas when referring to their lands; the modern names for some Continental European lands and peoples have a similar etymology. In Britain, the words were not restricted to modern Wales or to the Welsh but were used to refer to anything that the Anglo-Saxons associated with the Britons, including other non-Germanic territories in Britain and places in Anglo-Saxon territory associated with Britons, as well as items associated with non-Germanic Europeans, such as the walnut.
The modern Welsh name for themselves is Cymry, Cymru is the Welsh name for Wales. These words are descended from the Brythonic word combrogi, meaning "fellow-countrymen"; the use of the word Cymry as a self-designation derives from the location in the post-Roman Era of the Welsh people in modern Wales as well as in northern England and southern Scotland. It emphasised that the Welsh in modern Wales and in the Hen Ogledd were one people, different from other peoples. In particular, the term was not applied to the Cornish or the Breton peoples, who are of similar heritage and language to the Welsh; the word came into use as a self-description before the 7th century. It is attested in a praise poem to Cadwallon ap Cadfan c. 633. In Welsh literature, the word Cymry was used throughout the Middle Ages to describe the Welsh, though the older, more generic term Brythoniaid continued to be used to describe any of the Britonnic peoples and was the more common literary term until c. 1200. Thereafter Cymry prevailed as a reference to the Welsh.
Until c. 1560 the word was spelt Kymry or Cymry, regardless of whether it referred to the people or their homeland. The Latinised forms of these names, Cambrian and Cambria, survive as lesser-used alternative names for Wales and the Welsh people. Examples include the Cambrian Mountains, the newspaper Cambrian News, the organisations Cambrian Airways, Cambrian Railways, Cambrian Archaeological Association and the Royal Cambrian Academy of Art. Outside Wales, a related form survives as the name Cumbria in North West England, once a part of Yr Hen Ogledd; the Cumbric language, thought to
Reverse migration (birds)
Reverse migration called reverse misorientation is a phenomenon in bird migration where a bird will fly in the opposite direction of what is species typical during the migration time. If a bird sets off in the opposite direction, shown by the orange arrow, it will end up in Western Europe instead of South East Asia; this is a mechanism that leads to birds such as Pallas's warbler turning up thousands of kilometres from where they should be. Keith Vinicombe suggested that birds from east of Lake Baikal in Siberia could not occur in western Europe because the migration routes were too north-south. Most of these lost young birds perish in unsuitable wintering grounds, but there is some evidence that a few survive, either re-orient in successive winters, or return to the same area; some large birds such as swans learn migration routes from their parents. However, in most small species, such as passerines, the route is genetically programmed, young birds can innately navigate to their wintering area.
Sometimes this programming goes wrong, the young bird, in its first autumn, migrates on a route 180° from the correct route. This is shown in the diagram, where the typical migration route is shown in red but a reverse migration has occurred as seen in orange in the image. So with some species such as swans that the migration route is learned and reverse migration could occur from learning improper route from parents or other birds; as migration is most genetically programmed before birth into most birds there can be rare variations and defects that change the migration programming. These variations will account for some of the reverse migration cases but would not account for most of these reverse migrations. After these birds have changed their migration path and are surviving they may breed with others who are follow the different migration route and reproduce; these offspring from the birds following a different migration route have not learned this new migration route, for them it is genetic.
These offspring may reproduce with others the may pass the new route along to their own offspring continuing this new route though generations. A single individual bird is tracked using a manually operated tracking radar to understand the targets exact position and trajectory to predict where it will be; as the bird flaps their wings the echo can be recorded and compared to patterns to understand flight patterns and changes in flight patterns. These were used to monitor specific individuals during nocturnal migration through the night; this is a technique used to track animals with receivers. A miniature transmitter is attached to the subject animal and this transmitter emits a high frequency which can be picked up with one or more receivers. For studying the moment behaviour of birds in a migration hotspot south-west of Sweden called Falsterbo near Falsterbo bird observatory three receivers were used to triangulate and track the birds. Ringing birds is when a light weight metal band is attach to the foot to not impair movement but stay on the bird with a identification number.
This identification number can provide people catching and these birds movement and history with information such as how old they are and where they have been. At the Falsterbo bird observatory these birds are caught with a mist net banded. Reverse migration is widespread around the world and occurs for many species migrating during the night and during the day; this irregular migration direction is most aproximatly opposite to what is species typical not a random direction. This phenomenon occurs not only with species migrating to a tropical area during the winter months but with temperate zone migrants, short irruptive food migrants, short distance migrant, long distance migrants. An article in British Birds by James Gilroy and Alexander Lees suggests that misorientation occurs opposite direction but can occur in random directions; these random directions could be due to genetic variations or abnormalities. These birds that adopt and continue to migrate in this atypical directions have been called Pseudo-vagrancy migrators.
Pseudo-vagrancy is the possibility that a bird will migrate in a different area or direction from the normal migration route. Some species have been found to be more then others for having the pseudo-vagrancy migration changes. Yellow-breasted Bunting is considered a lower chance of pseudo-vagrancy behaviours as compared to the Yellow-browed Warbler for having higher chance of pseudo-vagrancy behaviours It was found that solitary birds migrating during the night are more to reverse migrate West, when East is the regular migratory path; this West to East reverse migration was observed more than a reverse migration to the North rather than the normal South migration. To only examine single species this study examined birds solitarily migrating during the night so that they do not group-migrate and influence other species to follow or follow other species. Reverse migration is more to occur with bird species that have low fat storage compared to higher fat storage. Using radio tracking thrush songbirds migrating southwards were tracked to examine when and why some during a stopover along the northern coast of Mexico some would not continue south but fly inland northerly.
These songbirds that changed their normal seasonal southerly migration were all found to be lean and low on fat stores. This inland northerly path may show that the normal stopover location did not have adequate resources to increase fat stores of these birds. So, because they were unable to gain enough fat stores these reverse migrating songbirds moved inland northerly in search of more food; the reverse migration behaviour has been seen in the shoreb