Anjaneyāsana, Crescent Moon Pose or Ashwa Sanchalanasana, Equestrian Pose is a standing back bending asana in modern yoga. The name Anjaneya is a matronymic for Hanuman. Hanuman is an important Iṣṭa-devatā in devotional worship. Like many standing poses, Anjaneyasana is of 20th century origin, is used in schools of modern yoga such as Sivananda Yoga; the pose is entered from a lunge, with the back knee lowered to the ground, the back arched and the arms raised and stretched over the head. The toes of the back foot remain tucked forward, the heel lifted; the front foot remains in standing position, the hips lowered close to the front foot and the front knee bent and pointing forwards. In the full pose, the rear foot is grasped with both hands, the elbows pointing up. A twisting lunge is sometimes called Parivṛtta Anjaneyasana; this has the opposite elbow to the rear leg straight. Moving the front foot on to its side so the knee comes to the ground enables a transition to a related back bend, Rajakapotasana.
Some teachers use the name Crescent Moon Pose for a lunge with raised knee and raised hands, as in Virabhadrasana I. Ardha Chandrasana, half moon pose Hanumanasana, another related pose, the front-back splits, the front leg straight out List of asanas Lunge
Yoga for therapeutic purposes
Yoga for therapeutic purposes is the use of modern yoga, consisting of postures called asanas, as a gentle form of exercise and relaxation to maintain or improve health. This postural form of yoga is practised in classes, may involve meditation, breath work and music. At least three types of health claim have been made for yoga: magical claims for medieval haṭha yoga, including the power of healing. Modern yoga exercise classes used as therapy consist of asanas and relaxation in savasana; the physical asanas of modern yoga are related to medieval haṭha yoga tradition, but they were not practiced in India before the early 20th century. The number of schools and styles of yoga in the Western world has grown from the late 20th century. By 2012, there were at least 19 widespread styles from Ashtanga Vinyasa Yoga to Viniyoga; these emphasise different aspects including aerobic exercise, precision in the asanas, spirituality in the haṭha yoga tradition. These aspects can be illustrated by schools with distinctive styles.
Thus, Bikram Yoga has an aerobic exercise style with rooms heated to 105 °F and a fixed pattern of 2 breathing exercises and 26 asanas. Iyengar Yoga emphasises correct alignment in the postures, working if necessary with props, ending with relaxation. Sivananda Yoga focuses more on spiritual practice, with 12 basic poses, chanting in Sanskrit, pranayama breathing exercises and relaxation in each class, importance is placed on vegetarian diet. At least three different types of claim of therapeutic benefit have been made for yoga from medieval times onwards, not counting the more general claims of good health made throughout this period: magical powers. Medieval authors asserted that haṭha yoga brought physical benefits, provided magical powers including of healing; the Hatha Yoga Pradipika states that asanas in general, described as the first auxiliary of haṭha yoga, give "steadiness, good health, lightness of limb." Specific asanas, bring additional benefits. These claims lie within a tradition across all forms of yoga that practitioners can gain supernatural powers.
Hemachandra's Yogashastra lists the magical powers, which include healing and the destruction of poisons. Advocates of some schools of modern yoga, such as B. K. S. Iyengar, have for various reasons made claims for the effects of yoga on specific organs, without adducing any evidence; the yoga scholar Andrea Jain describes such claims in terms of "elaborating and fortifying his yoga brand" and "mass-marketing", calling his book Light on Yoga "arguably the most significant event in the process of elaborating the brand". Jain suggests that "Its biomedical dialect was attractive to many." For example, in the book, Iyengar claims that the asanas of the Eka Pada Sirsasana cycle tone up the muscular and circulatory systems of the entire body. The spine receives a rich supply of blood, which increases the nervous energy in the chakras, the flywheels in the human body machine; these poses make the breathing fuller and the body firmer. The history of such claims has been reviewed by William J. Broad in his 2012 book The Science of Yoga.
Broad argues that while the health claims for yoga began as Hindu nationalist posturing, it turns out that there is "a wealth of real benefits". Researchers have studied the medical and psychological effects of yoga in a wide range of trials and observational studies, sometimes with careful controls, providing evidence of differing quality about yoga's possible benefits; the various types of claim, the evidence for them, are discussed below. Much of the research on the therapeutic use of modern yoga has been in the form of preliminary studies or clinical trials of low methodological quality, including small sample sizes, inadequate control and blinding, lack of randomization, high risk of bias. For example, a 2010 literature review on the use of yoga for depression stated, "although the results from these trials are encouraging, they should be viewed as preliminary because the trials, as a group, suffered from substantial methodological limitations." A 2015 systematic review on the effect of yoga on mood and the brain recommended that future clinical trials should apply more methodological rigour.
The practice of asanas has been claimed to improve flexibility and balance. A review of five studies noted that three psychological and four biological mechanisms that might act on stress had been examined empirically, whereas many other
Common peroneal nerve
The common fibular nerve is a nerve in the lower leg that provides sensation over the posterolateral part of the leg and the knee joint. It divides at the knee into two terminal branches: the superficial fibular nerve and deep fibular nerve, which innervate the muscles of the lateral and anterior compartments of the leg respectively; when the common fibular nerve is damaged or compressed, foot drop can be the end result. The common fibular nerve is the smaller terminal branch of the sciatic nerve; the common fibular nerve has root values of L4, L5, S1, S2. It arises from the superior angle of the popliteal fossa and extends to the lateral angle of the popliteal fossa, along the medial border of the biceps femoris, it winds around the neck of the fibula to pierce the fibularis longus and divides into terminal branches of superficial fibular nerve and deep fibular nerve. Before its division, the common fibular nerve gives off several branches in the popliteal fossa. Lateral sural cutaneous nerve - supplies the skin of the upper two-thirds of the lateral side of leg.
Sural communicating nerve - it runs on the posterolateral aspect of the calf and joins the sural nerve. Superior lateral genicular nerve - accompanies artery of the same name and lies above the lateral femoral condyle. Inferior lateral genicular nerve - accompanies artery of the same name and lies just above the head of the fibula. Recurrent genicular nerve - It arises from the point of division of the common fibular nerve. There is only one motor branch that arises directly from common fibular nerve, the nerve to the short head of the biceps femoris muscle; the common fibular nerve innervates the short head of the biceps femoris muscle via a motor branch that exits close to the gluteal cleft. The remainder of the fibular-innervated muscles are innervated by its branches, the deep fibular nerve and superficial fibular nerve, it provides sensory innervation to the skin over the upper third of the lateral aspect of the leg via the lateral sural cutaneous nerve. It gives the aural communicating nerve.
Chronic fibular neuropathy can result from, among other conditions, bed rest of long duration, hyperflexion of the knee, peripheral neuropathy, pressure in obstetric stirrups, conditioning in ballet dancers. The most common cause is habitual leg crossing that compresses the common fibular nerve as it crosses around the head of the fibula. Transient trauma to the nerve can result from peroneal strike. Damage to this nerve results in foot drop, where dorsiflexion of the foot is compromised and the foot drags during walking. A common yoga kneeling exercise, the Vajrasana, has been linked to a variant called yoga foot drop. Surgical procedures involving the nerve involve: Fibular nerve decompression To surgically decompress the common fibular nerve, an incision is made over the neck of the fibula. Fascia surrounding the nerves to the lateral side of the leg is released. Deep fibular nerve decompression In the surgical treatment of deep peroneal nerve entrapment in the foot, a ligament from the extensor digitorum brevis muscle that crosses over the deep peroneal nerve, putting pressure on it and causing pain, is released.
Deep fibular nerve Peroneal strike Peroneal vein Peroneus muscles This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 964 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Anatomy photo:14:st-0501 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center Peroneal_nerve at the Duke University Health System's Orthopedics program latleg at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman arteries-nerves%20LE/nerves4 at the Dartmouth Medical School's Department of Anatomy Overview at okstate.edu
A mudra is a symbolic or ritual gesture in Hinduism and Buddhism. While some mudras involve the entire body, most are performed with the fingers. A mudrā is a spiritual gesture and an energetic seal of authenticity employed in the iconography and spiritual practice of Indian religions. In hatha yoga, mudras are used in conjunction with pranayama while in a seated posture, to stimulate different parts of the body involved with breathing and to affect the flow of prana, boddhicitta, amrita or consciousness in the body. Unlike older tantric mudras, hatha yogic mudras are internal actions, involving the pelvic floor, throat, tongue, genitals and other parts of the body. Examples of this diversity of mudras are Mula Bandha, Viparita Karani, Khecarī mudrā, Vajroli mudra; these expanded in number from 3 in the Amritasiddhi, to 25 in the Gheranda Samhita, with a classical set of ten arising in the Hatha Yoga Pradipika. The Chinese translation is yinxiang. Both these Chinese words appear as loanwords in Japanese and Korean.
Two other Chinese-based compounds, 印契 and 密印, are used. In Japanese, the former compound may be used with the order of the characters reversed. Mudra is used in the iconography of Hindu and Buddhist art of the Indian subcontinent and described in the scriptures, such as Nātyaśāstra, which lists 24 asaṁyuta and 13 saṁyuta mudras. Mudra positions are formed by both the hand and the fingers. Along with āsanas, they are employed statically in the meditation and dynamically in the Nāṭya practice of Hinduism. Hindu and Buddhist iconography share some mudras. In some regions, for example in Laos and Thailand, these are distinct but share related iconographic conventions. According to Jamgotn Kongtrul in his commentary on the Hevajra Tantra, the ornaments of wrathful deities and witches made of human bones are known as mudra "seals". In Indian classical dance, the term "Hasta Mudra" is used; the Natya Shastra describes 24 mudras, while the Abhinaya Darpana of Nandikeshvara gives 28. In all their forms of Indian classical dance, the mudras are similar, though the names and uses vary.
There are 24 in Kathakali and 20 in Odissi. These root mudras are combined in different ways, like one hand, two hands, arm movements and facial expressions. In Kathakali, which has the greatest number of combinations, the vocabulary adds up to c. 900. Sanyukta mudras use both hands and asanyukta mudras use one hand; the classical sources for the mudras in yoga are the Hatha Yoga Pradipika. The Hatha Yoga Pradipika states the importance of mudras in yoga practice: "Therefore the goddess sleeping at the entrance of Brahma's door should be aroused with all effort, by performing mudra thoroughly." In the 20th and 21st centuries, the yoga teacher Satyananda Saraswati, founder of the Bihar School of Yoga, continued to emphasize the importance of mudras in his instructional text Asana, Mudrā, Bandha. The yoga mudras are diverse in the parts of the body involved and in the procedures required, as in Mula Bandha, Viparita Karani, Khecarī mudrā, Vajroli mudra. Mula Bandha, the Root Lock, consists of pressing one heel into the anus in a cross-legged seated asana, contracting the perineum, forcing the prana to enter the central sushumna channel.
Mahamudra, the Great Seal has one heel pressed into the perineum. Viparita Karani, the Inverter, is a posture with the head down and the feet up, using gravity to retain the prana; the time spent in the posture is increased until it can be held for "three hours". The practice is claimed by the Dattatreyayogashastra to destroy all diseases and to banish grey hair and wrinkles. Khecarī mudrā, the Khechari Seal, consists of turning back the tongue "into the hollow of the skull", sealing in the bindu fluid so that it stops dripping down from the head and being lost when the yogi "embraces a passionate woman". To make the tongue long and flexible enough to be folded back in this way, the Khecharividya exhorts the yogi to make a cut a hair's breadth deep in the frenulum of the tongue once a week. Six months of this treatment destroys the frenulum. After six years of practice, which cannot be hurried, the tongue is said to become able to close the top end of the sushumna channel. Vajroli mudra, the Vajroli Seal, requires the yogi to preserve the semen, either by learning not to release it, or if released by drawing it up through the urethra from the vagina of "a woman devoted to the practice of yoga".
The Abhayamudra "gesture of fearlessness" represents protection, peace and the dispelling of fear. In Theravada Buddhism it is made while standing with the right arm bent and raised to shoulder hei
Virasana Sanskrit: वीरासन. Medieval hatha yoga texts describe a cross-legged meditation asana under the same name; the name comes from the Sanskrit words वीर vira meaning "hero", आसन āsana meaning "posture" or "seat". The name virasana is ancient, being found in the 8th century Patanjalayogashastravivarana and the 13th century Vasishthasamhita, but in those texts the description is of a cross-legged meditation seat. Virasana is a basic seated and starting asana for several forward and backwards bends and certain twists. Virasana may be used as an alternative to other seated asanas such as the padmasana. Variations include Adho Mukha Virasana with the body stretching forward and down, the hands reaching forward to the ground. Light on Yoga shows Yogadandasana as a variant of Virasana, one bent leg being rotated inwards until the foot supports the armpit on the same side. List of asanas Iyengar, B. K. S.. Light on Yoga: Yoga Dipika. Thorsons. ISBN 978-1855381667. Mallinson, James. Roots of Yoga. Penguin Books.
ISBN 978-0-241-25304-5. OCLC 928480104. Instructions Illustrated Page
Seiza is the Japanese term for one of the traditional formal ways of sitting in Japan. To sit seiza-style, one must first be kneeling on the floor, folding one's legs underneath one's thighs, while resting the buttocks on the heels; the ankles are turned outward as the tops of the feet are lowered so that, in a slight "V" shape, the tops of the feet are flat on the floor and big toes overlapped, the right always on top of the left, the buttocks are lowered all the way down. Depending on the circumstances, the hands are folded modestly in the lap, or are placed palm down on the upper thighs with the fingers close together, or are placed on the floor next to the hips, with the knuckles rounded and touching the floor; the back is kept straight, though not unnaturally stiff. Traditionally, women sit with the knees; some martial arts, notably kendō, aikidō, iaidō, may prescribe up to two fist widths of distance between the knees for men. Stepping into and out of seiza is mindfully performed. There are codified traditional methods of entering and exiting the sitting position depending on occasion and type of clothing worn.
Through the early history of Japan, various ways of sitting were regarded as'proper', such as sitting cross-legged, sitting with one knee raised, or sitting to the side. People's social circumstances, clothing styles, the places where they sat brought about their manners of sitting; the development, in the Muromachi period, of Japanese architecture in which the floors were covered with tatami, combined with the strict formalities of the ruling warrior class for which this style of architecture was principally designed, heralded the adoption of the sitting posture known today as seiza as the respectful way to sit. However, it was not until around the years surrounding the turn of the 18th century that the Japanese adopted this manner of sitting in their everyday lives. Seiza involves sitting down on the floor and not on a chair. In traditional Japanese architecture, floors in various rooms designed for comfort have tatami floors. Seiza thus is connected with tatami flooring. There are circumstances, when people sit seiza-style on carpeted and hardwood floors.
In many martial arts, for instance, this sitting position takes place on hardwood floors. Depending on the formality of the occasion, the setting, the relative status of the person, it is sometimes acceptable to sit on a special cushion called a zabuton. Sometimes stools are provided for elderly or injured people when others are expected to sit seiza-style, it is advisable in formal situations, to at least try to sit seiza-style. Non-Japanese who have not grown up sitting in this posture may, have difficulty assuming it at all; those unfamiliar with seiza will find that maintaining it for more than a minute or two tends to lead to paresthesia, whereby the compression of the nerves causes a loss of their blood flow, with the accompanying "pins and needles" feeling, followed by painful burning sensations, eventually complete numbness in the legs. However, the physical discomfort lessens with experience. Experienced seiza practitioners can maintain the posture for forty minutes or more with minimal discomfort.
Certain knee problems are made worse when assuming this position Osgood-Schlatter disease. Special seiza stools are available in Japan, they are folding stools, small enough to be carried in a handbag, which are placed between the feet and on which one rests the buttocks when sitting seiza-style. They allow one to maintain the appearance of sitting seiza while discreetly taking pressure off the heels and feet. Doing seiza is an integral and required part of several traditional Japanese arts, such as certain Japanese martial arts and tea ceremony. Seiza is the traditional way of sitting while doing other arts such as shodō and ikebana, though with the increasing use of western-style furniture it is not always necessary nowadays. Many theatres for traditional performing arts such as kabuki and sumo still have audience seating sections where the spectators sit in seiza style. Walking on the feet and knees while in the seiza posture, known as shikkō, is considered more polite than standing up and walking regularly.
Shikkō is today quite rare, but is found in some traditional formal restaurants and ryokan, is practiced in the martial art of aikido, where practitioners learn to defend themselves while moving in shikkō. To perform this knee-walking movement the heels must be kept close together, the body must move as a whole unit, it is because movement in shikkō forces one to engage the hips in a way that it is considered valuable for aikido training. Sitting cross-legged, agura, is considered informal: it is appropriate for certain situations but not others, it is common in informal situations, such as eating at a low table in a casual restaurant, allowed in formal situations for those for whom seiza is difficult, such as elderly or non-Japanese people. Sitting cross-legged is considered uncouth for women, female informal sitting has both legs off to one side, with one side of the hips on the floor, termed yokozuwari. Another informal sitting posture for women is called wariza which resembles seiza, but the lower legs are bent off to their respective sides.
To sit in seiza requires coming to
Chakrasana or Urdhva Dhanurasana is an asana. It is the first pose of the finishing sequence in Ashtanga, it gives great flexibility to the spine. In acrobatics and gymnastics this body position is called a back bridge; the name Urdhva Dhanurasana comes from the Sanskrit Urdhva ऊर्ध्व, Dhanura धनु, a bow. The name Chakrasana comes from the Sanskrit words चक्र Chakra, "wheel", आसन Asana, "posture" or "seat"; the pose is illustrated in the 19th century Sritattvanidhi as Couch Pose. In the general form of the asana, the practitioner has hands and feet on the floor, the abdomen arches up toward the sky, it may be entered from a supine position or through a less rigorous supine backbend, such as Setu Bandha Sarvangasana. Some advanced practitioners can move into Wheel Pose by "dropping back" from Tadasana, or by standing with the back to a wall, reaching arms overhead and walking hands down the wall toward the floor. Advanced practitioners may follow wheel with any of its variations, or with other backbends, such as Dwi Pada Viparita Dandasana, or by pushing back up to stand in Tadasana.
The stretching in Chakrasana helps to tone and strengthen muscles in the back and calves, is said to relieve tension and stress in people who sit for long times in front of a desk or computer. Many variations of the pose are possible, including: Eka Pada Urdhva Dhanurasana: one leg is lifted straight up into the air. Eka Hasta Urdhva Dhanurasana: one arm is raised off the ground and placed on the thigh or knee. Camatkarasana has the opposite leg straightened. Chakra Bandhasana has the forearms on the hands grasping the heels. List of asanas Iyengar, B. K. S.. Light on Yoga: Yoga Dipika. Thorsons. ISBN 978-1855381667. Sjoman, Norman E.. The Yoga Tradition of the Mysore Palace. Abhinav Publications. ISBN 81-7017-389-2. Technique