Utah is a state in the western United States. It became the 45th state admitted to the U. S. on January 4, 1896. Utah is the 13th-largest by area, 31st-most-populous, 10th-least-densely populated of the 50 United States. Utah has a population of more than 3 million according to the Census estimate for July 1, 2016. Urban development is concentrated in two areas: the Wasatch Front in the north-central part of the state, which contains 2.5 million people. Utah is bordered by Colorado to the east, Wyoming to the northeast, Idaho to the north, Arizona to the south, Nevada to the west, it touches a corner of New Mexico in the southeast. 62% of Utahns are reported to be members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, making Utah the only state with a majority population belonging to a single church. This influences Utahn culture and daily life; the LDS Church's world headquarters is located in Salt Lake City. The state is a center of transportation, information technology and research, government services, a major tourist destination for outdoor recreation.
In 2013, the U. S. Census Bureau estimated. St. George was the fastest-growing metropolitan area in the United States from 2000 to 2005. Utah has the 14th highest median average income and the least income inequality of any U. S. state. A 2012 Gallup national survey found Utah overall to be the "best state to live in" based on 13 forward-looking measurements including various economic and health-related outlook metrics. A common folk etymology is that the name "Utah" is derived from the name of the Ute tribe, purported to mean "people of the mountains" in the Ute language. However, the word for people in Ute is'núuchiu' while the word for mountain is'káav', offering no linguistic connection to the words'Ute' or'Utah'. According to other sources "Utah" is derived from the Apache name "yuttahih" which means "One, Higher up" or "Those that are higher up". In the Spanish language it was said as "Yuta", subsequently the English-speaking people adapted the word "Utah". Thousands of years before the arrival of European explorers, the Ancestral Puebloans and the Fremont people lived in what is now known as Utah, some of which spoke languages of the Uto-Aztecan group.
Ancestral Pueblo peoples built their homes through excavations in mountains, the Fremont people built houses of straw before disappearing from the region around the 15th century. Another group of Native Americans, the Navajo, settled in the region around the 18th century. In the mid-18th century, other Uto-Aztecan tribes, including the Goshute, the Paiute, the Shoshone, the Ute people settled in the region; these five groups were present. The southern Utah region was explored by the Spanish in 1540, led by Francisco Vásquez de Coronado, while looking for the legendary Cíbola. A group led by two Catholic priests—sometimes called the Dominguez-Escalante Expedition—left Santa Fe in 1776, hoping to find a route to the coast of California; the expedition encountered the native residents. The Spanish made further explorations in the region, but were not interested in colonizing the area because of its desert nature. In 1821, the year Mexico achieved its independence from Spain, the region became known as part of its territory of Alta California.
European trappers and fur traders explored some areas of Utah in the early 19th century from Canada and the United States. The city of Provo, Utah was named for one, Étienne Provost, who visited the area in 1825; the city of Ogden, Utah was named after Peter Skene Ogden, a Canadian explorer who traded furs in the Weber Valley. In late 1824, Jim Bridger became the first known English-speaking person to sight the Great Salt Lake. Due to the high salinity of its waters, He thought. After the discovery of the lake, hundreds of American and Canadian traders and trappers established trading posts in the region. In the 1830s, thousands of migrants traveling from the Eastern United States to the American West began to make stops in the region of the Great Salt Lake known as Lake Youta. Following the death of Joseph Smith in 1844, Brigham Young, as president of the Quorum of the Twelve, became the effective leader of the LDS Church in Nauvoo, Illinois. To address the growing conflicts between his people and their neighbors, Young agreed with Illinois Governor Thomas Ford in October 1845 that the Mormons would leave by the following year.
Young and the first band of Mormon pioneers reached the Salt Lake Valley on July 24, 1847. Over the next 22 years, more than 70,000 pioneers settled in Utah. For the first few years, Brigham Young and the thousands of early settlers of Salt Lake City struggled to survive; the arid desert land was deemed by the Mormons as desirable as a place where they could practice their religion without harassment. The Mormon settlements provided pioneers for other settlements in the West. Salt Lake City became the hub of a "far-flung commonwealth" of Mormon settlements. With new church converts coming from the East and around the world, Church leaders assigned groups of church members as missionaries to establish other settlements throughout the West, they developed irrigation to support large pioneer populations along Utah's Wasatch front. Throughout the remainder of the 19th century, Mormon pioneers established hundreds of other settlements in Utah, Id
Jonathan Browning (inventor)
Jonathan Browning was an American inventor and gunmaker. Jonathan Browning was born October 1805 in Sumner County, Tennessee, he started earning a living as a blacksmith and switched to become a gunsmith having apprenticed in Nashville. He began producing firearms independently by 1831. Browning invented a "sliding breech" repeating rifle called a Harmonica gun between 1834 and 1842 while living in Quincy, Illinois, he achieved success with the Harmonica gun, he received many orders. It is estimated that each Harmonica gun took 2 weeks to make, Browning sold the guns for twenty-four dollars. Browning moved his family to White's Creek, near Nashville, about 1827 and resided there until the spring of 1833. Jonathan, moved with his extended family and spent a season in Fairfield, visiting with his sister Clarissa Neel. About 1834, Jonathan and his brother James Green Browning bought farms thirty miles northeast of Quincy in La Prairie, Illinois. A family story has been passed down that he came to know a young lawyer by the name of Abraham Lincoln, an overnight guest in his home on at least two occasions.
In October 1838, Governor Lilburn Boggs issued the Extermination Order that caused the followers of Joseph Smith to flee Missouri. Browning came into contact with many of the Latter-day Saint exiles. Curious about the new settlement in the swampy lands of Nauvoo, Browning paid a visit, meeting with the Latter Day Saints president Joseph Smith, which influenced Browning to convert to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints.. Browning moved to Nauvoo and joined the community in 1842, buying the Bird home and adding a connecting gunshop. In 1844, the Prophet Joseph Smith was assassinated, Browning was among the group which fled Nauvoo in 1846. Guns that Browning produced as a Mormon gunsmith were labeled "Holiness to the Lord - Our Preservation"; the Jonathan Browning Home and Gunshop built in 1842 was restored during the 1960s. Registered with The Mormon Historic Sites Foundation, the museum is open to the public at no charge. Browning fled Illinois with Brigham Young in late 1846 to escape religious persecution.
He settled in the community of Mosquito Creek near Council Bluffs and repaired guns for the local settlers who were migrating to Utah, while awaiting Brigham Young to invite him to join the main body of settlers in Utah. When the Mormon Battalion was formed during the War with Mexico, Browning wanted to join them, but was told by Young that his skills would not be needed by the soldiers as much as by the main body of pioneers in Kanesville. Browning received word from Brigham Young to join the main party of settlers in 1852, he left Mosquito Creek, Iowa July 8, 1852, migrated across the Rocky Mountains as the captain of ten in the Henry W. Miller Company, he arrived October 1852, with six wagons and $600 to the Salt Lake Valley. Browning moved to Ogden, where he established a gun shop; as was common in the community at that time, Jonathan Browning was a polygamist, having taken three wives. He had two stepdaughters. Jonathan invested in real estate in Ogden, his son John Moses recalled, "We ridiculed some of the guns we fixed, I damned some of them when Pappy wasn't near, but it never occurred to us to make better ones.
He was too old, I was too young." Jonathan died June 1879 in Ogden. John Browning & Curt Gentry. John M. Browning, American Gunmaker. New York: Doubleday, 1964. Jonathan Browning Home and Gun Shop "In Honor of the Parents of'the Father of Modern Firearms' — Thank you Jonathan and Elizabeth Browning", Browning.com. Retrieved July 26, 2018. Jonathan Browning at Find a Grave
Utah Museum of Fine Arts
The Utah Museum of Fine Arts is the region's primary resource for culture and visual arts. It is located in the Marcia and John Price Museum Building in Salt Lake City, Utah on the University of Utah campus near Rice-Eccles Stadium. Works of art are displayed on a rotating basis, it is a state art museum. Many free public programs are continuing through the closure period, including the museum's popular Third Saturday for families, educational outreach, ARTLandish: Land Art and the Environment; the UMFA's Dumke Auditorium, museum store, museum cafe have reopened to the public. UMFA is accredited by the American Alliance of Museums, it has a store located inside the building along with more than 20 galleries. The museums permanent art collections include over 17,000 works of art; the different cultures represented include African and the New World, European and the Ancient and Classical World. The creation of a formal art gallery on the top floor of the University of Utah's Park Building in the early 1900s marks the beginning of the Utah Museum of Fine Arts.
In the beginning, paintings by local artists filled this three-room gallery. Through the next six decades, the art department at the University of Utah received major art gifts and specific requests from donors to remodel the gallery into a museum. After the renovation of the gallery was finished, the University’s president, A. Ray Olpin, established it as the Utah Museum of Fine Arts on May 6, 1951. In 1967, Frank Sanquineti was appointed as the first professional director. By this time, the museum had entered a new period of growth which resulted in the building of a new museum. After the museum’s relocation in 1970, its goal was to expand its collections, the Annual Friends of the Art Museum Acquisition Fund was formed. Over the years this annual fund has helped support the expansion of the museum’s collections and its ability to offer art education programs. Due to donations from patrons and national foundations, the University community, the citizens of the State of Utah, the UMFA’s collection now encompasses 5,200 years of artistic creativity.
Since the mid-1900s, when the collection was around 800 objects, it has grown to over 13,000 art objects. This huge expansion required the building of yet another museum, construction of a new 70,000-square-foot building was started in 1997; the UMFA opened in the Marcia and John Price Museum Building on June 2, 2001, David Dee was appointed Executive Director the following year. Since the second relocation, the UMFA has experienced unprecedented growth in all areas of operation. In February 2005, the Utah State Legislature declared the UMFA as an official state institution, confirming the importance of the museum’s role as a center for art and education in the state of Utah. In April 2009, David Dee resigned from the museum and Gretchen Dietrich was named Executive Director effective August 2010. Works of the European tradition from the 14th to the 19th centuries include such artists as Filippo Lippi, Pieter Brueghel the Younger, Jan Brueghel the Younger, Anthony van Dyck, Giovanni Paolo Panini, Hyacinthe Rigaud, Jean-Honoré Fragonard, Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun, Thomas Gainsborough, Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, Auguste Rodin.
Represented American artists include Benjamin West, Gilbert Stuart, Thomas Cole, Albert Bierstadt, John Singer Sargent. Modern and contemporary holdings include Helen Frankenthaler, Yayoi Kusama, Nancy Holt, Robert Smithson; the museum's non-Western collections have particular strength in works from India and Mesoamerica. In August 2004, the museum learned that an oil painting, stolen during The Holocaust had found its way into the museum's collection by donation in 1993; the museum returned the art to the heirs of its original owner. The piece was the 18th-century Les Amoureaux Jeunes by François Boucher, it had been stolen by Nazi Hermann Göring from the collection of French Jewish art gallery owner Andre Jean Seligmann in 1946 during the Nazi occupation of France. Suzanne Seligmann Robbins, Andre Seligmann's daughter-in-law, said: "Honor this museum and the people in it and the University of Utah for what they have done with such honor, with such diligence, with such integrity." The Utah Museum of Fine Arts offers family and children's programs along with tours for visitors.
Activities include self-guided visits of the galleries, hands-on art projects, films and informative guided tours. Family programs offer studio art activities on the third Saturday of each month. Adult programs include painting classes and fine arts film series. Children's programs include special summer classes where children may combine history with art making. There are classes for parents and their children from ages 2–5 to learn how to paint and sculpt. Exhibitions at the Utah Museum of Fine Arts change on a two to three month basis; some examples of past exhibitions since 2007 include: The British Passion for Landscape: Masterpieces from National Museum Wales was a world-class exhibition of masterworks from Amgueddfa Cymru-National Museum Wales, charting the development of landscape painting in Britain from the 17th to the 20th century, including works by Claude Lorrain, Richard Wilson, Thomas Gainsborough, John Constable, J. M. W. Turner, Claude Monet. Splendid Heritage: Perspective on American Indian Art premiered an exhibition of cultural and artistic treasures from the John and Marva Warnock Collection with 149 objects from the native people of the Northeast and Plains.
Monet to Picasso from the Cleveland Museum of Art included Impressionist, Post-Impressionist and Early Modernist paintings from 100
The Territory of Utah was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from September 9, 1850, until January 4, 1896, when the final extent of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of Utah, the 45th state. The territory was organized by an Organic Act of Congress in 1850, on the same day that the State of California was admitted to the Union and the New Mexico Territory was added for the southern portion of the former Mexican land; the creation of the territory was part of the Compromise of 1850 that sought to preserve the balance of power between slave and free states. With the exception of a small area around the headwaters of the Colorado River in present-day Colorado, the United States had acquired all the land of the territory from Mexico with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo of 1848; the creation of the Utah Territory was the result of the petition sent by the Mormon pioneers who had settled in the valley of the Great Salt Lake starting in 1847.
The Mormons, under the leadership of Brigham Young, had petitioned Congress for entry into the Union as the State of Deseret, with its capital as Salt Lake City and with proposed borders that encompassed the entire Great Basin and the watershed of the Colorado River, including all or part of nine current U. S. states. The Mormon settlers had drafted a state constitution in 1849 and Deseret had become the de facto government in the Great Basin by the time of the creation of the Utah Territory. Following the organization of the territory, Young was inaugurated as its first governor on February 3, 1851. In the first session of the territorial legislature in September, the legislature adopted all the laws and ordinances enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Deseret. Mormon governance in the territory was regarded as controversial by much of the rest of the nation fed by continuing lurid newspaper depictions of the polygamy practiced by the settlers, which itself had been part of the cause of their flight from the United States to the Great Salt Lake basin after being forcibly removed from their settlements farther east.
Although the Mormons were the majority in the Great Salt Lake basin, the western area of the territory began to attract many non-Mormon settlers after the discovery of silver at the Comstock Lode in 1858. In 1861 as a result of this, the Nevada Territory was created out of the western part of the territory. Non-Mormons entered the easternmost part of the territory during the Pikes Peak Gold Rush, resulting in the discovery of gold at Breckenridge in Utah Territory in 1859. In 1861 a large portion of the eastern area of the territory was reorganized as part of the newly created Colorado Territory; the controversies stirred by the Mormon religion's dominance of the territory are regarded as the primary reason behind the long delay of 46 years between the organization of the territory and its admission to the Union in 1896 as the State of Utah, long after the admission of territories created after it. In contrast, the Nevada Territory, although more sparsely populated, was admitted to the Union in 1864, only three years after its formation as a consequence of the Union's desire to consolidate its hold on the silver mines in the territory.
Colorado was admitted in 1876. Historic regions of the United States History of Utah Territorial evolution of the United States Unpopular Sovereignty: Mormons and the Federal Management of Early Utah Territory by Brent M. Rogers, 2017, University of Nebraska Press Utah in 1851, with the text of the 1850 Act of Congress to Establish the Territory of Utah, Central Pacific Railroad Photographic History Museum Utah's Role in the Transcontinental Railroad, Central Pacific Railroad Photographic History Museum Utah State History Utah Office of Tourism Official Website
Fabrique Nationale Herstal, self-identified as FN Herstal and referred to as Fabrique Nationale or FN, is a leading firearms manufacturer located in Herstal, owned by the holding company Herstal Group, in turn owned by the regional government of Wallonia. It is the largest exporter of military small arms in Europe. Herstal Group owns U. S. Repeating Arms Company and Browning Arms Company. FN America is the American subsidiary of FN Herstal. FN Manufacturing, located in Columbia, South Carolina, was the manufacturing branch of FN Herstal in the United States, producing firearms such as the M249 and M240 machine guns and the M16 rifle, among others. FNH USA, located in McLean, was the sales and marketing branch of FN Herstal in the United States. After the merger, the facilities in South Carolina and Virginia remained, but with integrated management. A United Kingdom based manufacturing facility FNH UK is now in operation. Firearms designed and/or manufactured by FN include the Browning Hi-Power and Five-seven pistols, the FAL, FNC, F2000 and SCAR rifles, the P90 submachine gun, the M2 Browning, MAG and Minimi machine guns: all have been commercially successful.
FN Herstal's firearms are used by the militaries of over 100 countries. FN Herstal originated in the small city near Liège; the Fabrique Nationale d'Armes de Guerre was established in 1889 to manufacture 150,000 Mauser Model 89 rifles ordered by the Belgian Government. FN was co-founded by the major arms makers of the Liège region, with Henri Pieper of Anciens Etablissements Pieper being the driving force and the primary shareholder of the new company. In 1897 the company entered into a long-lasting relationship with John Moses Browning, a well-known firearms designer. FN was an important manufacturer of motor vehicles in Belgium, a development championed by Alexandre Galopin as managing director. Cars were produced in Herstal in the early 1900s until 1935. Production of FN motorcycles continued until 1965, production of trucks until 1970. In 1973, FN changed its name to reflect a product line diversified far beyond just "weapons of war", adopting the current name of Fabrique Nationale d'Herstal.
One of Fabrique Nationale's handguns, a Model 1910 semi-automatic pistol in 9×17mm was one of four weapons that were taken from the assassins of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, although it is unknown which of the four weapons fired the fatal round. John Moses Browning began development of the Browning GP35'High Power' pistol, the GP standing for Grande Puissance or "high power" in French. However, the weapon was finalized by Dieudonné Saive and did not appear until nearly a decade after Browning's death; the FN Manufacturing LLC plant in Columbia, South Carolina is part of the military division of FN. It is responsible for the production of U. S. military weapons, such as M16 rifles, M249 light machine guns, M240 machine guns, M2 machine guns. Barracuda: Double-action multi-caliber revolver that can be switched between three calibers by changing parts of the cylinder. FN 509: Redesigned version of the FNS Compact pistol in 9×19mm Parabellum. FN Five-seveN: Lightweight polymer-framed pistol with a 20-round magazine capacity, designed to use FN's 5.7×28mm cartridge.
In service with military and police forces in over 40 nations throughout the world. FN FNP: Series of polymer-framed pistols offered in 9×19mm Parabellum.357 SIG.40 S&W, and.45 ACP. FN FNX: Updated and reengineered version of the FNP series pistol in 9×19mm Parabellum.40 S&W and.45 ACP. FN FNS: Polymer striker-fired pistols in 9×19mm Parabellum and 40 S&W. FN Forty-Nine: Pistol chambered for 9×19mm Parabellum and.40 S&W. FN Browning Hi-Power: Single-action pistol chambered for 9×19mm Parabellum and.40 S&W. One of the most used military pistols of all time, having been used by the armed forces of over 50 nations. HP-DA: 9×19mm Parabellum pistol, double-action variant of the Browning Hi-Power. FN M1900:.32 ACP blowback semi-automatic pistol. FN Model 1903: Blowback semi-automatic pistol chambered for.32 ACP and 9×20mm Long Browning. FN M1905:.25 ACP vest pocket blowback semi-automatic pistol. FN Model 1910: Single-action pistol chambered for.32 ACP and.380 ACP. FN Model 1922: Similar to the FN 1910 but with a longer barrel.
FN P90: Ambidextrous bullpup personal defense weapon with a top-mounted 50-round magazine and chambered for FN's 5.7×28mm cartridge. In service with military and police forces in over 40 countries. Uzi: Built under licence from Israel Military Industries. Browning 22 Semi-Auto rifle.22 LR.22 Short. Takedown rifle. Production continued through 1974 in Belgium. FN CAL: Carabine Automatique Légère, 5.56×45mm NATO assault rifle. FN F2000: 5.56×45mm NATO bullpup assault rifle, part of a system with a computerized sight and 40mm grenade launcher or 12 gauge shotgun. FN FS2000: Semi-automatic sporting version of the F2000 rifle. FN FAL: Fusil Automatique Léger, 7.62×51mm NATO battle rifle. One of the most used rifles in history, having been used by over 90 nations. FN-15 FN FNAR: Semi-automatic rifle chambered in 7.62×51mm NATO. FN FNC: Fabrique Nationale Carabine, 5.56×45mm NATO assault rifle. M16: 5.56×45mm NATO rifle. M4A1: 5.56×45mm NATO rifle. Mle 1930: Belgian variant of the Browning M1918, chambered in 7.65×53mm Belgian Mauser.
FN Model 1
Order of Leopold (Belgium)
The Order of Leopold is one of the three current Belgian national honorary orders of knighthood. It is named in honour of its founder, it consists of a maritime and a civil division. The maritime division is only awarded to personnel of the merchant navy, the military division to military personnel; the decoration is awarded by Royal order. When Belgium became independent of the Netherlands, there was an urgent need to create a national honour system that could serve as a diplomatic gift; the national congress provided this exclusive right to the sovereign, this military honour system was written in Article 76. The first King of the Belgians, Leopold I of Belgium, used his constitutional right in a larger way than foreseen: not only military merit, but every service in honour of the Kingdom. Two years after the independence, the young King founded the dynastic Order of Leopold; the king approved the colour and grades both civil and military, the official motto L’Union fait la Force/Eendracht maakt Macht.
In 1832 Felix de Merode had a design approved by the Chambers for civil merit. This system was adapted from other European countries. More specific, the Order of Leopold is based on the French honour tradition with 5 classes. On the 11th of June 1832 the law was promulgated, the exact colours were defined; the devise was presented in the 3rd article: L'union fait la Force. The Belgian court used the Grand Cordon as a valuable diplomatic gift; however in the 2nd half of the 19th century, the court used it as a dynastic order to bestow on family members during major family celebrations. The founder gave his French family Grand Cordons as wedding gifts. During weddings the Belgian court sent large numbers of crosses to its court. For the wedding of Rudolf and Stephanie the father of the bride sent 20 Grand Cordons to the Austrian Court. In return the Belgian court received decorations; the order was bestowed by King Leopold II on Prince Karl Anton of Hohenzollern and Ernst Gunther, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein as a personal marriage gift.
In 1878 the King named several diplomatic dignitaries Grand Cordon in honour of his silver wedding celebration, among them Vannutelli. In 1900 the occasion of the wedding of Prince Albert was used to send 15 Grand Cordons to the Bavarian Court. Among the recipients were Luitpold, Prince Regent of Bavaria and his two sons, Princes Ludwig and Arnulf, Duke Louis of Bavaria and the father of the bride Karl Theodor, Duke in Bavaria; the brother of the new Princess, Duke Ludwig Wilhelm was still a minor at the time of the wedding, Minister de Favereau opposed this wedding gift for an adolescent. However, the young prince, aged 14, received the gift by royal decree. People who fought in the Belgian revolution became members in great numbers. In 1838 the King lost his right to create members, this was from on the responsibility of the foreign office. In 1836 Meyerbeer was made knight of the Order, by royal Command. At the end of his reign the major political elite were members of the order. King Leopold II bestowed the order upon notable Belgian artists and clergy.
His successors continued to bestow the Order. Rafael Merry del Val, John Browning, James Blyth, 1st Baron Blyth, Brand Whitlock, Charles Lindbergh, George S. Patton, Bernard Montgomery, Dwight Eisenhower, Wesley Clark, Charles de Gaulle, Mstislav Rostropovich, Count Kiyoura Keigo, Count Jacques Rogge, Prince Fulco Ruffo di Calabria and Prince Emmanuel de Merode. At the end of World War I, the order became internationally recognised for its famous members. In 1919 King Albert granted all Lieutenant-Generals of the Belgian Army the Grand Cordon in Brussels; the King bestowed the Major Generals with the Grand Cordon, amongst the recipients some important generals like Alphonse Jacques de Dixmude, knight Antonin de Selliers de Moranville and Baron Édouard Michel du Faing d'Aigremont. Foreign recipients include admiral Hugh Rodman and Vice Admiral William Sowden Sims One of the rare Ladies in the order was Countess Renée de Merode; the order can be bestowed post-mortem. People can lose the order, for example.
After the Second World War, the Order of Leopold was bestowed on the several officers of foreign militaries who had helped to liberate Belgium from the occupation of German forces. Most illustrious was the grand Cordons with Palms given by the King to Sir Winston Churchill and Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1945; the medal was granted to Karel Bossart in 1962, Josip Broz Tito in 1970. Today membership can only be granted by decree of His Majesty King Philippe of Belgium and is reserved to the most important Belgian nationals and to some distinguished foreign persons who contributed in one way to the Belgian military, the Belgian civil society or the Belgian State. Annually, there are two major days when the king grants membership, on April 15 and on November 15. During state visits
Ogden is a city and the county seat of Weber County, United States 10 miles east of the Great Salt Lake and 40 miles north of Salt Lake City. The population was 84,316 in 2014, according to the US Census Bureau, making it Utah's 7th largest city; the city served as a major railway hub through much of its history, still handles a great deal of freight rail traffic which makes it a convenient location for manufacturing and commerce. Ogden is known for its many historic buildings, proximity to the Wasatch Mountains, as the location of Weber State University. Ogden is a principal city of the Ogden–Clearfield, Utah Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Weber, Morgan and Box Elder counties; the 2010 Census placed the Metro population at 597,159. In 2010, Forbes rated the Ogden-Clearfield MSA as the 6th best place to raise a family. Ogden has had a sister city relationship to Hof since 1954. Named Fort Buenaventura, Ogden was the first permanent settlement by people of European descent in what is now Utah.
It was established by the trapper Miles Goodyear in 1846 about a mile west of where downtown Ogden sits today. In November 1847, Captain James Brown purchased all the land now comprising Weber County together with some livestock and Fort Buenaventura for $3,000; the land was conveyed to Captain Brown in a Mexican Land Grant, this area being at that time a part of Mexico. The settlement was called Brownsville, after Captain James Brown, but was named Ogden for a brigade leader of the Hudson's Bay Company, Peter Skene Ogden, who had trapped in the Weber Valley a generation earlier. There is some confusion. A Samuel Ogden traveled though the western United States on an exploration trip in 1818; the site of the original Fort Buenaventura is now a Weber County park. Ogden is the closest sizable city to the Golden Spike location at Promontory Summit, where the First Transcontinental Railroad was joined in 1869, it was known as a major passenger railroad junction owing to its location along major east–west and north–south routes, prompting the local chamber of commerce to adopt the motto, "You can't get anywhere without coming to Ogden."
Railroad passengers traveling west to San Francisco from the eastern United States passed through Ogden. However, the national passenger rail system, no longer serves Ogden. Passengers who want to travel to and from Ogden by rail must travel via FrontRunner commuter rail to Salt Lake City and Provo. In 1972, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints completed construction of and dedicated the Ogden Utah Temple in Ogden; the temple was built to serve the area's large LDS population. In 2010, the LDS Church announced they would renovate the adjacent Tabernacle; the work which began in 2011 includes an update to the exterior, the removal of the Tabernacle's steeple to make the Temple's steeple a main focus and a new underground parking garage and gardens. The Temple was rededicated in 2014; because Ogden has been Utah's second largest city, it is home to a large number of historic buildings. However, by the 1980s, several Salt Lake City suburbs and Provo had surpassed Ogden in population; the Defense Depot Ogden Utah operated in Ogden from 1941 to 1997.
Some of its 1,128 acres have been converted into a commercial and industrial park called the Business Depot Ogden. Ogden is located at 41°13′11″N 111°58′16″W, at the foot of the Wasatch Mountains. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of all land. Elevations in the city range from about 4,300 to 5,200 feet above sea level; the Ogden and Weber Rivers, which originate in the mountains to the east, flow through the city and meet at a confluence just west of the city limits. Pineview Dam is in the Ogden River Canyon 7 miles east of Ogden; the reservoir behind the dam provides over 110,000 acre feet of water storage and water recreation for the area. Prominent mountain peaks near Ogden include Mount Ogden to the east and Ben Lomond to the north. Ogden experiences a dry summer continental climate. Summers are hot and dry, with highs reaching 95 °F, with a few days per year reaching 100 °F. Rain is provided in the form of infrequent thunderstorms during summer between mid-July and mid-September during the height of monsoon season.
The Pacific storm season lasts from about October through May, with precipitation reaching its peak in spring. Snow first occurs in late October or early November, with the last occurring sometime in April. Winters are snowy, with highs averaging 37 °F in January. Snowfall averages about 40 inches, with 21.98 inches of precipitation annually. Extremes range from −16 °F, set on January 26, 1949, to 106 °F, set on July 14, 2002; as of the census of 2000, there were 77,226 people, 27,384 households, 18,402 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,899.2 people per square mile. There were 29,763 housing units at an average density of 1,117.4/sq mi. The racial makeup of the city was 79.01% White, 2.31% African American, 1.20% Native American, 1.43% Asian, 0.17% Pacific Islander, 12.95% from other races, 2.93% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 23.64% of the population. There were 27,384 households out of which 35.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.4% were married couples living together, 13.1% had a female householder with no husband present