U2 are an Irish rock band from Dublin formed in 1976. The group consists of Bono, the Edge, Adam Clayton, Larry Mullen Jr.. Rooted in post-punk, U2's musical style has evolved throughout their career, yet has maintained an anthemic quality built on Bono's expressive vocals and the Edge's effects-based guitar textures, their lyrics embellished with spiritual imagery, focus on personal and sociopolitical themes. Popular for their live performances, the group have staged several ambitious and elaborate tours over their career; the band formed as teenagers while attending Mount Temple Comprehensive School, when they had limited musical proficiency. Within four years, they released their debut album, Boy. Subsequent work such as their first UK number-one album and the singles "Sunday Bloody Sunday" and "Pride" helped establish U2's reputation as a politically and conscious group. By the mid-1980s, they had become renowned globally for their live act, highlighted by their performance at Live Aid in 1985.
The group's fifth album, The Joshua Tree, made them international superstars and was their greatest critical and commercial success. Topping music charts around the world, it produced their only number-one singles in the US to date: "With or Without You" and "I Still Haven't Found What I'm Looking For". Facing creative stagnation and a backlash following their documentary/double album and Hum, U2 reinvented themselves in the 1990s through a new musical direction and public image. Beginning with their acclaimed seventh album, Achtung Baby, the multimedia-intensive Zoo TV Tour, the band integrated influences from alternative rock, electronic dance music, industrial music into their sound, embraced a more ironic, flippant image; this experimentation continued through their ninth album and the PopMart Tour, which were mixed successes. U2 regained critical and commercial favour with the records All That You Can't Leave Behind and How to Dismantle an Atomic Bomb, which established a more conventional, mainstream sound for the group.
Their U2 360° Tour of 2009–2011 is the highest-attended and highest-grossing concert tour in history. The group most released the companion albums Songs of Innocence and Songs of Experience, the former of which received criticism for its pervasive, no-cost release through the iTunes Store. U2 have released 14 studio albums and are one of the world's best-selling music artists in history, having sold an estimated 150–170 million records worldwide, they have won 22 Grammy Awards, more than any other band, in 2005, they were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in their first year of eligibility. Rolling Stone ranked U2 at number 22 on its list of the "100 Greatest Artists of All Time". Throughout their career, as a band and as individuals, they have campaigned for human rights and social justice causes, including Amnesty International, Jubilee 2000, the ONE/DATA campaigns, Product Red, War Child, Music Rising. In 1976, Larry Mullen Jr. a 14-year-old student at Mount Temple Comprehensive School in Dublin, posted a note on the school's notice board in search of musicians for a new band.
Six people met at Mullen's house on 25 September. Set up in the kitchen, Mullen was on drums, with: Paul Hewson on lead vocals. Mullen described it as "'The Larry Mullen Band' for about ten minutes Bono walked in and blew any chance I had of being in charge." Martin, who had brought his guitar and amplifier to the first practice but could not play, did not remain with the group, McCormick was dropped after a few weeks. The remaining five members settled on the name "Feedback" for the group because it was one of the few technical terms they knew. Most of their initial material consisted of cover songs, which they admitted was not their forte; some of the earliest influences on the band were emerging punk rock acts, such as the Jam, the Clash and Sex Pistols. The popularity of punk rock convinced the group that musical proficiency was not a prerequisite to success. In April 1977, Feedback played their first gig for a paying audience at St. Fintan's High School. Shortly thereafter, the band changed their name to "The Hype".
Dik Evans, older and by this time at college, was becoming the odd man out. The rest of the band was leaning towards the idea of a four-piece ensemble. In March 1978, the group changed their name to "U2". Steve Averill, a punk rock musician and family friend of Clayton's, had suggested six potential names from which the band chose "U2" for its ambiguity and open-ended interpretations, because it was the name that they disliked the least; that same month, U2, as a four-piece, won a talent contest in Limerick sponsored by Harp Lager and the Evening Press. The prize consisted of £500 and studio time to record a demo which would be heard by CBS Ireland, a record label; the win was an important affirmation for the fledgling band. Within a few days, Dik Evans was phased out of the band with a farewell concert at the Presbyterian Church Hall in Howth. During the show, which featured the group playing cover songs as the Hype, Dik ceremonially walked offstage; the remaining four band members returned in the concert to play original material as U2.
Dik soon joined the Virgin Prunes, which comprised mutual friends of U2's.
John Michael "Ozzy" Osbourne is an English singer, songwriter and reality television star who rose to prominence during the 1970s as the lead vocalist of the heavy metal band Black Sabbath, during which he adopted the nickname "The Prince of Darkness". Osbourne was fired from the band in 1979 due to alcohol and drug problems, but went on to have a successful solo career, releasing eleven studio albums, the first seven of which were all awarded multi-platinum certifications in the United States. Osbourne has since reunited with Black Sabbath on several occasions, he rejoined the band in 1997 and recorded the group’s final studio album 13 before they embarked on a farewell tour which culminated in a final performance in their home city Birmingham, England in February 2017. His longevity and success have earned him the informal title of "Godfather of Heavy Metal". Osbourne's total album sales from his years in Black Sabbath, combined with his solo work, is over 100 million; as a member of Black Sabbath, he was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, he was inducted into the UK Music Hall of Fame as a solo artist and as a member of the band.
Possessing a distinctive singing voice, Osbourne, as a native of Birmingham, is known for his strong Brummie accent – he has a star on the Birmingham Walk of Stars in his hometown as well as the Hollywood Walk of Fame. At the 2014 MTV Europe Music Awards, he received the Global Icon Award. In 2015 Osbourne received the Ivor Novello Award for Lifetime Achievement from the British Academy of Songwriters and Authors. In the early 2000s, Osbourne became a reality television star, appearing as himself in the MTV reality show The Osbournes, alongside wife and manager Sharon and two of their three children and Jack, he co-stars with Jack and Kelly in the television series Ozzy & Jack's World Detour. The show's third season debuted in June 2018. Osbourne was born in the Aston area of England, his mother, was a non-observant Catholic who worked days at a factory. His father, John Thomas "Jack" Osbourne, worked night shifts as a toolmaker at the General Electric Company. Osbourne has three older sisters named Jean and Gillian, two younger brothers named Paul and Tony.
The family lived in a small two-bedroom home at 14 Lodge Road in Aston. Osbourne has had the nickname "Ozzy" since primary school. Osbourne dealt with dyslexia at school. At the age of 11, he suffered. Drawn to the stage, he took part in school plays such as Gilbert and Sullivan's The Mikado and HMS Pinafore; as a Birmingham native, he has a strong Brummie accent. Upon hearing their first hit single at age 14, he became a great fan of the Beatles, he credits the band's 1963 song "She Loves You" for inspiring him to become a musician. He said in the 2011 documentary God Bless Ozzy Osbourne, "I knew I was going to be a rock star the rest of my life." Osbourne left school at 15 and was employed as a construction site labourer, trainee plumber, apprentice toolmaker, car factory horn-tuner, abattoir worker. He attempted to commit burglary, stealing a television, a handful of baby clothes, some T-shirts, he spent six weeks in Winson Green Prison when he was unable to pay a fine after being found guilty of robbing a clothes shop.
In late 1967, Geezer Butler formed his first band, Rare Breed, soon recruited Osbourne to serve as vocalist. The band played two shows broke up. Osbourne and Butler reunited in Polka Tulk Blues, along with guitarist Tony Iommi and drummer Bill Ward, whose band Mythology had broken up, they renamed themselves Earth, but after being accidentally booked for a show instead of a different band with the same name, they decided to change their name again. They settled on the name Black Sabbath in August 1969, based on the film of the same title; the band had noticed. While recording their first album, Butler read an occult book and woke up seeing a dark figure at the end of his bed. Butler told Osbourne about it and together they wrote the lyrics to "Black Sabbath", their first song in a darker vein. Despite only a modest investment from their US record label Warner Bros. Records, Black Sabbath met with enduring success. Built around Tony Iommi's guitar riffs, Geezer Butler's lyrics, Bill Ward's dark tempo drumbeats, topped by Osbourne's eerie vocals, early records such as their debut album Black Sabbath and Paranoid sold huge numbers, as well as getting considerable airplay.
Osbourne recalls a band lament, "in those days, the band wasn't popular with the women". At about this time, Osbourne first met Sharon Arden. After the unexpected success of their first album, Black Sabbath were considering her father, Don Arden, as their new manager, Sharon was at that time working as Don's receptionist. Osbourne admits he was attracted to her but assumed that "she thought I was a lunatic". Osbourne said years that the best thing about choosing Don Arden as manager was that he got to see Sharon though their relationship was professional at that point. Just five months after the release of Paranoid the band released Master of Reality; the album reached the top ten in both the United States and UK, was certified gold in less than two months. In the 1980s it received platinum certification and went
Heavy metal music
Heavy metal is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s in the United Kingdom. With roots in blues rock, psychedelic rock, acid rock, the bands that created heavy metal developed a thick, massive sound, characterized by amplified distortion, extended guitar solos, emphatic beats, overall loudness; the genre's lyrics and performance styles are sometimes associated with machismo. In 1968, three of the genre's most famous pioneers, Led Zeppelin, Black Sabbath and Deep Purple were founded. Though they came to attract wide audiences, they were derided by critics. During the mid-1970s, Judas Priest helped spur the genre's evolution by discarding much of its blues influence. Beginning in the late 1970s, bands in the new wave of British heavy metal such as Iron Maiden and Def Leppard followed in a similar vein. Before the end of the decade, heavy metal fans became known as "metalheads" or "headbangers". During the 1980s, glam metal became popular with groups such as Mötley Crüe.
Underground scenes produced an array of more aggressive styles: thrash metal broke into the mainstream with bands such as Metallica, Slayer and Anthrax, while other extreme subgenres of heavy metal such as death metal and black metal remain subcultural phenomena. Since the mid-1990s popular styles have further expanded the definition of the genre; these include groove metal and nu metal, the latter of which incorporates elements of grunge and hip hop. Heavy metal is traditionally characterized by loud distorted guitars, emphatic rhythms, dense bass-and-drum sound, vigorous vocals. Heavy metal subgenres variously alter, or omit one or more of these attributes; the New York Times critic Jon Pareles writes, "In the taxonomy of popular music, heavy metal is a major subspecies of hard-rock—the breed with less syncopation, less blues, more showmanship and more brute force." The typical band lineup includes a drummer, a bassist, a rhythm guitarist, a lead guitarist, a singer, who may or may not be an instrumentalist.
Keyboard instruments are sometimes used to enhance the fullness of the sound. Deep Purple's Jon Lord played an overdriven Hammond organ. In 1970, John Paul Jones used a Moog synthesizer on Led Zeppelin III; the electric guitar and the sonic power that it projects through amplification has been the key element in heavy metal. The heavy metal guitar sound comes from a combined use of heavy distortion. For classic heavy metal guitar tone, guitarists maintain moderate levels gain at moderate levels, without excessive preamp or pedal distortion, to retain open spaces and air in the music. Thrash metal guitar tone has scooped mid-frequencies and compressed sound with lots of bass frequencies. Guitar solos are "an essential element of the heavy metal code... that underscores the significance of the guitar" to the genre. Most heavy metal songs "feature at least one guitar solo", "a primary means through which the heavy metal performer expresses virtuosity"; some exceptions are nu grindcore bands, which tend to omit guitar solos.
With rhythm guitar parts, the "heavy crunch sound in heavy metal... palm muting" the strings with the picking hand and using distortion. Palm muting creates a tighter, more precise sound and it emphasizes the low end; the lead role of the guitar in heavy metal collides with the traditional "frontman" or bandleader role of the vocalist, creating a musical tension as the two "contend for dominance" in a spirit of "affectionate rivalry". Heavy metal "demands the subordination of the voice" to the overall sound of the band. Reflecting metal's roots in the 1960s counterculture, an "explicit display of emotion" is required from the vocals as a sign of authenticity. Critic Simon Frith claims; the prominent role of the bass is key to the metal sound, the interplay of bass and guitar is a central element. The bass guitar provides the low-end sound crucial to making the music "heavy"; the bass plays a "more important role in heavy metal than in any other genre of rock". Metal basslines vary in complexity, from holding down a low pedal point as a foundation to doubling complex riffs and licks along with the lead or rhythm guitars.
Some bands feature the bass as a lead instrument, an approach popularized by Metallica's Cliff Burton with his heavy emphasis on bass guitar solos and use of chords while playing bass in the early 1980s. Lemmy of Motörhead played overdriven power chords in his bass lines; the essence of heavy metal drumming is creating a loud, constant beat for the band using the "trifecta of speed and precision". Heavy metal drumming "requires an exceptional amount of endurance", drummers have to develop "considerable speed and dexterity... to play the intricate patterns" used in heavy metal. A characteristic metal drumming technique is the cymbal choke, which consists of striking a cymbal and immediately silencing it by grabbing it with the other hand, producing a burst of sound; the metal drum setup is much larger than those employed in other forms of rock music. Black metal, death metal and some "mainstream metal" bands "all depend upon double-kicks and blast beats". In live performance, loudness—an "onslaught of sound", in sociologist Deena Weinstein's description—is considered vital.
In his book Metalheads, psychologist Jeffrey Arnett refers to heavy me
Colin Larkin (writer)
Colin Larkin is a British writer and entrepreneur. He founded, was the editor in chief of, the Encyclopedia of Popular Music, described by The Times as "the standard against which all others must be judged". Along with the ten-volume encyclopedia, Larkin wrote the book All Time Top 1000 Albums, edited the Guinness Who's Who Of Jazz, the Guinness Who's Who Of Blues, the Virgin Encyclopedia Of Heavy Rock The compiler of the most extensive database of popular music in Europe and the US, a writer and book designer by trade, Larkin has over 650,000 copies in print to date; as an authority on popular music, Larkin has been interviewed on radio, had a regular slot on BBC GLR for two years in the 1990s. Colin Larkin was born in Dagenham in 1949 in an area of Essex, populated by workers in the car industry. Although the post-war years proved lucrative for the Ford motor company, Larkin was raised in relative poverty in the largest area of council housing in the United Kingdom, in the suburbs that surrounded the Ford plant.
The Becontree estate in Dagenham began as a conglomeration of 27,000 "homes for heroes", had no recognisable town centre. Larkin spent much of his early childhood attending the travelling fair where his father, who worked by day as a plumber for the council, moonlighted on the waltzers to make ends meet, it was in the fairground, against a background of Little Richard on the wind-up 78 rpm turntables, that Larkin acquired his passion for the world of popular music, a taste for exotic pattern and vivid colour, which would re-surface in years in books on Islamic art and architecture, oriental rugs. In the 1960s Larkin attended the South East Essex County Technical High School following which, under his own initiative he obtained an apprenticeship as a commercial artist, enabling him to take a sandwich course at the London College of Printing. There he studied book design, and was influenced by the typeface designer Eric Gill, associated with the arts and crafts movement. Larkin began his working life in commercial art, advertising studios and design groups and for the book publisher Pearson Longmans.
In 1967 he began writing for music magazines. At Longmans he became senior book designer, but he soon tired of working for the publishing house and by 1976 had co-founded his own book publishing company, Scorpion Publishing. From the outset Larkin was intent upon reaching areas of the book reading public that other publishers felt it unnecessary or unprofitable to reach. Scorpion Publishing published art books on Islamic Art, they designed and published John Gorman's trilogy of Labour history, Banner Bright, To Build Jerusalem and Images of Labour. Notable music books at this time included Timeless Flight: The Definitive Story of The Byrds and Bob Dylan's Unreleased Recordings. In the 1980s Larkin, who read music magazines avidly and was acquiring a considerable personal library of singles and albums, began to consider the idea of "an encyclopedia of popular music", his passion for an encyclopedia that would do for Bob Dylan and the Beatles what the Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians had done for more classical subjects, moreover do it better took over when in 1989 he sold his half of Scorpion Books to fund the project and founded Square One Books.
In 1989 Larkin formed Square One Books to create a multi-volume Encyclopedia of Popular Music, to publish music related books. He published additional music biographies including those on Graham Bond, R. E. M. Eric Clapton, The Byrds and Frank Zappa, a further book on Bob Dylan, Oh No, Not Another Bob Dylan Book. In a pre-internet age, the work required to create an encyclopedia of popular music was considerable. Aided by a team of contributors, a fast-growing library of music magazines and the music itself, an eventual 3000 vinyl singles, 3500 vinyl albums, 4500 music biographies and 38,000 CDs, Larkin began compiling the Encyclopedia. In 1992 the first edition of the Encyclopedia of Popular Music went into print, it was recognised as monumental: Rolling Stone described the work as "musical history in the making", in The Times they called it "a work of frightening completeness". Musician Jools Holland called it "without question the most useful reference work on popular music". In May 2011 Omnibus Press released the Amazon Kindle edition of the Encyclopedia of Popular Music, using the text of the 2007 edition.
Square One developed their own in-house software using 4th Dimension. Over 50 separate titles followed the creation of the Encyclopedia's database, in 1997 Larkin sold Square One Books to American data company Muze. Larkin became full-time editor-in-chief and ran the encyclopedia as a cottage industry, with a team of fewer than ten contributors, who in terms of wordcount were "producing an Agatha Christie novel a month". From September 2008 Larkin ceased all involvement with Muze Inc. or any of its related companies following the closure of the Encyclopedia of Popular Music as a stand-alone product and his subsequent redundancy. On 15 April 2009, it was announced that most of the assets of Muze Inc. were purchased by Macrovision. In 2008, Larkin launched a new website whose original inspiration had come from the All Time Top 1000 Albums called 1000Greatest.com. This would change its name to become the multi-media rating site and iPhone app, btoe.com.. Larkin re-directed the content to Musopedia.com.
He is editor-in-chief of Musopedia Ltd.. From 2013 to 2017 he was the main contributor of music biographies and album reviews for Quantone Music, an in depth music data company. In 2018 he was commissioned by BMG
Metallica is an American heavy metal band. The band was formed in 1981 in Los Angeles, California by drummer Lars Ulrich and vocalist/guitarist James Hetfield, has been based in San Francisco, California for most of its career; the group's fast tempos and aggressive musicianship made them one of the founding "big four" bands of thrash metal, alongside Megadeth and Slayer. Metallica's current lineup comprises founding members Hetfield and Ulrich, longtime lead guitarist Kirk Hammett and bassist Robert Trujillo. Guitarist Dave Mustaine and bassists Ron McGovney, Cliff Burton and Jason Newsted are former members of the band. Metallica earned a growing fan base in the underground music community and won critical acclaim with its first five albums; the band's third album, Master of Puppets, was described as one of the heaviest and most influential thrash metal albums. After experimenting with different genres and directions in subsequent releases, the band returned to its thrash metal roots with the release of its ninth album, Death Magnetic, which drew similar praise to that of the band's earlier albums.
In 2000, Metallica led the case against the peer-to-peer file sharing service Napster, in which the band and several other artists filed lawsuits against the service for sharing their copyright-protected material without consent. Metallica was the subject of the acclaimed 2004 documentary film Some Kind of Monster, which documented the troubled production of the band's eighth album, St. Anger, the internal struggles within the band at the time. In 2009, Metallica was inducted into the Roll Hall of Fame; the band wrote the screenplay for and starred in the 2013 IMAX concert film Metallica: Through the Never, in which the band performed live against a fictional thriller storyline. Metallica has released ten studio albums, four live albums, a cover album, five extended plays, 37 singles and 39 music videos; the band has won nine Grammy Awards from 23 nominations, its last six studio albums have consecutively debuted at number one on the Billboard 200. Metallica ranks as one of the most commercially successful bands of all time, having sold over 125 million albums worldwide as of 2018.
Metallica has been listed as one of the greatest artists of all time by magazines such as Rolling Stone, which ranked them at no. 61 on its 100 Greatest Artists of All Time list. As of 2017, Metallica is the third best-selling music artist since Nielsen SoundScan began tracking sales in 1991, selling a total of 58 million albums in the United States. Metallica was formed in Los Angeles, California, in late 1981 when Danish-born drummer Lars Ulrich placed an advertisement in a Los Angeles newspaper, The Recycler, which read, "Drummer looking for other metal musicians to jam with Tygers of Pan Tang, Diamond Head and Iron Maiden." Guitarists James Hetfield and Hugh Tanner of Leather Charm answered the advertisement. Although he had not formed a band, Ulrich asked Metal Blade Records founder Brian Slagel if he could record a song for the label's upcoming compilation album, Metal Massacre. Slagel accepted, Ulrich recruited Hetfield to sing and play rhythm guitar; the band was formed on October 28, 1981, five months after Ulrich and Hetfield first met.
The bandname came from Ulrich's friend Ron Quintana, brainstorming names for a fanzine and was considering MetalMania or Metallica. Dave Mustaine replied to an advert for a lead guitarist. In early 1982, Metallica recorded its first original song, "Hit the Lights", for the Metal Massacre I compilation. Hetfield played bass,rhythm guitar and sang while Lloyd Grant was credited with a guitar solo and Lars Ulrich played drums. Metal Massacre I was released on June 14, 1982; the song generated word of mouth and the band played its first live performance on March 14, 1982, at Radio City in Anaheim, with newly recruited bassist Ron McGovney. Their first live success came early; this was Metallica's second gig. Metallica recorded its first demo, Power Metal, whose name was inspired by Quintana's early business cards in early 1982; the term "thrash metal" was coined in February 1984 by Kerrang! journalist Malcolm Dome in reference to Anthrax's song "Metal Thrashing Mad". Prior to this, Hetfield referred to Metallica's sound as "power metal".
In late 1982, Ulrich and Hetfield attended a show at the West Hollywood nightclub Whisky a Go Go, which featured bassist Cliff Burton in the band Trauma. The two were "asked him to join Metallica. Hetfield and Mustaine wanted McGovney to leave because they thought he "didn't contribute anything, he just followed". Although Burton declined the offer, by the end of the year, he had accepted on the condition the band move to El Cerrito in the San Francisco Bay Area. Metallica's first live performance with Burton was at the nightclub The Stone in March 1983, the first recording to feature Burton was the Megaforce demo. Metallica was ready to record their debut album, but when Metal Blade was unable to cover the cost, they began looking for other options. Concert promoter Johny "Z" Zazula, who had heard the
Steven Adler is an American musician. He is best known as the former drummer and co-songwriter of the hard rock band Guns N' Roses, with whom he achieved worldwide success in the late 1980s. Adler was fired from Guns N' Roses over his heroin addiction in 1990, following which he reformed his old band Road Crew and joined BulletBoys, which both proved unsuccessful. During the 2000s, Adler was the drummer of the band Adler's Appetite, from 2012, he had held the same position in the band Adler. In early 2017, he declared that he has no intention to continue with the band and that the band has now dissolved, with the reason being his lack of interest in performing during poorly attended concerts, he appeared on the second and fifth seasons of the reality TV show Celebrity Rehab with Dr. Drew, as well as on the first season of its spin-off Sober House, he was inducted into the Roll Hall of Fame in 2012 as a member of Guns N' Roses. Adler was born Michael Coletti in Cleveland, the son of an Italian-American father, Michael Coletti, a Jewish American mother, Deanna.
After his father left the family, his mother moved with her children to California. Named after his father, he was renamed Steven in adherence of Ashkenazi Jewish naming convention, which forbids children from being named after living people, he took on the surname Adler from his mother's marriage to Melvin Adler, he has an older brother, a younger half-brother, Jamie. Adler grew up in the San Fernando Valley until the age of 13, when he was sent to live with his grandparents in Hollywood due to his bad behavior. At Bancroft Junior High, Adler befriended Saul Hudson known as Slash. After ninth grade, Adler returned to his parents' house in the Valley for the remainder of high school, during which time he learned to play drums. After his return to Hollywood in 1983, Adler auditioned for Sunset Strip staple London; when the audition proved unsuccessful, he formed the band Road Crew—named after the Motörhead song " The Road Crew"—with his childhood friend Slash. They placed an advertisement in a newspaper looking for a bassist, received a response from Duff McKagan.
They auditioned a number of singers, including one-time Black Flag vocalist Ron Reyes, worked on material that included the main riff of what would become the Guns N' Roses song "Rocket Queen." Slash disbanded the group the following year due to their inability to find an adequate lead vocalist, as well as Adler's laziness compared to himself and McKagan. Adler briefly joined a local band known as Hollywood Rose, which featured singer Axl Rose and guitarist Izzy Stradlin. In June 1985, Adler joined Guns N' Roses, newly founded by Axl Rose, Izzy Stradlin, L. A. Guns members Tracii Guns, Ole Beich and Rob Gardner. After their original drummer Gardner quit. Adler and Slash joined their former Road Crew band mate Duff McKagan to complete the line-up, they played nightclubs—such as the Whisky a Go Go, The Roxy, The Troubadour—and opened for larger acts throughout 1985 and 1986. After being scouted by several major record labels, the band signed with Geffen Records in March 1986. In July 1987, Guns N' Roses released its debut album, Appetite for Destruction, which to date has sold over 28 million copies worldwide, 18 million of which were in the United States, making it the best-selling debut album of all time in the US.
In December, during a tour with Alice Cooper, an intoxicated Adler broke his hand when he punched a streetlight after a barroom brawl. In November 1988, Guns N' Roses released G N' R Lies, which sold over five million copies in the US alone, despite containing only eight tracks, four of which were included on the released EP Live?!*@ Like a Suicide. Adler was again absent during a performance at the American Music Awards in January 1989, his absence was attributed to a case of the flu, but it was revealed that Adler had been in a drug rehabilitation program at the time. The following October, during a show as opening act for The Rolling Stones, Axl Rose threatened to leave the band if certain members of the band didn't stop "dancing with Mr. Brownstone," a reference to their song of the same name about heroin use. Adler was among those who promised to clean up. Adler was fired from the band over his drug use in early 1990, but he was reinstated after signing a contract in which he vowed to stop taking drugs.
However, by the time the band entered the studio to record the song "Civil War", his addiction had become so severe that he was unable to perform. By Adler's own admission, he tried to play the song "20, maybe 30 times." The song's drum track had to be edited just for his bandmates to be able to play along with it. When problems in the studio continued, causing recording sessions to abort for several days at a time, Adler was formally fired from Guns N' Roses on July 11, 1990, he had played his final show with the band on April 7 at Farm Aid IV. Izzy Stradlin, who left the band in November 1991 stated that replacing Adler with Matt Sorum of The Cult had a big impact on the band's sound. In response to an interviewer's suggestion that the line-up change had turned Guns N' Roses from a rock'n' roll band into a heavy metal one, Stradlin said, "Yeah, a big musical difference.... were written with Steve playing the drums and his sense of swing was the push and pull that give the songs their feel.
When, gone, it was just
Skid Row (American band)
Skid Row is an American heavy metal band, formed in 1986 in Toms River, New Jersey. Their current lineup comprises bassist Rachel Bolan, guitarists Dave Sabo and Scotti Hill, drummer Rob Hammersmith and vocalist ZP Theart; the group achieved commercial success in the late 1980s and early 1990s, with its first two albums Skid Row and Slave to the Grind certified multi-platinum, the latter of which reached number one on the Billboard 200. The band's third album Subhuman Race was critically acclaimed, but failed to repeat the success of its predecessors. During this period, the band consisted of Bolan, Hill, drummer Rob Affuso, frontman Sebastian Bach; the band had sold 20 million albums worldwide by the end of 1996. After replacing Bach with Johnny Solinger and Affuso with Phil Varone in 1999, Skid Row released Thickskin and Revolutions per Minute, both of which garnered mixed to negative reception. In April 2015, Skid Row announced that they had parted ways with Solinger, replaced him with former TNT singer Tony Harnell.
Eight months however, Harnell left the band. In January 2017, former DragonForce vocalist ZP Theart was named the official lead singer after spending a year as a touring member of the group. Skid Row was formed in 1986 in Toms River, New Jersey, by bassist Rachel Bolan and guitarist Dave Sabo; the pair recruited drummer Rob Affuso through newspaper ads. Lead vocalist Sebastian Bach replaced original singer Matt Fallon after the band spotted Bach singing at rock photographer Mark Weiss's wedding at the age of 18, the members asked him to join in early 1987; the band began playing shows in clubs throughout the eastern United States. Sabo and John Bongiovi were teenage friends and Sabo was a member of Bon Jovi before being replaced by guitarist Richie Sambora. Sabo and Bongiovi agreed that if one of them made it in the music business, he would help the other out. Bon Jovi's manager Doc McGhee sought out Skid Row, secured the band a record deal with Atlantic Records in 1988. Skid Row recorded its debut at the Royal Recorders in Lake Geneva, Wisconsin with producer Michael Wagener.
Before releasing the album, the management paid a reported $35,000 to guitarist Gary Moore for the rights to the name of his namesake band. The band's debut album Skid Row, released in January 1989, was an instant success; the record went 5× platinum on the strength of the Top 10 singles "18 and Life" and "I Remember You". Skid Row supported the album by opening for Bon Jovi on their New Jersey tour; as part of the six-month tour, Skid Row played its first UK gig supporting Bon Jovi's outdoor show at Milton Keynes Bowl on August 19, 1989. The next day, Skid Row played a successful club show at London's Marquee Club in Charing Cross Road. Skid Row took part in the Moscow Music Peace Festival, set up to keep McGhee out of jail. McGhee was facing drug trafficking charges, therefore set up an anti-drug/peace concert in Russia, featuring a few of the artists that he and his brother managed. Skid Row returned to the UK three months opening for Mötley Crüe on their European Dr. Feelgood tour in early November 1989 with White Lion.
That was followed by a UK headlining tour culminating in a show at London's Hammersmith Odeon, with Vain supporting. In what is referred to as "The Bottle Incident" by fans of the band, Bach was hit onstage with a bottle thrown from the crowd at a concert in Springfield, where Skid Row was opening for Aerosmith on December 27, 1989. Bach threw the bottle back, hitting a girl, so he jumped on the crowd to beat the person who can be seen on a tour video released by Skid Row called Oh Say Can You Scream in 1990. Shortly thereafter, at another show, Bach put on a T-shirt proclaiming the anti-gay slogan "AIDS Kills Fags Dead". A poorly tasted spoof of the slogan for the bug spray, RAID KILLS BUGS DEAD™; the shirt was given to him by a fan, on MTV News Bach dismissed the controversy saying "I don't see what the big deal is but I guess if someone wore a T-shirt saying "Cancer Kills Grandma's Dead" I'd be a little bit pissed too." But, Bach expressed regret over the incident, claiming that he did not read the slogan before putting the shirt on.
Though he wore it for a photo shoot in Metal Edge magazine. This was before Freddie Mercury announced publicly that he was infected with AIDS. Homophobic jokes in the rock and roll culture were acceptable to audiences at the time; the band recorded a cover of the Sex Pistols' "Holidays in the Sun" for the Make A Difference Foundation release Stairway to Heaven/Highway to Hell. Skid Row returned to the studio with Wagener in 1990. Slave to the Grind was released in June 1991 and debuted at number one on the Billboard 200; the album reached 2× platinum status without any radio hits. Skid Row once again went out on a worldwide tour which lasted over a year, including a leg supporting Guns N' Roses in 1991 and an appearance at Monsters of Rock in Castle Donington in 1992. Slave to the Grind was a departure for the band. Skid Row took out Pantera as an opening act on much of the tour supporting Slave to the Grind. Skid Row asked upcoming grunge band Nirvana to open for them but they declined, saying that Skid Row was "too homophobic", relating to the Sebastian Bach T-shirt incident.
Coincidentally, Nirvana's original band name was Skid Row. After the Slave to the Grind promotional tour, an EP of covers B-Side Ourselves was released in September 1992. Before beginning work on their third album, Skid Row took an extended hiatus in 199