Tamil Nadu is one of the 29 states of India. Its capital and largest city is Chennai. Tamil Nadu lies in the southernmost part of the Indian subcontinent and is bordered by the union territory of Puducherry and the South Indian states of Kerala and Andhra Pradesh, it is bounded by the Eastern Ghats on the north, by the Nilgiri Mountains, the Meghamalai Hills, Kerala on the west, by the Bay of Bengal in the east, by the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait on the southeast, by the Indian Ocean on the south. The state shares a maritime border with the nation of Sri Lanka. Tamil Nadu is the sixth largest by population, it has a high HDI ranking among Indian states as of 2017. The economy of Tamil Nadu is the second-largest state economy in India with ₹17.25 lakh crore in gross domestic product after Maharashtra and a per capita GDP of ₹167,000. It was ranked as one of the top seven developed states in India based on a "Multidimensional Development Index" in a 2013 report published by the Reserve Bank of India.
Its official language is Tamil, one of the longest-surviving classical languages in the world. The region was ruled by several empires, including the three great empires – Chola and Pandyan empires, which shape the region's cuisine and architecture; the British Colonial rule during the modern period led to the emergence of Chennai known as Madras, as a world-class city. Modern-day Tamil Nadu was formed in 1956 after the reorganization of states on linguistic lines; the state is home to a number of historic buildings, multi-religious pilgrimage sites, hill stations and three World Heritage sites. Archaeological evidence points to this area being one of the longest continuous habitations in the Indian peninsula. In Attirampakkam, archaeologists from the Sharma Centre for Heritage Education excavated ancient stone tools which suggests that a humanlike population existed in the Tamil Nadu region somewhere around 300,000 years before homo sapiens arrived from Africa. In Adichanallur, 24 km from Tirunelveli, archaeologists from the Archaeological Survey of India unearthed 169 clay urns containing human skulls, bones, grains of rice, charred rice and celts of the Neolithic period, 3,800 years ago.
The ASI archaeologists have proposed that the script used at that site is "very rudimentary" Tamil Brahmi. Adichanallur has been announced as an archaeological site for further excavation and studies. About 60 per cent of the total epigraphical inscriptions found by the ASI in India are from Tamil Nadu, most of these are in the Tamil language. A Neolithic stone celt with the Indus script on it was discovered at Sembian-Kandiyur near Mayiladuthurai in Tamil Nadu. According to epigraphist Iravatham Mahadevan, this was the first datable artefact bearing the Indus script to be found in Tamil Nadu. According to Mahadevan, the find was evidence of the use of the Harappan language, therefore that the "Neolithic people of the Tamil country spoke a Harappan language"; the date of the celt was estimated at between 1500 BCE and 2000 BCE. Though this finding remains contested,like the claim of historian Michel Danino who rubbishes the theory of the latter’s southward migration in a paper he presented at the International Symposium on Indus Civilisation and Tamil Language in 2007.
He wrote: ‘There is no archaeological evidence of a southward migration through the Deccan after the end of the urban phase of the Indus- Sarasvati civilization… The only actual evidence of movements at that period is of Late Harappans migrating towards the Ganges plains and towards Gujarat... Migration apart, there is a complete absence of Harappan artefacts and features south of the Vindhyas: no Harappan designs on pottery, no Harappan seals and ornaments, no trace of Harappan urbanism… Cultural continuity from Harappan to historical times has been documented in North India, but not in the South… This means, in effect, that the south-bound Late Harappans would have reverted from an advanced urban bronze-age culture to a Neolithic one! Their migration to South would thus constitute a double “archaeological miracle”: apart from being undetectable on the ground, it implies that the migrants experienced a total break with all their traditions; such a phenomenon is unheard of.’ The early history of the people and rulers of Tamil Nadu is a topic in Tamil literary sources known as Sangam literature.
Numismatic and literary sources corroborate that the Sangam period lasted for about eight centuries, from 500 BC to AD 300. The recent excavations in Alagankulam archaeological site suggests that Alagankulam is one of the important trade centre or port city in Sangam Era; the Bhakti movement originated in Tamil speaking region of South India and spread northwards through India. The Bhakti Movement was a rapid growth of bhakti beginning in this region with the Saiva Nayanars and the Vaisnava Alvars who spread bhakti poetry and devotion; the Alwars and Nayanmars were instrumental in propagating the Bhakti tradition. During the 4th to 8th centuries, Tamil Nadu saw the rise of the Pallava dynasty under Mahendravarman I and his son Mamalla Narasimhavarman I; the Pallavas ruled parts of South India with Kanchipuram as their capital. Tamil architecture reached its peak during Pallava rule. Narasimhavarman II built the Shore Temple, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Much the Pallavas were replaced by the Chola dynasty as the dominant kingdom in the 9th century and they in turn were replaced by the Pandyan Dynasty in the 13th century.
The Pandyan capital Madurai was in the deep s
Vaishnavism is one of the major traditions within Hinduism along with Shaivism and Smarthism. It is called Vishnuism, its followers are called Vaishnavas, it considers Vishnu as the Supreme Lord; the tradition is notable for its avatar doctrine, wherein Krishna is revered in one of many distinct incarnations. Of these, ten avatars of Vishnu are the most studied. Rama, Narayana, Hari, Kesava, Govinda, Sri Nathji and Jagannath are among the popular names used for the same supreme being; the tradition has traceable roots to the 1st millennium BCE, as Bhagavatism called Krishnaism. Developments led by Ramananda created a Rama-oriented movement, now the largest monastic group in Asia; the Vaishnava tradition has many sampradayas ranging from the medieval era Dvaita school of Madhvacharya to Vishishtadvaita school of Ramanuja. The tradition is known for the loving devotion to an avatar of Vishnu, it has been key to the spread of the Bhakti movement in South Asia in the 2nd millennium CE. Key texts in Vaishnavism include the Vedas, the Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita, the Pancaratra texts and the Bhagavata Purana.
Vaishnavism originates in the latest centuries BCE and the early centuries CE, as an amalgam of the heroic Krishna Vasudeva, the "divine child" Bala Krishna of the Gopala traditions, syncretism of these non-Vedic traditions with the Mahabharata canon, thus affiliating itself with Vedism in order to become acceptable to the orthodox establishment. Krishnaism becomes associated with bhakti yoga in the medieval period. Although Vishnu was a Vedic solar deity, he is mentioned more compared to Agni and other Vedic deities, thereby suggesting that he had a major position in the Vedic religion. Other scholars state that there are other Vedic deities, such as water deity Nara, who together form the historical roots of Vaishnavism. In the late-Vedic texts, the concept of a metaphysical Brahman grows in prominence, the Vaishnavism tradition considered Vishnu to be identical to Brahman, just like Shaivism and Shaktism consider Shiva and Devi to be Brahman respectively; the ancient emergence of Vaishnavism is unclear, the evidence inconsistent and scanty.
According to Dalal, the origins may be in Vedic deity Bhaga. According to Preciado-Solís, the Vedic deities Nara and Narayana form one of the Vedic roots of Vaishnavism. According to Dandekar, Vaishnavism may have emerged from merger of several ancient theistic traditions, where the various deities were integrated as different avatars of the same god. In Dandekar theory, Vaishnavism emerged at the end of the Vedic period before the second urbanisation of northern India, in the 7th to 4th century BCE. Vasudeva and Krishna, "the deified tribal hero and religious leader of the Yadavas," gained prominence, merged into Bhagavan Vasudeva-Krishna, due to the close relation between the Vrsnis and the Yadavas; this was followed by a merger with the cult of Gopala-Krishna of the cowherd community of the Abhıras at the 4th century CE. The character of Gopala Krishna is considered to be non-Vedic. According to Dandekar, such mergers consolidated the position of Krishnaism between the heterodox sramana movement and the orthodox Vedic religion.
The "Greater Krsnaism", states Dandekar merged with the Rigvedic Vishnu. Syncretism of various traditions and Vedism resulted in Vaishnavism. At this stage that Vishnu of the Rig Veda was assimilated into non-Vedic Krishnaism and became the equivalent of the Supreme God; the appearance of Krishna as one of the Avatars of Vishnu dates to the period of the Sanskrit epics in the early centuries CE. The Bhagavad Gita was incorporated into the Mahabharata as a key text for Krishnaism; the Narayana-cult was included, which further brahmanized Vaishnavism. The Nara-Narayana cult may have originated in Badari, a northern ridge of the Hindu Kush, absorbed into the Vedic orthodoxy as Purusa Narayana. Purusa Narayana may have been turned into Arjuna and Krsna; this complex history is reflected in the two main historical denominations of Vishnavism. The Bhagavats, worship Vasudeva-Krsna, are followers of brahmanic Vaishnavism, while the Pacaratrins regard Narayana as their founder, are followers of Tantric Vaishnavism.
According to Hardy, there is evidence of early "southern Krishnaism," despite the tendency to allocate the Krishna-traditions to the Northern traditions. South Indian texts show close parallel with the Sanskrit traditions of Krishna and his gopi companions, so ubiquitous in North Indian text and imagery. Early writings in Dravidian culture such as Manimekalai and the Cilappatikaram present Krishna, his brother, favourite female companions in the similar terms. Hardy argues that the Sanskrit Bhagavata Purana is a Sanskrit "translation" of the bhakti of the Tamil alvars. Devotion to southern Indian Mal may be an early form of Krishnaism, since Mal appears as a divine figure like Krishna with some elements of Vishnu; the Alvars, whose name can be translated "sages" or "saints", were devotees of Mal. Their poems show a pronounced orientation to the Vaishnava, Krishna, side of Mal, but they do not make the distinction between Krishna and Vishnu on the basis of the concept of the Avatars. Yet, according to Hardy the term "Mayonism" should be used instead of "Krishnaism" when referring to Mal or Mayon.
Most of the Gupta kings, beginning with Chandragupta II were known as Parama Bhagavatas or Bhagavata Vaishnavas. After the Gupta age, Krishnaism rose to a major current of Vaishnavism, Vaishnavism developed into various sects and subsects
Ashtami is the eighth day of Hindu lunar calendar. Krishna Janmashtami or Gokul Ashtami is a Hindu festival celebrating the birth of Lord Krishna, an avatar of Hindu deity Vishnu. Krishna Janmashtami is observed on the Ashtami tithi, the eighth day of the dark half or Krishna Paksha of the month of Bhaadra in the Hindu calendar, when the Rohini Nakshatra is ascendant. Rasa lila or dramatic enactments of the life of Krishna are a special feature in regions of Mathura, Vrindavan and regions following Vaishnavism in Manipur. Trilochana Ashtami or Trilochanashtami, is a Hindu auspicious day dedicated to Lord Shiva and Goddess Parvati celebrated in Odisha and different parts of India. Tri means lochan means Eye. Hence one who having three eyes is called as Trilochan means to Lord Shiva, three-eyed, that is, indication of the present and future. Bhairava Ashtami or Kalabhairava Ashtami commemorating the day Kal Bhairav, a fierce manifestation of Lord Shiva, appeared on earth, is celebrated on Krishna paksha Ashtami of the Margashirsha month with a day special prayers and rituals.
Radhastami is celebrated by Krishna devotees as the appearance anniversary of Srimati Radharani
Amāvásyā means the lunar phase of the New moon. The word Amāvásyā is common to all Nepalese and Indian languages as most of them are derived from Sanskrit. Ancient Babylonian and Indian calendars used 30 lunar phases, called tithi in India; the dark moon tithi is when the Moon is within the 12 degrees of angular distance between the Sun and Moon before conjunction. The New Moon tithi is the 12 angular degrees after syzygy. Amāvásyā is translated as new moon since there is no standard term for the Moon before conjunction in English; the dates for 2019 are 6 January, 4 February, 6 March, 4 April, 4 May, 3 June, 2 July, 1 August, 30 August, 28 September, 28 October, 26 November and 26 December. In Sanskrit, "amā" means "together" and "vásya" means "to dwell" or "cohabit", it means "na" +"ma"+"asya" meaning to "na" = "No, "ma"=Moon, "Asya"="There" in turn meaning to There is no Moon i.e. Moon is not visible. In the pūrṇimānta māna Hindu lunar calendar used in most parts of the Indian subcontinent, the lunar month starts on the day following the full moon or purnima and therefore Amāvásyā always falls in the middle of the month.
However, in the amānta māna calendar used in some places, the lunar month starts on the day of the new moon, making Amāvásyā the last day of the lunar month in those places. Many festivals, the most famous being Diwali, are observed on Amāvásyā. Many Hindus fast on Amāvásyā. Few Pancha-Gauda Brahmins have month from next day of Purnima to Purnima, Purnima is last 29/30 days. Pancha-Dravida have month from next day of Amavasya to Amavasya. Amavasya is last 29/30 days. Śhukla paksha is called as the bright half as the Moon changes from New Moon to Full Moon while in Krishna paksha it changes from Full Moon to New Moon. Hence it is seen. Ujjain, Orissa, Bihar Brahmins are one few Pancha-Gauda Brahmins have month from 1 day after Purnima to Purnima, While the people of Karnataka, Goa, Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh the Pancha-Dravida have month from 1 day after Amavasya to Amavasya. Amavasya is last 29/30 days. Since Kanchipuram Mutt where the Adi Shankara lived and all the Pancha-Gauda and Pancha-Dravida use to visit hence Tamil Nadu developed a mixture of Panchangam and saka calendar.
The place where Pancha-Gauda and Pancha-Dravida are living together as Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Southern Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh show the mixtures. The people following Jainism follow Pancha-Dravida calendar, Amavasya is last 29/30 days. In old Indian culture and beliefs, irrespective of religions, Amavasya is considered a time of great power. In Tamil, though Amavasya is used in religious spheres, the pure Tamil scholars prefer the term Puthuppi Rai Fast is observed to propitiate both the Sun and Moon Gods. Except for the Karttika Amavasya, the Amavasya is considered inauspicious. Lakshmi Puja: Lakshmi Puja marks the most important day of Diwali celebrations in North India. Hindu homes worship Lakshmi, the goddess of wealth, Ganesh, the God of auspicious beginnings known as the remover of obstacles, light deeyas in the streets and homes to welcome prosperity and well-being. An Amavasya falling on Mondays has a special significance, it is believed that a fast on this particular Amavasya would ward off widow-hood in women and ensure bearing of progeny.
It is believed that all desires could be fulfilled if one fasts on this Amavasya. Every month, the Amāvāsyā day is considered auspicious for the worship of forefathers and poojas are made. Religious people are not supposed to travel or work, instead concentrate on the rites of Amavasyas at home in the afternoon. Today, traditional workers like masons do not work on Amavasya in India. However, they will work on Sundays. High Court judges of 18th century India used to observe Amavasya as a day off, it was the British Rule. On Amavasyas, Shraadh is done to forefathers by Brahmins. In modern times, a short 20-minute version of the ceremony is done—offering black sesame and water as oblation to departed souls; this oblation is offered to father, great-grandfather, mother and great-grandmother. If one of these persons are still alive, their name is skipped and the corresponding earlier generation person is offered oblation. A final oblation is offered to those anonymous souls which died and have nobody in their lineage offering oblation.
These oblations are believed to give birth to good children without physical challenges. The dark fortnight of Aswayuja is known as the Pitru Paksha, sacred for offering oblations to departed ancestors; the last day of this period, the dark moon day, called mahalaya Amavasya, is considered the most important day in the year for performing obsequies and rites. The manes return to their abode on the evening of Deepavali. Due to the grace of the Yama, it has been ordained that offerings made during this period benefit all the departed souls, whether they are connected to you or not. In Tamil Nadu, lakhs of People will make special Tharpanam in Rameshwaram & other Holy Theerthas on Thai Amavasai, Aadi Amavasai, Mahalaya Amavasai. Thai Amavasai is the 1st Amavasai after Uttranayana Punya Kaalam. Aadi Amavasai comes in the month of Jul-Aug and is the 1st Amavasai after Dakshina
Buddha's birthday is a holiday traditionally celebrated in most of East Asia to commemorate the birth of the Prince Siddhartha Gautama the Gautama Buddha and founder of Buddhism. It is celebrated in South and Southeast Asia as Vesak which acknowledges the enlightenment and death of the Buddha. According to the Theravada Tripitaka scriptures, Gautama was born c. 563/480 BCE in Lumbini in modern-day Nepal, raised in the Shakya capital of Kapilvastu, in the present day Tilaurakot, Nepal. At the age of thirty five, he attained enlightenment underneath a Bodhi tree at Bodhgaya, he delivered his first sermon at India. At the age of eighty, he died at India; the exact date of Buddha's birthday is based on the Asian lunisolar calendars. The date for the celebration of Buddha's birthday varies from year to year in the Western Gregorian calendar, but falls in April or May. In leap years it may be celebrated in June; the exact date of Buddha's Birthday is based on the Asian lunisolar calendars and is celebrated in Baisakh month of the Buddhist calendar and the Bikram Sambat Hindu calendar, hence it is called Vesak.
In modern-day India and Nepal, where the Historical Buddha lived, it is celebrated on the full moon day of the Vaisakha month of the Buddhist calendar. In Theravada countries following the Buddhist calendar, it falls on a full moon Uposatha day in the 5th or 6th lunar month. In China and Korea, it is celebrated on the eighth day of the fourth month in the Chinese lunar calendar; the date varies from year to year in the Western Gregorian calendar, but falls in April or May. In leap years it may be celebrated in June. In Tibet, it falls on the 7th day of the fourth month of the Tibetan calendar. In South Asian and Southeast Asian countries as well as Mongolia, Buddha's birthday is celebrated on the full moon day of the Vaisakha month of the Buddhist calendar and the Hindu calendar, which falls in April or May month of the Western Gregorian calendar; the festival is known as Buddha Purnima. It is called is Buddha Jayanti, with Jayanti meaning birthday in Sanskrit Language; the corresponding Western Gregorian calendar dates varies from year to year: 2017: May 10 2018: April 29, April 30, May 29 2019: May 19 In many East Asian countries Buddha's Birth is celebrated on the 8th day of the 4th month in the Chinese lunar calendar, the day is an official holiday in Hong Kong and South Korea.
The date falls from the end of April to the end of May in the Gregorian calendar. The solar Gregorian calendar date varies from year to year: 2017: May 3 2018: May 22 2019: May 12 2020: April 30 In 1999 the Taiwanese government set Buddha's birthday as the second Sunday of May, the same date as Mother's Day; as a result of the Meiji Restoration, Japan adopted the Gregorian calendar in lieu of the Chinese lunar calendar in 1873. However, it took until 1945, the end of World War II, for religious festivities to adopt the new calendar. In most Japanese temples, Buddha's birth is now celebrated on the Gregorian calendar date April 8. In Bangladesh the event is called Buddho Purnima. On the day of proceeding Purnima Buddhist monks and priests decorate temple in colourful decorations and candles. On the day of the festival the President and Prime Minister deliver speeches about the history and importance of Buddhism and religious harmony in the country. From noon onwards large fairs are held in and around temples and viharas selling bangles, clothes and conducting performances of Buddha's life, Buddhist music teaching about the Dharma and the 5 precepts.
On Buddhists attend a congression inside the monastery where the chief monk would deliver a speech discussing the Buddha and the 3 jewels and about living the ideal life after which a prayer to the buddha would be conducted and people would light candles and recite the three jewels and 5 precepts. In Cambodia, Buddha's Birthday is celebrated as Visak Bochea and is a public holiday where monks around the country carry flags, lotus flowers and candles to acknowledge Vesak. People take part in alms giving to the monks. Maybe in China, celebrations may occur in Buddhist temples where people may light incense and bring food offerings for the monks. In Hong Kong, Buddha's birthday is a public holiday. Lanterns are lit to symbolise the Buddha's enlightenment and many people visit the temple to pay their respects; the bathing of the Buddha is a major feature of Buddha's birthday celebrations in the city. The festival is a public holiday in Macau. India is the land where the Buddha established Buddhism.
Buddha spent majority of his life in what is now modern day India. Some of the holiest sites associated with Buddha's life include Bodhgaya, Sarnath and Rajgir, Kushinagar Under Emperor Ashoka, Buddhism spread from India to other nations. Buddha Purnima or Buddha Jayanthi in South India or Tathagata is a public holiday in India; the public holiday for Buddha purnima in India was initiated by Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar when he was the minister of social justice It is celebrated in Sikkim
Purnima is the Indian and Nepali word for full moon, while in Indonesian it is known as Purnama. The day of Purnima is the day in each month when the full moon occurs, marks the division in each month between the two lunar fortnights. A full moon occurs when the Sun and the Moon appear separated by 180°; this lunar day is the considered auspicious for new beginnings. The Shukla Paksha is the fortnight before, the Krishna Paksha is the fortnight after Purnima; this lunar phase lasts only for a while, when the Sun and the Moon are aligned in a straight line, called a syzygy of the Sun–Earth–Moon system. Full moon is considered the third of the four primary phases of the Moon; the full moon shows 100% illumination, causes high tides, can concur with lunar eclipses. The following festivals occur on Purnima. Kartik Poornima, is celebrated on the full moon day of Kartik of Nepali Calendar, it is called Tripura Purnima. Shravan Poornima, is the full moon day in Shravan; this day has a number of different names.
Hayagriva Jayanti is celebrated on Shravana Purnima. It is known as Narali Purnima Vat Purnima is celebrated on the full moon day of the month of Jyeshta. Women pray for their husbands by tying threads around a banyan tree on this day, it honors the legendary wife of Satyavan who escaped death for her husband's life. It is the chosen day for worshipping Yama deva Guru Purnima, devotees offer puja to their Guru, on a full moon day; this is well known as Vyasa Purnima after the birthday of the celebrated author of Mahabharata, declared as the guru of all in the Shiva Purana. Sharad Purnima or Kojagiri purnima, the Autumn Harvest Festival, on a full moon day. Buddha Poornima, the day of birth and passing away of Gautama Buddha, on a full moon day. Holi/Phalgun Purnima, the Spring Festival of Colours in Hinduism/Buddhism/Jainism, the full moon day in Phalgun. Dattātreya Jayanti is celebrated on the full moon day of the month of Margashira Hanuman Jayanti is celebrated on the full mon of the lunar month Chaitra.
However, this is celebrated on different days in different states. While Orissa celebrates this as Vaisakha Sankranti, Andhra Pradesh celebrates Vaisakha shukla paksha dashami, Kerala celebrates it in a previous month Margashira Amavasya coinciding with Mula Nakshatra. Chaitra Purnima is the chosen day for donation of rice to please Moon god. Shakambhari Purnima is celebrated on the full moon day of the month of Pausha Madhu Purnima is celebrated on the full moon day of the month of Bhaadra. On this day Uma Maheswara Vrata as well as Shakra Vrata where Indra is worshiped for children and well-being. Satyanarayan Puja vrata is observed on all full moon days Get Purnima vrat dates 2018 more information about full moon and guru Purnima. Introduction to the Hindu Calendar
Bengal is a geopolitical and historical region in South Asia in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal. Geographically, it is made up by the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta system, the largest such formation in the world. Politically, Bengal is divided between Bangladesh and the Indian territories of West Bengal and Assam's Barak Valley. In 2011, the population of Bengal was estimated to be 250 million, making it one of the most densely populated regions in the world. Among them, an estimated 160 million people live in Bangladesh and 91.3 million people live in West Bengal. The predominant ethnolinguistic group is the Bengali people, who speak the Indo-Aryan Bengali language. Bengali Muslims are the majority in Bangladesh and Bengali Hindus are the majority in West Bengal and Tripura, while Barak Valley contains equal proportions of Bengali Hindus and Bengali Muslims. Outside Bengal proper, the Indian territories of Jharkhand and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands are home to significant communities of Bengalis.
Dense woodlands, including hilly rainforests, cover Bengal's eastern areas. In the littoral southwest are the Sundarbans, the world's largest mangrove forest and home of the Bengal tiger. In the coastal southeast lies Cox's Bazar, the longest beach in the world at 125 km; the region has a monsoon climate. At times an independent regional empire, Bengal was a leading power in Southeast Asia and the Islamic East, with extensive trade networks. In antiquity, its kingdoms were known as seafaring nations. Bengal was known to the Greeks as Gangaridai, notable for mighty military power, it was described by Greek historians that Alexander the Great withdrew from India anticipating a counterattack from an alliance of Gangaridai. Writers noted merchant shipping links between Bengal and Roman Egypt; the Bengali Pala Empire was the last major Buddhist imperial power in the subcontinent, founded in 750 and becoming the dominant power in the northern Indian subcontinent by the 9th century, before being replaced by the Hindu Sena dynasty in the 12th century.
Islam was introduced through trade with the Abbasid Caliphate. The Islamic Bengal Sultanate, founded in 1352, was absorbed into the Mughal Empire in 1576; the Mughal Bengal Subah province became a major global exporter, a center of worldwide industries such as cotton textiles, shipbuilding, 12% of the world's GDP, larger than the entirety of western Europe. Bengal was conquered by the British East India Company in 1757 by Battle of Plassey and became the Bengal Presidency of the British Raj, which experienced deindustrialization under British rule; the Company increased agriculture tax rates from 10 percent to up to 50 causing the Great Bengal famine of 1770 and the deaths of 10 million Bengalis. Bengal played a major role in the Indian independence movement, in which revolutionary groups were dominant. Armed attempts to overthrow the British Raj began with the rebellion of Titumir, reached a climax when Subhas Chandra Bose led the Indian National Army allied with Japan to fight against the British.
A large number of Bengalis died in the independence struggle and many were exiled in Cellular Jail, located in Andaman. The United Kingdom Cabinet Mission of 1946, split the region into India and Pakistan, popularly known as partition of Bengal, opposed by the Prime Minister of Bengal Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy and nationalist leader Sarat Chandra Bose, they campaigned for a independent nation-state of Bengal. The initiative failed owing to British diplomacy and communal conflict between Hindus. Pakistan ruled East Bengal becoming the independent nation of Bangladesh by Bangladesh War of Independence in 1971. Bengali culture has been influential in the fields of literature, shipbuilding, architecture, currency, commerce and cuisine; the name of Bengal is derived from the ancient kingdom of Banga, the earliest records of which date back to the Mahabharata epic in the first millennium BCE. Theories on the origin of the term Banga point to the Proto-Dravidian Bong tribe that settled in the area circa 1000 BCE and the Austric word Bong.
The term Vangaladesa is used to describe the region in 11th-century South Indian records. The modern term Bangla is prominent from the 14th century, which saw the establishment of the Sultanate of Bengal, whose first ruler Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah was known as the Shah of Bangala; the Portuguese referred to the region as Bengala in the Age of Discovery. The modern English name Bengal is an exonym derived from the Bengal Sultanate period. Most of the Bengal region lies in the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta, but there are highlands in its north and southeast; the Ganges Delta arises from the confluence of the rivers Ganges and Meghna rivers and their respective tributaries. The total area of Bengal is 232,752 km2—West Bengal is 88,752 km2 and Bangladesh 147,570 km2; the flat and fertile Bangladesh Plain dominates the geography of Bangladesh. The Chittagong Hill Tracts and Sylhet regions are home to most of the mountains in Bangladesh. Most parts of Bangladesh are within 10 metres above the sea level, it is believed that about 10% of the land would be flooded if the sea level were to rise by 1 metre.
Because of this l