Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, branded as CBC/Radio-Canada, is a Canadian federal Crown corporation that serves as the national public broadcaster for both radio and television. The English- and French-language service units of the corporation are known as CBC and Radio-Canada and both short-form names are commonly used in the applicable language to refer to the corporation as a whole. Although some local stations in Canada predate CBC's founding, CBC is the oldest existing broadcasting network in Canada, first established in its present form on November 2, 1936. Radio services include CBC Radio One, CBC Music, Ici Radio-Canada Première, Ici Musique. Television operations include CBC Television, Ici Radio-Canada Télé, CBC News Network, Ici RDI, Ici Explora, Documentary Channel, Ici ARTV; the CBC operates services for the Canadian Arctic under the names CBC Radio-Canada Nord. The CBC operates digital services including CBC.ca/Ici. Radio-Canada.ca, CBC Radio 3, CBC Music/ICI.mu and Ici.
TOU. TV, owns 20.2% of satellite radio broadcaster Sirius XM Canada, which carries several CBC-produced audio channels. CBC/Radio-Canada offers programming in English and eight aboriginal languages on its domestic radio service, in five languages on its web-based international radio service, Radio Canada International. However, budget cuts in the early 2010s have contributed to the corporation reducing its service via the airwaves, discontinuing RCI's shortwave broadcasts as well as terrestrial television broadcasts in all communities served by network-owned rebroadcast transmitters, including communities not subject to Canada's over-the-air digital television transition. CBC's federal funding is supplemented by revenue from commercial advertising on its television broadcasts; the radio service employed commercials from its inception to 1974, but since its primary radio networks have been commercial-free. In 2013, CBC's secondary radio networks, CBC Music and Ici Musique, introduced limited advertising of up to four minutes an hour, but this was discontinued in 2016.
In 1929, the Aird Commission on public broadcasting recommended the creation of a national radio broadcast network. A major concern was the growing influence of American radio broadcasting as U. S.-based networks began to expand into Canada. Meanwhile, Canadian National Railways was making a radio network to keep its passengers entertained and give it an advantage over its rival, CP. This, the CNR Radio, is the forerunner of the CBC. Graham Spry and Alan Plaunt lobbied intensely for the project on behalf of the Canadian Radio League. In 1932 the government of R. B. Bennett established the CBC's predecessor, the Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission; the CRBC took over a network of radio stations set up by a federal Crown corporation, the Canadian National Railway. The network was used to broadcast programming to riders aboard its passenger trains, with coverage in central and eastern Canada. On November 2, 1936, the CRBC was reorganized under its present name. While the CRBC was a state-owned company, the CBC was a Crown corporation on the model of the British Broadcasting Corporation, reformed from a private company into a statutory corporation in 1927.
Leonard Brockington was the CBC's first chairman. For the next few decades, the CBC was responsible for all broadcasting innovation in Canada; this was in part because, until 1958, it was not only a broadcaster, but the chief regulator of Canadian broadcasting. It used this dual role to snap up most of the clear-channel licences in Canada, it began a separate French-language radio network in 1937. It introduced FM radio to Canada in 1946, though a distinct FM service wasn't launched until 1960. Television broadcasts from the CBC began on September 6, 1952, with the opening of a station in Montreal, a station in Toronto, Ontario opening two days later; the CBC's first owned affiliate television station, CKSO in Sudbury, launched in October 1953. From 1944 to 1962, the CBC split its English-language radio network into two services known as the Trans-Canada Network and the Dominion Network; the latter, carrying lighter programs including American radio shows, was dissolved in 1962, while the former became known as CBC Radio.
On July 1, 1958, CBC's television signal was extended from coast to coast. The first Canadian television show shot in colour was the CBC's own The Forest Rangers in 1963. Colour television broadcasts began on July 1, 1966, full-colour service began in 1974. In 1978, CBC became the first broadcaster in the world to use an orbiting satellite for television service, linking Canada "from east to west to north". Starting in 1967 and continuing until the mid-1970s, the CBC provided limited television service to remote and northern communities. Transmitters were built in a few locations and carried a four-hour selection of black-and-white videotaped programs each day; the tapes were flown into communities to be shown transported to other communities by the "bicycle" method used in television syndication. Transportation delays ranged from one week for larger centres to a month for small communities; the first FCP station was started in Yellowknife in May 1967, the second in Whitehorse in No
Area codes 819 and 873
Area codes 819 and 873 are area codes for central and western Quebec, including the Quebec portion of the National Capital Region, the entire Hudson Strait and Ungava Bay coastlines of Quebec. Major cities in the 819 territory include Gatineau and Trois-Rivières; the incumbent local exchange carriers in 819/873 are Bell Canada, Bell Aliant, Telus, as well as Télébec and other independent companies. From 1992 to 1997, Northwestel was an incumbent carrier in 819 as it included former Bell Canada points in the Northwest Territories. Quebec was divided between two area codes. 514 covered the entire western half of Quebec from the US border to Hudson Strait, while 418 served the eastern half. In a 1957 flash cut, the 514 area was split into three segments - the southernmost remained 514, the middle became 819, the northern part, which had no telephone services, was added to 418. 819 thus bordered 613 and the new 705 codes in Ontario and 418 on the east and north, the remainder of 514 on the south.
When telephone service was introduced in the eastern Northwest Territories, at Frobisher Bay in 1958, Bell Canada nominally made it part of Area code 418. Through the 1960s and 1970s, telephone service was introduced, by Bell Canada at other locations in the eastern Northwest Territories and in locations along the Quebec Arctic coastline, as well as by Sotel, an independent company, in the James Bay region; these non-diallable locations became part of 418. Late in the 1970s, the northern portions of 418 served by Sotel and Bell along James and Ungava Bays and Hudson Strait, as well as the eastern Northwest Territories, were assigned to 819 as exchanges in that area began to receive direct distance dialling, thus 819 now bordered Area code 709 of Newfoundland in the Torngat Mountain area, Area code 403 where Bell Canada and Northwestel service areas met, as well as 204 and 807. From the late 1970s until 1997, 819 extended one-eighth of the way around the world, from the 45th parallel north at Stanstead, Quebec to the North Pole by including much of the Northwest Territories along with most of western Quebec.
Northwestel used Alberta's area code 403 for its services in the Northwest Territories. In 1997-98, the portions of 819 in the Northwest Territories, plus the portions of 403 in the Northwest Territories and Yukon, were transferred to Area code 867, a newly created code to unite all northern territories. 819 was cut back to western Quebec. Thus, borders on 403, 204 and 807 were replaced with the single border on 867. Area code 514 was split shortly afterward, changing 819's boundary on 514 to a boundary with Area code 450, the new area code for the off-island suburbs of Montreal; until 2006, it was possible to make calls between Ottawa and Hull with only seven digits, since Ottawa and Hull are a single local calling area. A similar situation prevailed in the Washington metropolitan area, where calls could be completed with just seven digits though the region spilled across three area codes in three jurisdictions—Washington itself and parts of Maryland and Virginia. An "exchange protection" scheme prevented the same seven-digit local number from being assigned in both Ottawa and Hull.
This code protection was implemented in such a manner that, if an exchange in +1-819-77x was in use in Hull, the corresponding +1-613-77x exchange could not be used anywhere in Eastern Ontario. Conversely, if an exchange in +1-613-23x was being used in Ottawa, the corresponding +1-819-23x exchange was unavailable anywhere in western Quebec in areas a safe distance from the National Capital Region such as Mauricie and Estrie; the problem was exacerbated by Canada's inefficient system of number allocation. Every tiny hamlet is a rate centre. Larger cities had multiple rate centres, most of which were not amalgamated during the creation of "megacities" in Quebec in 2002 and remain separate to this day. For instance, in 2002 Hull was merged into the "megacity" of Gatineau. However, the megacity comprises five separate rate centres; the city centre exchange is still named "Ottawa-Hull," while the "Gatineau" exchange only serves the pre-merger city of Gatineau. The Gatineau and Aylmer exchanges, despite now being part of the amalgamated municipality of Gatineau, remained long-distance calls to each other until a 16 August 2007 expansion of their local calling area, five years later.
While many smaller rate centres don't need nearly that many numbers in order to adequately serve their customers, a number could not be assigned elsewhere once allocated to a carrier and rate centre. This resulted in thousands of wasted numbers, the proliferation of cell phones and pagers only exacerbated this. By 2006, 819 was exhausted except for central office codes that theoretically could have been used in Hull, but could not be assigned without breaking seven-digit dialling between Ottawa and Hull; the situation could have been avoided had some +1-819 versions of the seven-digit Ottawa-Hull numbers been assigned to areas a safe distance from the National Capital Region years earlier. Ten-digit dialling was made mandatory in both 819 and 613 on October 21, 2006, exchange protection was ended. Seven-digit local calls in centres far from the area code boundary were failing with intercept messages
Sûreté du Québec
The Sûreté du Québec, abbreviated SQ, is the provincial police force for the Canadian province of Quebec. No official English name exists, but the agency's name is sometimes translated to Quebec Provincial Police in English-language sources; the headquarters of the Sûreté du Québec are located on Parthenais street in Montreal and the force employs 5,200 officers. SQ is the second largest provincial force and fourth largest force in Canada; the primary function of the Sûreté du Québec is to enforce provincial laws, some municipal bylaws, the Criminal Code, many other laws throughout Quebec and to assist municipal police forces when needed. At the local scale, the SQ is responsible for providing local police services to municipalities that chose not to have their own, in exchange of payment relative to their size. In other cities, the Sûreté du Québec can take over crime investigations from their municipal forces, when required by the Police Act of the province – according to the severity of the crime and the size of the population As such, the SQ is present in smaller, rural or suburban communities, is not visible in the streets of urban centres such as Montreal and Quebec City, whose police forces must provide a wide range of services and operations, as per law.
In those cities however, the Sûreté still has large offices where various investigations are conducted. At the provincial scale, it is responsible, among others, for patrolling highways of Quebec, preserving the integrity of governmental institutions, coordinating large scale investigations and sharing with others forces the criminal intelligence database of Quebec, etc. In addition, the SQ can provide technical assistance to Quebec's independent investigation unit in any incident involving possible wrongdoing by another police department, such as death and serious injuries. Should the SQ be involved in such an incident, assistance will be provided either by the police services of Montreal or of Quebec City. On February 1, 1870, the Quebec provincial government created the Police provinciale du Québec under the direction of its first commissioner, Judge Pierre-Antoine Doucet; this new force took over the headquarters of the Quebec City municipal police, which were disbanded, although the city relaunched a municipal force in 1877.
In 1900, two distinct provincial police forces were created: the Office of Provincial Detectives of Montreal, in response to a crime wave in that city, the Revenue Police, whose mission was to collect taxes. In 1902, the government decided that the provincial police should no longer be directed by a judge but by an officer of the police themselves. Augustin McCarthy was chosen as the first chief drawn from the ranks of the police. In 1922, two headquarters were established, one in Quebec City, headed by McCarthy, one in Montreal, headed by Dieudonné Daniel Lorrain; the Office of Provincial Detectives of Montreal became part of the general provincial police in that year. The Quebec division included two detectives. In 1925, police officers started patrolling on motorcycles. In 1929 and 1930, the structure of the force was reformed and the agency adopted a new name as Sûreté provinciale du Québec, shortened to its present name; the Sûreté du Québec admitted in August 2007 that they had used undercover police posing as protestors at the 2007 Montebello Security and Prosperity Partnership of North America meetings.
This admission was made after a video captured by protestors was circulated in the Canadian media and made available on YouTube. It is not uncommon to make use of undercover agents at protests of this kind, but the video was controversial because it appeared to show one of the officers carrying a rock, suggesting to some viewers that the police may have been acting as agents provocateurs by inciting violence. Bas-Saint-Laurent-Gaspésie-Îles-de-la-Madeleine Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean Capitale-Nationale-Chaudière-Appalaches Mauricie-Centre-du-Québec Estrie Montréal-Laval-Laurentides-Lanaudière Outaouais Abitibi-Témiscamingue-Nord-du-Québec Côte-Nord Montérégie Rank insignia of the Sûreté du Québec are on contained on "slip on" sleeves worn on the epaulettes of uniform jacket or shirt shoulders. Constables do not have any insignia on their uniform. SQ had the rank of Corporal above Constable rank. Team leaders have epaulette with the words Chef d'équipe. Early uniforms were British in origins including the use of the Custodian helmet, with the Kepi added as well.
The force adopted a uniform with a more distinct green tone, as well as a peaked cap, in the 1960s. The emblem of the force changed in the 1970s when the old provincial coat of arms gave way to the fleur-de-lis. In late 2016, Martin Prud'Homme, Director General of the SQ, announced the uniforms would be changed. Shirts and coats will be of a darker shade of olive green, the patches, the caps and the bulletproof vests will become black, the pants blue-black. One of the justification was. Progressively starting in 2017, the marked patrol cars are set to become black with white doors, on which the word "POLICE" will be more in evidence. Cars: Ford Taurus Chevrolet Impala Chevrolet Tahoe Dodge Charger Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptor - retired Chevrole
A metropolitan area, sometimes referred to as a metro area or commuter belt, is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry and housing. A metro area comprises multiple jurisdictions and municipalities: neighborhoods, boroughs, towns, suburbs, districts and nations like the eurodistricts; as social and political institutions have changed, metropolitan areas have become key economic and political regions. Metropolitan areas include one or more urban areas, as well as satellite cities and intervening rural areas that are socioeconomically tied to the urban core measured by commuting patterns. In the United States, the concept of the metropolitan statistical area has gained prominence. Metropolitan areas may themselves be part of larger megalopolises. For urban centres outside metropolitan areas, that generate a similar attraction at smaller scale for their region, the concept of the regiopolis and regiopolitan area or regio was introduced by German professors in 2006.
In the United States, the term micropolitan statistical area is used. A metropolitan area combines an urban agglomeration with zones not urban in character, but bound to the center by employment or other commerce; these outlying zones are sometimes known as a commuter belt, may extend well beyond the urban zone, to other political entities. For example, New York on Long Island is considered part of the New York metropolitan area. In practice, the parameters of metropolitan areas, in both official and unofficial usage, are not consistent. Sometimes they are little different from an urban area, in other cases they cover broad regions that have little relation to a single urban settlement. Population figures given for one metro area can vary by millions. There has been no significant change in the basic concept of metropolitan areas since its adoption in 1950, although significant changes in geographic distributions have occurred since and more are expected; because of the fluidity of the term "metropolitan statistical area," the term used colloquially is more "metro service area," "metro area," or "MSA" taken to include not only a city, but surrounding suburban and sometimes rural areas, all which it is presumed to influence.
A polycentric metropolitan area contains multiple urban agglomerations not connected by continuous development. In defining a metropolitan area, it is sufficient that a city or cities form a nucleus with which other areas have a high degree of integration. See the many lists of metropolitan areas itemized at § Lists of metropolitan areas; the Australian Bureau of Statistics defines Greater Capital City Statistical Areas as the areas of functional extent of the seven state capitals and the Australian Capital Territory. GCCSAs replaced "Statistical Divisions" used until 2011. In Brazil, metropolitan areas are called "metropolitan regions"; each State defines its own legislation for the creation and organization of a metropolitan region. The creation of a metropolitan region is not intended for any statistical purpose, although the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics uses them in its reports, their main purpose is to allow for a better management of public policies of common interest to all cities involved.
They don't have political, electoral or jurisdictional power whatsoever, so citizens living in a metropolitan region do not elect representatives for them. Statistics Canada defines a census metropolitan area as an area consisting of one or more adjacent municipalities situated around a major urban core. To form a CMA, the metropolitan area must have a population of at least 100,000, at least half within the urban core. To be included in the CMA, adjacent municipalities must have a high degree of integration with the core, as measured by commuter flows derived from census data. In Chinese, there used to be no clear distinction between "megalopolis" and "metropolitan area" until National Development and Reform Commission issued Guidelines on the Cultivation and Development of Modern Metropolitan Areas on Feb 19, 2019, in which a metropolitan area was defined as "an urbanized spatial form in a megalopolis dominated by supercity or megacity, or a large metropolis playing a leading part, within the basic range of 1-hour commute area."
The European Union's statistical agency, has created a concept named Larger Urban Zone. The LUZ represents an attempt at a harmonised definition of the metropolitan area, the goal was to have an area from a significant share of the resident commute into the city, a concept known as the "functional urban region". France's national statistics institute, the INSEE, names an urban core and its surrounding area of commuter influence an aire urbaine; this statistical method applies to agglomerations of all sizes, but the INSEE sometimes uses the term aire métropolitaine to refer to France's largest aires urbaines. In German definition, metropolian areas are eleven most densely populated areas in the Federal Republic of Germany, they comprise the major German cities and their surrounding catchment areas and form the political and cultural centres of the country. For urban centres outside metropolitan areas, that generate a similar attraction at smaller scale for their region, the concept of the Regiopolis and regiopolitan area or regio was introduced by German professors in 2006.
In India, a metropolitan city is defin
La Vérendrye Wildlife Reserve
For the named park in Ontario, see: La Verendrye Provincial Park. La Vérendrye wildlife reserve is one of the largest reserves in the province of Quebec, covering 12,589 square kilometres of contiguous land and lake area, it is named after sieur de La Vérendrye, a French-Canadian explorer. Located 180 kilometres north of Ottawa, it is traversed from south to north by Route 117. With more than 4000 lakes and rivers and two huge reservoirs, the wilderness territory is a venue of choice for outdoor enthusiasts. In addition to hunting and fishing, it offers the opportunity to practice wilderness camping or canoe camping on more than 800 kilometres of interconnecting canoe routes. Two First Nation communities are found within the boundaries of the wildlife reserve: Kitcisakik on Great Victoria Lake and Lac-Rapide on Cabonga Reservoir; the reserve was established in 1939 with the name Reserve Route-Mont-Laurier-Senneterre. It was that year; because this new road made an exceptionally rich wildlife territory accessible to thousands of hunters and fishermen, it became thus important to protect it.
In 1950, the government transformed the hunting and fishing reservation into a park and renamed it in honour of explorer Pierre Gaultier de Varennes, Lord of La Vérendrye, on the 200th anniversary of his death. It gained the status of wildlife reserve in 1979. La Vérendrye Reserve is a popular park for outdoor activities in all seasons. In the winter, snowmobiling can be done on trails through the park. In the spring there are whitewater rivers in particular the Gens de Terre River. In the summer it is a great place for fishing, hiking and canoe camping. In the autumn, hunting is permitted. Popular game animals include white-tailed deer. Permits and payment of fees are required for any of these activities. Le Domaine is the community along Route 117. Here permits and food can be obtained. La Vérendrye's landscape is typical of the Canadian Shield; the main tree species include black spruce, white spruce, jack pine, eastern white pine, red pine, white birch. There are over 40 species of mammals including moose, white-tailed deer, wolf, beaver and over 150 species of birds including spruce grouse and ruffed grouse.
Walleye, northern pike, lake trout, smallmouth bass, lake sturgeon. A few bodies of water, in the southern part of the reserve, contain brook trout. Sépaq official website, La Vérendrye section
Quebec Route 397
Route 397 is a two-lane north/south highway located in the Abitibi-Témiscamingue region in Quebec, Canada. It starts at the junction of Route 117 in Val-d'Or and ends at the junction of Route 113 in Lac-Despinassy, it is concurrent with Route 386 in Barraute. Val-d'Or Barraute La Morandière Rochebaucourt Lac-Despinassy List of Quebec provincial highways Provincial Route Map Route 397 on Google Maps
Quebec is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is bordered to the west by the province of Ontario and the bodies of water James Bay and Hudson Bay. S. states of Maine, New Hampshire and New York. It shares maritime borders with Nunavut, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia. Quebec is Canada's largest province by its second-largest administrative division, it is and politically considered to be part of Central Canada. Quebec is the second-most populous province of Canada, after Ontario, it is the only one to have a predominantly French-speaking population, with French as the sole provincial official language. Most inhabitants live in urban areas near the Saint Lawrence River between Montreal and Quebec City, the capital. Half of Quebec residents live in the Greater Montreal Area, including the Island of Montreal. English-speaking communities and English-language institutions are concentrated in the west of the island of Montreal but are significantly present in the Outaouais, Eastern Townships, Gaspé regions.
The Nord-du-Québec region, occupying the northern half of the province, is sparsely populated and inhabited by Aboriginal peoples. The climate around the major cities is four-seasons continental with cold and snowy winters combined with warm to hot humid summers, but farther north long winter seasons dominate and as a result the northern areas of the province are marked by tundra conditions. In central Quebec, at comparatively southerly latitudes, winters are severe in inland areas. Quebec independence debates have played a large role in the politics of the province. Parti Québécois governments held referendums on sovereignty in 1980 and 1995. Although neither passed, the 1995 referendum saw the highest voter turnout in Quebec history, at over 93%, only failed by less than 1%. In 2006, the House of Commons of Canada passed a symbolic motion recognizing the "Québécois as a nation within a united Canada". While the province's substantial natural resources have long been the mainstay of its economy, sectors of the knowledge economy such as aerospace and communication technologies and the pharmaceutical industry play leading roles.
These many industries have all contributed to helping Quebec become an economically influential province within Canada, second only to Ontario in economic output. The name "Québec", which comes from the Algonquin word kébec meaning "where the river narrows" referred to the area around Quebec City where the Saint Lawrence River narrows to a cliff-lined gap. Early variations in the spelling of the name included Kébec. French explorer Samuel de Champlain chose the name Québec in 1608 for the colonial outpost he would use as the administrative seat for the French colony of New France; the province is sometimes referred to as "La belle province". The Province of Quebec was founded in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 after the Treaty of Paris formally transferred the French colony of Canada to Britain after the Seven Years' War; the proclamation restricted the province to an area along the banks of the Saint Lawrence River. The Quebec Act of 1774 expanded the territory of the province to include the Great Lakes and the Ohio River Valley and south of Rupert's Land, more or less restoring the borders existing under French rule before the Conquest of 1760.
The Treaty of Paris ceded territories south of the Great Lakes to the United States. After the Constitutional Act of 1791, the territory was divided between Lower Canada and Upper Canada, with each being granted an elected legislative assembly. In 1840, these become Canada East and Canada West after the British Parliament unified Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada; this territory was redivided into the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario at Confederation in 1867. Each became one of the first four provinces. In 1870, Canada purchased Rupert's Land from the Hudson's Bay Company and over the next few decades the Parliament of Canada transferred to Quebec portions of this territory that would more than triple the size of the province. In 1898, the Canadian Parliament passed the first Quebec Boundary Extension Act that expanded the provincial boundaries northward to include the lands of the local aboriginal peoples; this was followed by the addition of the District of Ungava through the Quebec Boundaries Extension Act of 1912 that added the northernmost lands of the Inuit to create the modern Province of Quebec.
In 1927, the border between Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador was established by the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Quebec disputes this boundary. Located in the eastern part of Canada, part of Central Canada, Quebec occupies a territory nearly three times the size of France or Texas, most of, sparsely populated, its topography is different from one region to another due to the varying composition of the ground, the climate, the proximity to water. The Saint Lawrence Lowland and the Appalachians are the two main topographic regions in southern Quebec, while the Canadian Shield occupies most of central and northern Quebec. Quebec has one of the world's largest reserves of fresh water, occupying 12% of its surface, it has 3 % of the world's renewable fresh water. Mor