John Frum is a figure associated with cargo cults on the island of Tanna in Vanuatu. He is depicted as an American World War II serviceman who will bring wealth and prosperity to the people if they follow him, he is sometimes portrayed sometimes as white. Quoting David Attenborough's report of an encounter: "'E look like you.'E got white face.'E tall man.'E live'long South America." The religion centering on John Frum arose in the late 1930s, when Vanuatu was known as the New Hebrides, although there was a claim in 1949 that it had started in the 1910s. The movement was influenced by existing religious practice in the Sulphur Bay area of Tanna the worship of Keraperamun, a god associated with Mount Tukosmera. In some versions of the story, a native man named Manehivi, using the alias "John Frum", began appearing among the native people of Tanna dressed in a Western-style coat and assuring the people he would bring them houses, clothes and transport. Others contend. Said to be a manifestation of Keraperamun, this John Frum promised the dawn of a new age in which all white people, including missionaries, would depart the New Hebrides, leaving behind their goods and property for the native Melanesians.
For this to happen, the people of Tanna had to reject all aspects of European society including money, Western education and work on copra plantations, plus they had to return to traditional kastom. In 1941, followers of John Frum rid themselves of their money in a frenzy of spending, left the missionary churches, schools and plantations, moved inland to participate in traditional feasts and rituals. European colonial authorities sought to suppress the movement, at one point arresting a Tannese man, calling himself John Frum, humiliating him publicly and exiling him along with other leaders of the cult to another island in the archipelago. Despite this effort, the movement gained popularity in the early 1940s, when 300,000 American troops were stationed in New Hebrides during World War II, bringing with them an enormous amount of supplies. After the war and the departure of the Americans, followers of John Frum built symbolic landing strips to encourage American airplanes to land and bring them "cargo".
Versions of the cult that emphasize the American connection interpret "John Frum" as a corruption of "John from" and credit the presence of African American soldiers for the idea that John Frum may be black. In 1957, a leader of the John Frum movement, created the "Tanna Army", a non-violent ritualistic society that organised military-style parades of men whose faces were painted ritual colours and who wore white T-shirts with the letters "T-A USA"; this parade takes place every year on February 15, the date on which followers believe John Frum will return, and, observed as "John Frum Day" in Vanuatu. In the late 1970s, John Frum followers opposed the imminent creation of an independent, united nation of Vanuatu, they objected to a centralised government they feared would favor Western modernity and Christianity that would be detrimental to local customs. However, the John Frum movement has its own political party, led by Song Keaspai; the party celebrated its 50th anniversary on February 15, 2007.
Chief Isaak Wan Nikiau, its leader, was quoted by the BBC from years past as saying that John Frum was "our God, our Jesus" and would return. In December 2011, Radio New Zealand International reported that the "president" of the John Frum movement was Thitam Goiset, a woman of Vietnamese origin and sister of businessman Dinh Van Than, despite the leadership of these movements having been "previously held by high ranking male chiefs". In 2013, Thitam Goiset was sacked from her role as Vanuatu's ambassador to Russia amid evidence of corrupt activities. Prince Philip Movement Turaga nation Attenborough, D. Quest in Paradise. Lutterworth Press Rice, Edward. John Frum He Come: Cargo Cults & Cargo Messiahs in the South Pacific. Garden City: Dorrance & Co. ISBN 0-385-00523-7. Huffer, Grands Hommes et Petites Îles: La Politique Extérieure de Fidji, de Tonga et du Vanuatu, Paris: Orstom, 1993, ISBN 2-7099-1125-6 Jarvie, I. C.. The Revolution in Anthropology. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul pp. 61–63. Lindstrom, L.
"Big Men as Ancestors: Inspirations and Copyrights on Tanna". Ethnology, vol xxix no. 4. October. Theroux, P; the Happy Isles of Oceania. Penguin Books ISBN 0-14-015976-2 Nat. Geographic: May 1974. "Tanna Awaits the Coming of John Frum". Raffaele, Paul. "In John They Trust". Smithsonian. Smithsonian. Retrieved Nov 26, 2009. Jon Frum Movement "In John They Trust" article in Smithsonian Magazine Evening spent with the John Frum movement on Tanna Island in Vanuatu, April 2013 Video
The Sioux known as Očhéthi Šakówiŋ, are groups of Native American tribes and First Nations peoples in North America. The term can refer to any ethnic group within the Great Sioux Nation or to any of the nation's many language dialects; the modern Sioux consist of two major divisions based on language divisions: the Dakota and Lakota. The Santee Dakota reside in the extreme east of the Dakotas and northern Iowa; the Yankton and Yanktonai Dakota, collectively referred to by the endonym Wičhíyena, reside in the Minnesota River area. They are considered to be the middle Sioux, have in the past been erroneously classified as Nakota; the actual Nakota are the Stoney of Western Canada and Montana. The Lakota called Teton, are the westernmost Sioux, known for their hunting and warrior culture. Today, the Sioux maintain many separate tribal governments scattered across several reservations and reserves in North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska and Montana in the United States; the Sioux people refer to the Great Sioux Nation as the Očhéthi Šakówiŋ, meaning "Seven Council Fires").
Each fire is a symbol of an oyate. Today the seven nations that comprise the Očhéthi Šakówiŋ are the Thítȟuŋwaŋ, Bdewákaŋthuŋwaŋ, Waȟpéthuŋwaŋ, Waȟpékhute, Sisíthuŋwaŋ and Iháŋkthuŋwaŋ and Iháŋkthuŋwaŋna, they are referred to as the Lakota or Dakota as based upon dialect differences. In any of the dialects, Lakota or Dakota translates to mean "friend" or "ally" referring to the alliances between the bands; the name "Sioux" was adopted in English by the 1760s from French. It is abbreviated from Nadouessioux, first attested by Jean Nicolet in 1640; the name is sometimes said to be derived from an Ojibwe exonym for the Sioux meaning "little snakes". The spelling in -x is due to the French plural marker; the Proto-Algonquian form *na·towe·wa, meaning "Northern Iroquoian", has reflexes in several daughter languages that refer to a small rattlesnake. An alternative explanation is derivation from an exonym na·towe·ssiw, from a verb *-a·towe· meaning "to speak a foreign language"; the current Ojibwe term for the Sioux and related groups is Bwaanag, meaning "roasters".
This refers to the style of cooking the Sioux used in the past. In recent times, some of the tribes have formally or informally reclaimed traditional names: the Rosebud Sioux Tribe is known as the Sičháŋǧu Oyáte, the Oglala use the name Oglála Lakȟóta Oyáte, rather than the English "Oglala Sioux Tribe" or OST; the alternative English spelling of Ogallala is considered improper. The Sioux comprise three related language groups: Eastern Dakota Santee Sisseton Western Dakota Yankton Yanktonai Lakota The earlier linguistic three-way division of the Sioux language identified Lakota and Nakota as dialects of a single language, where Lakota = Teton, Dakota = Santee-Sisseton and Nakota = Yankton-Yanktonai. However, the latest studies show that Yankton-Yanktonai never used the autonym Nakhóta, but pronounced their name the same as the Santee; these studies identify Assiniboine and Stoney as two separate languages, with Sioux being the third language. Sioux has three similar dialects: Western Dakota and Eastern Dakota.
Assiniboine and Stoney speakers refer to themselves as Nakhóda. The term Dakota has been applied by anthropologists and governmental departments to refer to all Sioux groups, resulting in names such as Teton Dakota, Santee Dakota, etc; this was because of the misrepresented translation of the Ottawa word from which Sioux is derived. The Sioux are divided into three ethnic groups, the larger of which are divided into sub-groups, further branched into bands; the earliest known European record of the Sioux identified them in Minnesota and Wisconsin. After the introduction of the horse in the early 18th century, the Sioux dominated larger areas of land—from present day Central Canada to the Platte River, from Minnesota to the Yellowstone River, including the Powder River country; the Sioux maintain many separate tribal governments scattered across several reservations and communities in North America: in the Dakotas, Minnesota and Montana in the United States. Today, many Sioux live outside their reservations.
The Santee migrated north and westward from the Southeastern United States, first into Ohio to Minnesota. Some came up from area of South Carolina; the Santee River was named after them, some of their ancestors' ancient earthwork mounds have survived along the portion of the dammed-up river that forms Lake Marion. In the past, they were a Woodland people who thrived on hunting and farming. Migrations of Ojibwe from the east in the 17th and 18th centuries, with muskets supplied by the French and British, pushed the Dakota further into Minnesota and west and southward; the US gave the name "Dakota Territory"
Croton is an extensive flowering plant genus in the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae. The plants of this genus were introduced to Europeans by Georg Eberhard Rumphius; the common names for this genus are rushfoil and croton, but the latter refers to Codiaeum variegatum. The generic name comes from the Greek κρότος, which means "tick" and refers to the shape of the seeds of certain species. Croton is a complex taxonomic group of plants ranging from herbs and shrubs to trees. A well-known member of this genus is a shrub native to Southeast Asia, it was first mentioned in European literature by Cristóbal Acosta in 1578 as lignum pavanae. The oil, used in herbal medicine as a violent purgative, is extracted from its seeds. Nowadays, it is considered unsafe and it is no longer listed in the pharmacopeias of many countries. Croton tiglium oil has been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat severe constipation, heal lesions, is used as a purgative, it is a source of the organic compound phorbol and its tumor-promoting esters such as 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate.
In the Amazon the red latex from the species Croton lechleri, known as Sangre de Drago, is used as a "liquid bandage", as well as for other medicinal purposes, by native peoples. Cascarilla bark is used to flavour the liquor Vermouth, it has been shown in Kenya that Croton nuts, such as those from C. megalocarpus, are a more economical source of biofuel than Jatropha. In Kenya, Jatropha requires as much as 20,000 litres of water to make a litre of biofuel, while Croton trees grow wild and yield about.35 litres of oil per kilo of nuts. Croton trees are planted as a windbreak in Kenya and its use as a source of biofuel may benefit rural economies there; as arable land is under population pressure, people have been cutting down the windbreaks to expand farmland. This new use may save the windbreaks. Croton species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Schinia citrinellus, which feeds on the plant; the genus is pantropical, with some species extending into temperate areas.
It is one of the largest and most complex genera of angiosperms in Madagascar, where up to 150 Croton species are endemic. Croton Research Network A Modern Herbal--Croton
Territory of Papua
The Territory of Papua comprised the southeastern quarter of the island of New Guinea from 1883 to 1975. In 1883, the Government of Queensland annexed this territory for the British Empire; the United Kingdom Government refused to ratify the annexation but in 1884 a Protectorate was proclaimed over the territory called "British New Guinea". There is a certain ambiguity about the exact date on which the entire territory was annexed by the British; the Papua Act 1905 recites that this happened "on or about" 4 September 1888. On 18 March 1902, the Territory was placed under the authority of the Commonwealth of Australia. Resolutions of acceptance were passed by the Commonwealth Parliament, who accepted the territory under the name of Papua. In 1949, the Territory and the Territory of New Guinea were established in an administrative union by the name of the Territory of Papua and New Guinea; that administrative union was renamed as Papua New Guinea in 1971. Notwithstanding that it was part of an administrative union, the Territory of Papua at all times retained a distinct legal status and identity.
This important legal and political distinction remained until the advent of the Independent State of Papua New Guinea in 1975. Papua made up half of the current-day Papua New Guinea and contained the territory's capital, Port Moresby, which became the capital of the independent country. Archeological evidence suggests; these Melanesian people developed agriculture. Portuguese and Spanish navigators sailing in the South Pacific entered New Guinea waters in the early part of the 16th century and in 1526-27, Don Jorge de Meneses came upon the principal island "Papua". In 1545, the Spaniard Íñigo Ortiz de Retez gave the island the name "New Guinea" owing to what he saw as a resemblance between the islands' inhabitants and those found on the African Guinea coast. Knowledge of the interior of the island remained scant for several centuries after these initial European encounters. In 1883 Sir Thomas McIlwraith, the Premier of Queensland, ordered Henry Chester, the Police Magistrate on Thursday Island, to proceed to Port Moresby and annex New Guinea and adjacent islands in the name of the British government.
Chester made the proclamation on 4 April 1883. On 6 November 1884, after the Australian colonies had promised financial support, the territory became a British protectorate. On 4 September 1888 it was annexed, together with some adjacent islands, by Britain as British New Guinea; the northern part of modern Papua New Guinea was under German commercial control from 1884 and under direct rule by the German government in 1899, as the larger part of the colony of German New Guinea known as Kaiser-Wilhelmsland. In 1902, Papua was transferred to the authority of the new British dominion of Australia. With the passage of the Papua Act of 1905, the area was renamed the Territory of Papua, Australian administration became formal in 1906. At the outbreak of the First World War in 1914 Australia captured Kaiser-Wilhelmsland following the landing on 11 September 1914 of the 2000 man Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force; the Australian takeover of New Guinea was formalised by the Treaty of Versailles in 1919.
Shortly after the start of the Pacific War, the island of New Guinea was invaded by the Japanese. Papua was the least affected region. Most of West Papua, at that time known as Dutch New Guinea, was occupied, as were large parts of the Territory of New Guinea, but Papua was protected to a large extent by its southern location and the near-impassable Owen Stanley Ranges to the north. Civil administration was suspended during the war and both territories were placed under martial law for the duration; the New Guinea campaign opened with the battles for New Britain and New Ireland in the Territory of New Guinea in 1942. Rabaul, the capital of the Territory, was overwhelmed on 22–23 January and was established as a major Japanese base from where the Japanese landed on mainland New Guinea and advanced towards Port Moresby and Australia. Having had their initial effort to capture Port Moresby by a seaborne invasion disrupted by the U. S. Navy and Australian navy in the Battle of the Coral Sea, the Japanese attempted a landward attack from the north via the Kokoda Track.
From July 1942, a few Australian reserve battalions, many of them young and untrained, fought a stubborn rearguard action against the Japanese attack, over the rugged Owen Stanley Ranges. The militia, worn out and depleted by casualties, held out with the assistance of Papuan porters and medical assistants, were relieved in late August by regular troops from the Second Australian Imperial Force, returning from action in the Mediterranean Theatre. In early September 1942 Japanese marines attacked a strategic Royal Australian Air Force base at Milne Bay, near the eastern tip of Papua, they were beaten back by the Australian Army, the Battle of Milne Bay is remembered as the first outright defeat of Japanese land forces during World War II. The offensives in Papua and New Guinea of 1943–44 were the single largest series of connected operations mounted by the Australian armed forces; the Supreme Commander of operations was the United States General Douglas Macarthur, with Australian General Thomas Blamey taking a direct role in planning, operations being directed by staff at New Guinea Force headquarters in Port Mores
Francis Edgar Williams was an Australian anthropologist who worked for the government of the Territory of Papua from 1922 to 1942. Born in Malvern, South Australia and educated at Kyre College, the Baptist South Australia school, Williams graduated from the University of Adelaide in 1914 with high honours, was accordingly awarded a Rhodes Scholarship to study at the University of Oxford, he decided to join the Australian Imperial Force in 1915 and served in France as a lieutenant in the 32nd Battalion. Promoted to the honorary rank of captain in early 1918, he served in a secret mission in Caucasus under General Lionel Dunsterville. In 1919, he took up his Rhodes Scholarship at Balliol, graduated in anthropology in 1921. Back in Australia at the end of the year, he met in February 1922 the Lieutenant-Governor of Papua, Hubert Murray, looking for a young and strong Oxford graduate to serve as an assistant government anthropologist next to Dr William Mersh Strong, more a practitioner than a scientist.
Appointed on 8 March 1922, Williams was promoted to Government Anthropologist when Strong retired in 1928, kept the position until the demise of the Papuan administration in 1942. One of the few anthropologists of his time able to spend two continuous decades in the same location without having to return to a metropolitan university or institution, he performed during those twenty years heavy field work, published many books and articles, both monographic and general. In 1935, his manifesto The Blending of Culture hit a worldwide audience. Agreeing with Murray, William was given complete liberty by the omnipotent administrator; when World War II expanded to the Southern Pacific in December 1941, Williams came back to Australia and enlisted as a lieutenant to serve with military intelligence. He was promoted captain in November 1942. Among his many works, he wrote You and Native, a booklet advising the Allied soldiers on how to behave with Papuans. In early 1943, Williams was sent back to Papua to serve as a liaison officer with the Australian New Guinea Administrative Unit.
On 12 May, he died in a plane crash on the Owen Stanley Range, 20 km south of Kokoda. Michael W. Young and Julia Clark, An Anthropologist in Papua; the Photography of F. E. Williams, 1922-39, Adelaide: Crawford House Publishing, 2002
Syncretism is the combining of different beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought. Syncretism involves the merging or assimilation of several discrete traditions in the theology and mythology of religion, thus asserting an underlying unity and allowing for an inclusive approach to other faiths. Syncretism occurs in expressions of arts and culture as well as politics; the English word is first attested in the early 17th century, from Modern Latin syncretismus, drawing on Greek συγκρητισμός meaning "Cretan federation", but this is a spurious etymology from the naive idea in Plutarch's 1st-century AD essay on "Fraternal Love" in his collection Moralia. He cites the example of the Cretans, who compromised and reconciled their differences and came together in alliance when faced with external dangers. "And, their so-called Syncretism ". More as an etymology is sun- plus kerannumi and its related noun, "krasis," "mixture." Erasmus coined the modern usage of the Latin word in his Adagia, published in the winter of 1517–1518, to designate the coherence of dissenters in spite of their differences in theological opinions.
In a letter to Melanchthon of April 22, 1519, Erasmus adduced the Cretans of Plutarch as an example of his adage "Concord is a mighty rampart". Overt syncretism in folk belief may show cultural acceptance of an alien or previous tradition, but the "other" cult may survive or infiltrate without authorized syncresis nevertheless. For example, some Conversos developed a sort of cult for martyr-victims of the Spanish Inquisition, thus incorporating elements of Catholicism while resisting it. Syncretism was common during the Hellenistic period, with rulers identifying local deities in various parts of their domains with the relevant god or goddess of the Greek Pantheon, as a means of increasing the cohesion of the Kingdom; this practice was accepted in most locations, but vehemently rejected by the Jews who considered the identification of Yahwe with the Greek Zeus as the worst of blasphemy. The Roman Empire continued this practice - first by the identification of traditional Roman deities with Greek ones, producing a single Graeco-Roman Pantheon and identifying members of that pantheon with the local deities of various Roman provinces.
An undeclared form of Syncretism was the transfer of many attributes of the goddess Isis - whose worship was widespread in the Later Roman Empire - to the Christian Virgin Mary. Some religious movements have embraced overt syncretism, such as the case of melding Shintō beliefs into Buddhism or the amalgamation of Germanic and Celtic pagan views into Christianity during its spread into Gaul, the British Isles and Scandinavia. In times, Christian missionaries in North America identified Manitou - the spiritual and fundamental life force in the traditional beliefs of the Algonquian groups - with the God of Christianity. Similar identifications were made by missionaries at other locations in the Americas and Africa, whenever encountering a local belief in a Supreme God or Supreme Spirit of some kind. Indian influences are seen in the practice of Shi'i Islam in Trinidad. Others have rejected it as devaluing and compromising precious and genuine distinctions. Syncretism tends to facilitate coexistence and unity between otherwise different cultures and world-views, a factor that has recommended it to rulers of multi-ethnic realms.
Conversely, the rejection of syncretism in the name of "piety" and "orthodoxy", may help to generate, bolster or authenticate a sense of un-compromised cultural unity in a well-defined minority or majority. Religious syncretism exhibits blending of two or more religious belief systems into a new system, or the incorporation into a religious tradition of beliefs from unrelated traditions; this can occur for many reasons, the latter scenario happens quite in areas where multiple religious traditions exist in proximity and function in a culture, or when a culture is conquered, the conquerors bring their religious beliefs with them, but do not succeed in eradicating the old beliefs or practices. Religions may have syncretic elements to their beliefs or history, but adherents of so-labeled systems frown on applying the label adherents who belong to "revealed" religious systems, such as the Abrahamic religions, or any system that exhibits an exclusivist approach; such adherents sometimes see syncretism as a betrayal of their pure truth.
By this reasoning, adding an incompatible belief corrupts the original religion, rendering it no longer true. Indeed, critics of a specific syncretistic trend may sometimes use the word "syncretism" as a disparaging epithet, as a charge implying that those who seek to incorporate a new view, belief, or practice into a religious system distort the original faith. Non-exclusivist systems of belief, on the other hand, may feel quite free to incorporate other traditions into their own. Keith Ferdinando notes that the term "syncretism" is an elusive one, can apply to refer to substitution or modification of the central elements of a religion by beliefs or practices introduced from elsewhere; the consequence under such a definition, according to Ferdinando, can lead to a fatal "compromise" of the original religion's "integrity". In modern secular society, religious innovators sometimes construct new religions syncretically as a mechanism to reduce inter-religious tension and enmity with the effect of offend
Kerema is the capital of Gulf Province, Papua New Guinea. It is located on the coast of Gulf of Papua; the Gulf region is aptly named for its concave coastline with large deltas. The Gulf area is a riparian region where many rivers from the southern slopes of the highlands drain into. There are more than twenty languages spoken in Gulf Province. Languages spoken in the Kerema area include Toaripi, Opae, Moivo Hivi and Tairuma; the villages towards the east of Kerema from Hamuhamu, Miaru to Iokea and inland to Moveave all speak Toaripi. The Gulf's traditional culture and knowledge was one of the first to be exposed to the outside world, thus it was one of the first cultures to change, as outsiders Christian missionaries have visited many of the coastal people and encouraged them to abandon much of their native culture. James Chalmers, or'Tamate' as the locals of Toaripi called him, was the first white man to land in the province, he first landed in Iokea in 1885. The Gulf area is blessed with many natural resources such as abundant marine life, rich jungle, sago and many others.
Rubber plantations were established in the 1930s by Australians. Oil and gas explorations are showing positive results and it will be major income earner to the province; the Interoil Gas Field has proven huge reserves. Fishing and oil are the main industries, although betelnut and sago are the major cash crop for the local people. Gulf people supply 15% of the betelnut and sago to Port Moresby markets for cash