Vattaparai Falls are located at: 8°15.919′N 77°27.062′E, elevation 40 m, in the Keeriparai reserve forest near Bhoothapandi village on the Pazhayar River in Kanyakumari district, Tamil Nadu state, South India. It is 25 km N of Nagercoil) and 32 km NW of Kanyakumari; this 20 km2 area is proposed to be a Wildlife Sanctuary. There are a few small waterfalls in this area - the nicer ones being Vattaparai Falls and Kalikesam falls. There is a small Kali temple, next to the falls; this is a serene and undeveloped place with only one small tea stall. One can enjoy water rushing through small mountain streams and pebbles in the rainforests; the falls are surrounded by forest on all forms part of an active animal corridor. The long stream is pollution-free. People are allowed to take a natural bath here and it is believed that the water from the stream has some medicinal effects; this is a peaceful place. It is unlike the most popular falls in this district, the Tirparappu Water Falls on the Kodayar River, which has become a typical crowded tourist spot.
District Collector, Nagercoil 629001. "Official website of Kanyakumari District." Places of Tourist Interest
The Mullaperiyar Dam or Mullaiperiyar Dam is a masonry gravity dam on the Periyar River in the Indian state of Kerala It is located 881 m above mean sea level, on the Cardamom Hills of the Western Ghats in Thekkady, Idukki District of Kerala, South India. It was constructed between 1887 and 1895 by John Pennycuick and reached in an agreement to divert water eastwards to the Madras Presidency area, it has a height of 53.6 m from the foundation, a length of 365.7 m. The Periyar National Park in Thekkady is located around the dam's reservoir; the dam is located in Kerala on the river Periyar, but is operated and maintained by Tamil Nadu state. Although the Periyar River has a total catchment area of 5398 km2 with 114 km2 in Tamil Nadu, the catchment area of the Mullaperiyar Dam itself lies in Kerala. On 21 November 2014, the water level hit 142 feet for first time in 35 years; the reservoir again hit the maximum limit of 142 feet on 15 August 2018, following incessant rains in the state of Kerala.
Earlier known as the Periyaru Dam as it was meant to dam the Periyaru river, the present name Mullaperiyar is derived by vaguely blending the names of Mullayar River and Periyaru River, at the confluence of which the dam is located below. The Periyaru river which flows westward of kerala Arabian sea was diverted eastwards to flow towards the Bay of Bengal to provide water to the arid rain shadow region of Madurai in Madras Presidency, in dire need of a greater supply of water than the small Vaigai River could provide; the dam created the Periyar Thekkady reservoir, from which water was diverted eastwards via a tunnel to augment the small flow of the Vaigai River. The Vaigai was dammed by the Vaigai Dam to provide a source for irrigating large tracts around Madurai; the dam waters were used only for the irrigation of 68,558 ha. The water from the Periyaru Lake created by the dam, is diverted through the water shed cutting and a subterranean tunnel to Forebay Dam near Kumily. From the Forebay dam, hydel pipe lines carry the water to the Periyar Power Station in Lower Periyaru.
This is used for power generation in the Periyar Power Station. From the Periyar Power Station, the water is let out into Vairavanar river and to Suruliyar and from Suruliyar to Vaigai Dam; the Mullaperiyar Dam is a gravity dam made with concrete prepared from limestone and "surkhi", faced with rubble. Gravity dams use the force of gravity to support the reservoir and remain stable; the main dam has a maximum height of 53.6 m and length of 365.7 m. Its crest is 3.6 m wide while the base has a width of 42.2 m. It consists of a main dam, spillway on an auxiliary dam to the right, its reservoir can withhold 443,230,000 m3 of water. The unique idea of harnessing the westward flowing water of the Periyar river and diverting it to the eastward flowing Vaigai river was first explored in 1789 by Pradani Muthirulappa Pillai, a minister of the Ramnad king Muthuramalinga Sethupathy, who gave it up as he found it to be expensive; the location of the dam had first been scouted by Captain J. L. Caldwell, Madras Engineers in 1808 to reconnoitre the feasibility of providing water from the Periyar river to Madurai by a tunnel through the mountains.
Caldwell discovered that the excavation needed would be in excess of 100 feet in depth and the project was abandoned with the comment in his report as "decidedly chimerical and unworthy of any further regard". The first attempt at damming the Periyaar with an earthen dam in 1850 was given up due to demands for higher wages by the labour citing unhealthy living conditions; the proposal was resubmitted a number of times and in 1862, Captain J. G. Ryves, M. E. submitted proposals in 1867 for another earthwork dam, 62 feet high. The matter was debated by the Madras Government and the matter further delayed by the terrible famine of 1876-77. In 1882, the construction of the dam was approved and Major John Pennycuick, M. E. placed in charge to prepare a revised project and estimate, approved in 1884 by his superiors. On 29 October 1886, a lease indenture for 999 years was made between the Maharaja of Travancore, Visakham Thirunal Rama Varma and the British Secretary of State for India for Periyar Irrigation Works.
The lease agreement was signed by Dewan of Travancore V Ram Iyengar and State Secretary of Madras State J C Hannington. This lease was made after 24 years negotiation between the British; the lease indenture granted full right and liberty to the Secretary of State for India to construct make and carry out on the leased land and to use when constructed and carried out, all such irrigation works and other works ancillary thereto. The agreement gave 8000 acres of land for another 100 acres to construct the dam; the tax for each acre was ₹ 5 per year. The lease provided the British the rights over "all the waters" of the Mullaperiyar and its catchment basin, for an annual rent of ₹ 40,000. In 1947, after Indian Independence, after British India was partitioned in 1947 into India and Pakistan and Cochin joined the Union of India and on 1 July 1949 were merged to form Travancore-Cochin. On 1 January 1950, Travancore-Cochin was recognised as a state; the Madras Presidency was organised to form Madras State in 1947.
On 1 November 1956, the state of Kerala was formed by the States Reorganisation Act merging the Malabar district, Travancore-Cochin (excluding four southern taluks, which were
The Vaigai Dam is built across the Vaigai River near Andipatti, in the Theni district of Tamil Nadu, southern India. It provides water for irrigation for the Madurai district and the Dindigul district as well as drinking water to Madurai and Andipatti. Near the dam, the Government of Tamil Nadu has constructed an Agricultural Research Station for researching the growing of a variety of crops, including rice, blackgram and cotton. Vaigai Dam was inaugurated on 21 January 1959 by Tamil Nadu chief Minister Mr. K. Kamaraj. Vaigai Dam measures 111 ft in height and can store water up to 71 ft, with a total storage capacity of 6,143 mcft. Vaigai Dam is maintained by Water Resources Department which in turn managed by the Tamil Nadu Public Works Department; the dam is illuminated every Sunday. A Small and beautiful park is maintained by the Water Resources Department on both sides of the Dam. A small bridge connects the two sides of the park in front of the dam; the park have a children play area. Vaigai Hydroelectric Power Plant was design capacity of 6 MW.
It has 2 unit of 3 MW each. The first unit was commissioned in 1990, it is operated by Distribution Corporation Limited. Vaigai Dam is one of the 104 dams in Tamil Nadu, proposed to be improved under the Dam Rehabilitation and Improvement Project. By Road: The dam is situated at 14 km from Theni and 70 km from Madurai. By Train:The nearest railway station is Dindigal station, located 61 km away from the dam; the Railway station in Theni is not functioning. By Air:The nearest airport is Madurai Airport, 80 km away from the Dam. Air connectivity is available from Chennai, Delhi and Vijayawada. International connectivity is available to Colombo and Singapore. Dam Break Analysis for Vaigai Dam Vaigai Dam
Bay of Bengal
The Bay of Bengal is the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean, bounded on the west and northwest by India on the north by Bangladesh, on the east by Myanmar and the Andaman Islands of India and Myanmar and the Nicobar Islands of India. Its southern limit is the northwesternmost point of Sumatra, it is the largest water region called a bay in the world. There are Countries dependent on the Bay of Bengal in Southeast Asia; the Bay of Bengal was called the Chola Lake. The Bay of Bengal occupies an area of 2,172,000 square kilometres. A number of large rivers flow into the Bay of Bengal: the Ganges-Hooghly, the Padma, the Brahmaputra-Jamuna, the Barak-Surma-Meghna, the Irrawaddy, the Godavari, the Mahanadi, the Brahmani, the Baitarani, the Krishna and the Kaveri. Among the important ports are Chennai-Ennore, Colombo, Kolkata-Haldia, Paradip, Port Blair, Tuticorin and Dhamra. Among the smaller ports are Gopalpur Port and Payra; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Bay of Bengal as follows: On the east: A line running from Cape Negrais in Burma through the larger islands of the Andaman group, in such a way that all the narrow waters between the islands lie eastward of the line and are excluded from the Bay of Bengal, as far as a point in Little Andaman Island in latitude 10°48'N, longitude 92°24'E and thence along the southwest limit of the Andaman Sea.
On the south: Ram Sethu and from the southern extreme of Dondra Head to the north point of Poeloe Bras. The bay gets its name from the historical Bengal region. In ancient scriptures, this water body may have been referred to as'Mahodadhi' while it appears as Sinus Gangeticus or Gangeticus Sinus, meaning "Gulf of the Ganges", in ancient maps; the other Sanskrit names for Bay of Bengal are'Vangopasagara' simply called as'Vangasagara' and'Purvapayodhi'. Today in Bengali and Odia it is known as "Bongoposagor". Many major Rivers of India and Bangladesh flow west to east before draining into the Bay of Bengal; the Ganga is the northernmost of these. Its main channel enters and flows through Bangladesh, where it is known as the Padma River, before joining the Meghna River. However, the Brahmaputra River flows from east to west in Assam before turning south and entering Bangladesh where it is called the Jamuna River; this joins the Padma where upon the Padma joins the Meghna River that drains into Bay of Bengal.
The Sundarbans mangrove of forest of Bangladesh is a forest at the delta of the Padma and Meghna rivers lies in West Bengal and in Bangladesh. The Brahmaputra at 2,948 km is the 28th longest River in the world, it originates in Tibet. The Hooghly River, another channel of the Ganga that flows through Calcutta drains into Bay of Bengal; the Padma–Meghna-Jamuna rivers deposit nearly 1000 million tons of sediment every year. The sediment from these three rivers form the Bengal Delta and the submarine fan, a vast structure that extends from Bangladesh to south of the Equator, is up to 16.5 kilometres thick, contains at least 1,130 trillion tonnes of sediment, which has accumulated over the last 17 million years at an average rate of 665 million tons per annum. The fan has buried organic carbon at a rate of nearly 1.1 trillion mol/yr since the early Miocene period. The three rivers contribute nearly 8% of the total organic carbon deposited in the world's oceans. Due to high TOC accumulation in the deep sea bed of the Bay of Bengal, the area is rich in oil and natural gas and gas hydrate reserves.
Bangladesh can reclaim land and economically gain from the sea area by constructing sea dikes, causeways and by trapping the sediment from its rivers. Further southwest of Bangladesh, the Mahanadi, Godavari and Kaveri Rivers flow from west to east in South Asia and drain into the Bay of Bengal. Many small rivers drain directly into the Bay of Bengal; the Irrawaddy River in Myanmar flows into the Andaman Sea of the Bay of Bengal and once had thick mangrove forests of its own. Indian ports on the bay include Paradip Port, Kolkata Port, Haldia Port, Visakhapatnam, Pondicherry, Dhamra and Bangladeshi ports on the Bay are Chittagong, Payra Port; the islands in the bay are numerous, including the Andaman Islands, Nicobar Islands and Mergui Archipelago of India and Myanmar. The Cheduba group of islands, in the north-east, off the Burmese coast, are remarkable for a chain of mud volcanoes, which are active. Great Andaman is the main archipelago or island group of the Andaman Islands, whereas Ritchie's Archipelago consists of smaller islands.
Only 37, or 6.5%, of the 572 islands and islets of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands are inhabited. The lithosphere of the earth is broken up into. Underneath the Bay of Bengal, part of the great Indo-Australian Plate and is moving north east; this plate meets the Burma Microplate at the Sunda Trench. The Nicobar Islands and the Andaman Islands are part of the Burma Microplate; the India Plate sub
Thiruppuvanam is a panchayat town, in Manamadurai Division, Sivaganga district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. The town is famous for Sri Pushpavaneswarar temple, one of the Padal Petra Shiva sthalams. Thiruppuvanam is situated nearby the Temple city of Madurai. on Madurai-Rameswaram National Highway and 18 km to the east of Madurai. Thiruppuvanam falls under Manamadurai assembly; as of 2011 India census, Thiruppuvanam had a population of 21,435. Males constitute 50% of the population and females 50%. Thiruppuvanam has an average literacy rate of 74%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 81%, female literacy is 66%
Ramanathapuram known as Ramnad, is a town and a municipality in Ramanathapuram district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is the administrative headquarters of Ramanathapuram district and the second largest town in Ramanathapuram district; as of 2011 census, the town had a population of 61,440. Density of population: 320 people per square kilometer. Ramanathapuram is the top producer of chilli pepper in Tamil Nadu, it is connected to other cities by NH-49. The region is well known since Puranic ages; the estate of Ramnad included the Hindu holy island city of Rameswaram, from where, legend has it that the Hindu god Rama launched his invasion of Ravana's Lanka. On the conclusion of the war and Rama's success in it, he appointed a Sethupathi or "lord of the bridge" to guard the way to the island; the "bridge" referred to here is the legendary Adam's Bridge or Rama's Bridge, believed to have been constructed by Rama. The chieftains of Ramnad were entrusted with the responsibility of protecting the bridge, hence the appellation.
For a short period, this area had been under the Chola Dynasty when Rajendra Chola I brought it under his territory in 1063 AD. In the late 12th and early 13th century, this province was ruled by Hazrat Sulthan Syed Ibrahim shaheed of Ervadi. On His heirs were ruling the province following a peace treaty with the Sethupathis. From until the early 15th century the present territories of Ramanathapuram district — comprising the taluks Tiruvadanai, Paramakudi, Mudukulathur and Rameswaram — were included in the Pandyan Empire. In 1520, the Nayaks of the Vijayanagara Empire chieftains or Sethupatis, subordinate to the Pandyan Kings took this area under their control from the Pandyan Dynasty and reigned till the 17th century. At the beginning of the 18th century, family disputes over succession resulted in the division of Ramanathapuram. With the help of the King of Thanjavur in 1730, one of the chieftains deposed the Sethupathi and became the Raja of Sivaganga. Acting upon the weakness of the Nayak rulers, the local chieftains became independent.
In 1730, Chanda Shahib of Arcot captured Ramanathapuram. In 1741 the area came under the control of the Marathas and under the Nizam in 1744. Dissatisfied with the Nawab’s rule, the chieftains revolted, led by the last ruling Nayak, against the Nawab in 1752. By that time, the throne of Arcot had two rivals, Chanda Shahib and Muhammed Ali, this district was under the rule of Nawab of Arcot; the British supported Chand Sahib, whilst the French supported Muhammed Ali. This paved the way for a series of conflicts in the southern part of the continent called Carnatic Wars. In 1795, the British deposed Muthuramalinga Sethupathi and took control of the administration of Ramanathapuram. After the passing of the Queen Velu Nachiyar, the Maruthu brothers took charge by paying regular revenue to the East India company. In 1803 the Maruthu Pandiyar of Sivaganga revolted against the British in collaboration with Kattabomman of Panchalamkurichi. Colonel Agnew hanged the Maruthu brothers. After the fall of Tippu Sultan, the British imprisoned the Nawab.
In 1892 the Zamindari system was abolished and a British collector was appointed for administration. In 1910, Ramanathapuram was formed from portions of Madurai and Tirunelveli districts, with J. F. Bryant as the first collector. During the British period this district was called "Ramnad"; the district was renamed as Ramanathapuram to be in conformity with the Tamil name for this region."Ramnad" is known as "Mugavai" since it acts as the entry point for River "Vaigai". According to 2011 census, Ramanathapuram had a population of 61,440 with a sex-ratio of 988 females for every 1,000 males, much above the national average of 929. A total of 6,370 were under the age of six, constituting 3,245 males and 3,125 females; the average literacy of the town was 83.42%, compared to the national average of 72.99%. The town had a total of 14716 households. There were a total of 20,375 workers, comprising 115 cultivators, 178 main agricultural labourers, 262 in house hold industries, 18,773 other workers, 1,047 marginal workers, 20 marginal cultivators, 30 marginal agricultural labourers, 41 marginal workers in household industries and 956 other marginal workers.
As per the religious census of 2011, Ramanathapuram had 79.00% Hindus, 19.71% Muslims, 3.08% Christians, 0.01% Sikhs, 0.79% following other religions and 0.01% following no religion or did not indicate any religious preference. Ramanathapuram is a municipality. After shifting the district headquarters' offices from Madurai to Ramanathapuram, the town is growing; the gauge conversion of the railway from Madurai to Rameswaram and from Tiruchi to Rameswaram connects the town to all major Indian cities. Ramanathapuram district was a larger district in Tamil Nadu, some of its portions were removed to create Sivaganga district; the river Vaigai enters the water is collected for the purpose of agriculture. It is claimed that the river water does not reach the sea, portraying the size of the catchment area; the town has many ponds catering to the needs of the populace. It is a good sign to have few engineering colleges like Anna University,UCER-Ramnad campus,Syed Ammal Engineering College and Mohamed Sathak Engineering College.
Former Indian president A. P. J. Abdul Kalam attended Ramanathapuram. Ramanathapuram is located at 9.38°N 78.83°E / 9.38. It has an average elevation
Andipatti or Aundipatty is a municipal in Theni district in Madurai Region Tamil Nadu state in southern India. It is on the bank of Vaigai River with rich fauna species, it is a valley surrounded by mountains and there is a theory saying Western Ghats starts from this place. Agriculture is the main economy of the town with handloom and textile mills spread across the city limits. Nearby places include Theni, Cumbum and Gudalur; the town is known all over the state and country as having been the constituency of the two chief ministers: M. G. Ramachandran and J. Jayalalithaa. There is an NGO based in Aundipatty called Arogya Agam, involved in rural healthcare and women development and empowerment, it is well known for the incident when the late All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam Chief Minister MGR won the MLA election in this place without visiting this place for election campaign since he was admitted to SUNY Downstate Medical Center in Brooklyn, New York and became the Chief minister of Tamil Nadu.
The Vaigai Dam, a major reservoir in Tamil Nadu, is 7 km away from Andipatti, Theni district, Madurai Region. On 9 February 1934, Mahatma Gandhi visited Andipatti. At the Andipatti Railway Station, the villagers of Andipatti received him, along with a large crowd from the neighbouring villages like Muthukrishnapuram, S. S. Puram, Jakkampatti. A wooden table was placed on the platform of the Andipatti Station and Gandhi used it as a dais to address the gathering. A Welcome Address in Tamil printed on khadi cloth and wooden-framed was read out by Mr. P. C. Rajan and handed over to Gandhi, delighted to see it printed on his favourite khadi cloth, he wished to carry it with him on his tour, but realised that he could not carry it all through his journey. Hence with the permission of the villagers, he decided to auction the memento and use the fund for welfare scheme. P. C. Rajan was the successful bidder and he collected the souvenir from the hands of Gandhi; the piece was on donated by Mr. Rajan to the authorities of the Gandhi Museum in Madurai in the 1960s.
Andipatti is part of Theni