The Suma were an indigenous people who lived in northern part of the Mexican state of Chihuahua and western part of the U. S. state of Texas. They were nomadic hunter gatherers who practiced no agriculture; the Suma merged with Apache groups and the Mestizo population of northern Mexico, are extinct as a distinct people. Confusion is rife concerning the complex mix of indigenous peoples who lived near the Rio Grande in west Texas, they are collectively called Jumanos, a name which should only be applied to the Plains Indians who lived in the Pecos River and Concho River valleys of Texas but traveled to and traded with the people in the Rio Grande Valley. Near La Junta de los Rios, the junction of the Rio Grande and the Rio Conchos, were a large number of farming villages whose inhabitants were given more than a dozen names by the Spanish, it is unclear whether the La Junta Indians belonged to a single ethnic group and spoke the same language or were instead a mixture of languages and peoples.
Unclear is whether they were related to the more nomadic Jumano. Upstream on the Rio Grande from La Junta were the people who came to be called the Suma, further upstream from El Paso northward were the Manso Indians; the Manso and the Suma appear to have had similar cultures, although it is uncertain whether they spoke the same or similar languages. One theory is that the Indians of the El Paso and La Junta regions were intermixed when the Spanish arrived and that the Spaniards separated them into groups for "ease of government and increased control." The opposite is proposed: that the Manso, Jumano, La Junta Indians may have become mixed together in reaction to the threat from the Spanish and their diminishing population due to slave raids and European introduced diseases. The Suma lived, at least during winter, along 130 miles of the Rio Grande southeast from El Paso, their range extended westward from the Rio Grande valley 200 miles to the future municipalities of Janos and Nuevo Casas Grandes, Chihuahua.
The Janos and Jocomes people of northwestern Chihuahua were sub-tribes or related to the Suma. As hunter-gatherers the Suma had no fixed habitations. During summer they dispersed in small groups to exploit the plant and animal resources of this territory; the Suma, said early visitors, "are hunters. They have no knowledge whatsoever of agriculture, have no fixed homes, or ranches, live a carefree life."The Suma raided their agricultural neighbors, the Opata, to the west in Sonora. The language of the Suma is unknown. Scholars have speculated. Athabaskan affiliations have been proposed; the Suma and their neighbors the Manso are believed to be the descendants of the Jornada Mogollon culture. About 1450, the Mogollon pueblos near El Paso were abandoned and the Mogollon people seem to have abandoned agriculture to become hunter/gatherers; the Suma were not politically united, but rather seem to have been a group of related autonomous bands and sub-tribes each of which acted independently. The Suma were encountered by Cabeza de Vaca in 1535, but the first definite mention of them was by Antonio de Espejo in 1583 who called them the Caguates.
He was received cordially by more than one thousand of them near the Rio Grande. The first mention of them by the name "Suma" came in 1630; the Suma at the time were at war with the Opata in endangering Franciscan missions. In 1659, a mission was established for the Manso and the "Zumanas", in present-day downtown Ciudad Juárez, in 1663 another mission was established for them near the city of Chihuahua; some of the Suma and Jumano sought Spanish protection from the growing danger of Apache raids. Others joined the Apache. By 1680, the Missions at El Paso were ministering including Sumas, but the Pueblo Revolt in New Mexico caused an additional 2,000 Spaniards and allied Indians to take refuge in El Paso and stretched resources to their limits. A famine resulted in 1683-1684, in 1684 the Indians revolted and fled the missions; some of the Sumas returned to the mission that same year, unable to find enough food to survive. However, some of the Suma and Jocomes continued to be hostile to the Spanish, finding a stronghold in the Chiricahua Mountains in Arizona and becoming associated with the Apache and absorbed by them over time.
A Chiricahua Apache band, the Chokone or Xocone, may be named after the Jocomes. During the 18th century, the Suma living at the Mission of San Lorenzo near El Paso were servants of the priests, grew crops, worked as laborers, adopted many Spanish customs, they revolted in 1710, 1726, 1745, 1749, fleeing the mission and taking refuge in the mountains with the Apache. San Lorenzo Mission had a population of 300 in the 1750s. A smallpox epidemic in the 1780s killed most of the Sumas living at the mission and they soon lost their ethnic identity; the last known man identifying himself as Suma died in 1869. The bloodline descendants of the Suma are the Mestizo inhabitants of Ciudad Juarez, El Paso as well as San Buenaventura and Nuevo Casas Grandes along with other cities where missions were established for them. Bolton, H. E.. The Jumano Indians in Texas, 1650-1771; the Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, 20, 66-84. Bolton, H. E.. Spanish exploration in the southwest, 1542-1706. New York.
Griffin, William B.. Southern periphery: East. In A. Ortiz
Kinney County, Texas
Kinney County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 3,598, its county seat is Brackettville. The county was created in 1850 and organized in 1874, it is named for an early settler. First inhabitants were 6,000-10,000 years ago and came to include Lipan Apache, Mescalero Apache, Jumanos, Tamaulipans and Comanches; these tribes settled in rockshelters in the river and creek valleys, leaving behind artifacts and caches of seeds, burial sites, petroglyphs. Saltillo alcalde Fernando de Azcué in 1665 passed through the southeast corner of the county on an expedition, becoming the first European to cross the Rio Grande. Franciscan Brother Manuel de la Cruz explored the county in 1674. In 1675, Fernando del Bosque traversed the area on an expedition up the Rio Grande from the city of Nuestra Sra. de Guadalupe. He was accompanied by Dionisio de San Buenaventura. Alonso De León in 1688 discovered French explorer and La Salle expedition deserter Jean Henri in a somewhat confused state of mind, among the Coahuiltecan Indians near the site of present Brackettville believed to be at Anacacho Mountain.
During the latter eighteenth century, several Franciscans established a settlement on Las Moras Creek near the center of the county. In 1834, while the area was still under Mexican control, English land speculators John Charles Beales and James Grant attempted to establish an English-speaking colony called Dolores at the site. Streets were laid off and fifty-nine colonists were brought in; the state legislature formed Kinney County from Bexar County in 1850, five years after Texas statehood, named it for Henry Lawrence Kinney. The United States Army established Fort Clark in June 1852 on Las Moras Creek, named it after John B. Clark, who had died in the Mexican War. Brackettville was founded in 1852 as the town of Brackett and named for Oscar B. Brackett, who came to set up a stage opened the town's first dry-goods store. Brackett became a stop on a stage line from San Antonio to El Paso, but the settlement grew slowly because of continuous Indian attacks; the town received its first post office in 1875.
On February 18, 1861, on orders from United States Army General David E. Twiggs, Fort Clark was surrendered to the Texas Commission. Twiggs was dismissed by the United States for the act, subsequently joined the Confederacy; the fort was evacuated by federal troops on March 19 and occupied by Confederate troops under the command of Confederate Colonel John R. Baylor, it was not garrisoned. In December 1866 it was reestablished as a federal fort. In the early 1872 a number of Black Seminole Indians living along the border were organized into a company of scouts and brought to Fort Clark. Others joined them, by the mid-1870s they numbered some 400 or 500. For the next quarter century they lived on a reservation along Las Moras Creek. In 1914 the Black Seminoles were removed from the Fort Clark reservation, but some of their descendants still live in the county; the Seminole Indian Scouts cemetery was founded on Fort Clark in 1872. The county was organized in 1874. County government followed in 1875.
In 1876, Brackettville was designated county seat after the final boundaries of the county were set by the legislature. In 1870 the county had 14,846 cattle, large numbers of cattle were driven north during the great drives of the middle 1870s. By1880 sheep outnumbered cattle 55,597 to 7,966, Kinney County became an important source of wool; the construction of the Galveston and San Antonio Railway through Spofford in 1883 gave the wool and mohair industry access to markets. At the same time it helped to bring in numerous new settlers. In 1925 a branch line of the Texas and New Orleans Railroad was built from near Spofford to connect with the Mexican National Railroad at the Rio Grande. A large Civilian Conservation Corps camp constructed adjacent to Fort Clark helped to employ some people during the Great Depression. With the onset of World War II wool and mohair were in demand for the defense industries. Fort Clark was closed in 1946. James T. “Happy” Shahan constructed Alamo Village on his ranch near Brackettville during the late 1950s, for filming of the 1960 John Wayne epic The Alamo.
Preserved as a tourist attraction, Alamo Village continued to serve as a set for hundreds of movies and documentaries. In 1969, Happy Shahan hired 18-year-old Johnny Rodriguez to sing at Alamo Village, an opportunity that rocketed Rodriguez to stardom. Kickapoo Cavern State Park, 6,400 acres in both Edwards and Kinney County, opened to the public in 1991. A private ranch; the Kinney County Groundwater Conservation District was approved by the voters in 2002. The 1958-1959 syndicated western television series Mackenzie's Raiders, starring Richard Carlson as Colonel Ranald Mackenzie, is set at the former Fort Clark in Kinney County. Mackenzie was stationed at Fort Clark during much of the 1870s, the time frame of the fictional series. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,365 square miles, of which 1,360 square miles is land and 5.1 square miles is water. The county is separated from Mexico by the Rio Grande, drained by numerous small tributaries of that river. U. S. Highway 90 U.
S. Highway 277 State Highway 131 Edwards County Uvalde County Maverick County Val Verde County Jiménez, Mexico As of the census of 2000, there were 3,379 people, 1,314 househo
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western
U2 are an Irish rock band from Dublin formed in 1976. The group consists of Bono, the Edge, Adam Clayton, Larry Mullen Jr.. Rooted in post-punk, U2's musical style has evolved throughout their career, yet has maintained an anthemic quality built on Bono's expressive vocals and the Edge's effects-based guitar textures, their lyrics embellished with spiritual imagery, focus on personal and sociopolitical themes. Popular for their live performances, the group have staged several ambitious and elaborate tours over their career; the band formed as teenagers while attending Mount Temple Comprehensive School, when they had limited musical proficiency. Within four years, they released their debut album, Boy. Subsequent work such as their first UK number-one album and the singles "Sunday Bloody Sunday" and "Pride" helped establish U2's reputation as a politically and conscious group. By the mid-1980s, they had become renowned globally for their live act, highlighted by their performance at Live Aid in 1985.
The group's fifth album, The Joshua Tree, made them international superstars and was their greatest critical and commercial success. Topping music charts around the world, it produced their only number-one singles in the US to date: "With or Without You" and "I Still Haven't Found What I'm Looking For". Facing creative stagnation and a backlash following their documentary/double album and Hum, U2 reinvented themselves in the 1990s through a new musical direction and public image. Beginning with their acclaimed seventh album, Achtung Baby, the multimedia-intensive Zoo TV Tour, the band integrated influences from alternative rock, electronic dance music, industrial music into their sound, embraced a more ironic, flippant image; this experimentation continued through their ninth album and the PopMart Tour, which were mixed successes. U2 regained critical and commercial favour with the records All That You Can't Leave Behind and How to Dismantle an Atomic Bomb, which established a more conventional, mainstream sound for the group.
Their U2 360° Tour of 2009–2011 is the highest-attended and highest-grossing concert tour in history. The group most released the companion albums Songs of Innocence and Songs of Experience, the former of which received criticism for its pervasive, no-cost release through the iTunes Store. U2 have released 14 studio albums and are one of the world's best-selling music artists in history, having sold an estimated 150–170 million records worldwide, they have won 22 Grammy Awards, more than any other band, in 2005, they were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in their first year of eligibility. Rolling Stone ranked U2 at number 22 on its list of the "100 Greatest Artists of All Time". Throughout their career, as a band and as individuals, they have campaigned for human rights and social justice causes, including Amnesty International, Jubilee 2000, the ONE/DATA campaigns, Product Red, War Child, Music Rising. In 1976, Larry Mullen Jr. a 14-year-old student at Mount Temple Comprehensive School in Dublin, posted a note on the school's notice board in search of musicians for a new band.
Six people met at Mullen's house on 25 September. Set up in the kitchen, Mullen was on drums, with: Paul Hewson on lead vocals. Mullen described it as "'The Larry Mullen Band' for about ten minutes Bono walked in and blew any chance I had of being in charge." Martin, who had brought his guitar and amplifier to the first practice but could not play, did not remain with the group, McCormick was dropped after a few weeks. The remaining five members settled on the name "Feedback" for the group because it was one of the few technical terms they knew. Most of their initial material consisted of cover songs, which they admitted was not their forte; some of the earliest influences on the band were emerging punk rock acts, such as the Jam, the Clash and Sex Pistols. The popularity of punk rock convinced the group that musical proficiency was not a prerequisite to success. In April 1977, Feedback played their first gig for a paying audience at St. Fintan's High School. Shortly thereafter, the band changed their name to "The Hype".
Dik Evans, older and by this time at college, was becoming the odd man out. The rest of the band was leaning towards the idea of a four-piece ensemble. In March 1978, the group changed their name to "U2". Steve Averill, a punk rock musician and family friend of Clayton's, had suggested six potential names from which the band chose "U2" for its ambiguity and open-ended interpretations, because it was the name that they disliked the least; that same month, U2, as a four-piece, won a talent contest in Limerick sponsored by Harp Lager and the Evening Press. The prize consisted of £500 and studio time to record a demo which would be heard by CBS Ireland, a record label; the win was an important affirmation for the fledgling band. Within a few days, Dik Evans was phased out of the band with a farewell concert at the Presbyterian Church Hall in Howth. During the show, which featured the group playing cover songs as the Hype, Dik ceremonially walked offstage; the remaining four band members returned in the concert to play original material as U2.
Dik soon joined the Virgin Prunes, which comprised mutual friends of U2's.
New Mexico Territory
The Territory of New Mexico was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from September 9, 1850, until January 6, 1912, when the remaining extent of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of New Mexico, making it the longest-lived organized incorporated territory of the United States, lasting 62 years. In 1846, during the Mexican–American War, the U. S. provisional government of New Mexico was established. Territorial boundaries were somewhat ambiguous. After the Mexican Republic formally ceded the region to the United States in 1848, this temporary wartime/military government persisted until September 9, 1850. Earlier in the year 1850, a bid for New Mexico statehood was underway under a proposed state constitution prohibiting slavery; the request was approved at the same time. The proposed state boundaries were to extend as far east as the 100th meridian West and as far north as the Arkansas River, thus encompassing the present-day Texas and Oklahoma panhandles and parts of present-day Kansas, Colorado and Arizona, as well as most of present-day New Mexico.
Texas raised great opposition to this plan, as it claimed much of the same territory, although it did not control these lands. In addition, slaveholders worried about not being able to expand slavery to the west of their current slave states; the Compromise of 1850 put an end to the push for immediate New Mexico statehood. Approved by the United States Congress in September 1850, the legislation provided for the establishment of New Mexico Territory and Utah Territory, it firmly established the disputed western boundary of Texas. The status of slavery during the territorial period provoked considerable debate; the granting of statehood was up to a Congress divided on the slavery issue. Some maintained that the territory could not restrict slavery, as under the earlier Missouri Compromise, while others insisted that older Mexican Republic legal traditions of the territory, which abolished black, but not Indian, slavery in 1834, took precedence and should be continued. Regardless of its official status, slavery was rare in antebellum New Mexico.
Black slaves never numbered more than about a dozen. As one of the final attempts at compromise to avoid the Civil War, in December 1860, a U. S. House of Representatives committee proposed to admit New Mexico as a slave state immediately. Although the measure was approved by the committee on December 29, 1860, Southern representatives did not take up this offer, as many of them had left Congress due to imminent declarations of secession by their states. On February 24, 1863, during the Civil War, Congress passed the "Arizona Organic Act", which split off the western portion of the 12-year-old New Mexico Territory as the new Arizona Territory, abolished slavery in the new Territory; as in New Mexico, slavery was extremely limited, due to earlier Mexican traditions and patterns of settlement. The northwestern corner of New Mexico Territory was included in Arizona Territory until it was added to the southernmost part of the newly admitted State of Nevada in 1864. Arizona Territory was organized as the State of Arizona.
The Purchase treaty defines the new border as "up the middle of that river to the point where the parallel of 31° 47' north latitude crosses the same 31°47′0″N 106°31′41.5″W. The new border included a few miles of the Colorado River at the western end; the boundaries of the New Mexico Territory at the time of establishment contained most of the present-day State of New Mexico, more than half of the present-day State of Arizona, portions of the present-day states of Colorado and Nevada. Although this area was smaller than what had been included in the failed statehood proposal of early 1850, the boundary disputes with Texas had been dispelled by the Compromise of 1850; the Gadsden Purchase was acquired by the United States from Mexico in 1853/1854, arranged by the then-American ambassador to Mexico, James Gadsden. This added today's southern strip of Arizona and a smaller area in today's southwestern New Mexico to the New Mexico Territory, bringing its land area to the maximum size achieved in its history as an organized territory.
The land of 29,640 square miles provided a more constructed route for a future southern transcontinental railroad line for the future Southern Pacific Railroad, constructed in 1881/1883. The Colorado Territory was established by the "Colorado Organic Act" on February 28, 1861, with the same boundaries that would constitute the State of Colorado; this Act removed the Colorado lands from the New Mexico Territory. T
Texas's 23rd congressional district
Texas's 23rd congressional district stretches across the southwestern portion of Texas. It is a predominantly Hispanic district and its current Representative is Republican Will Hurd; the district runs along the majority of Texas's border with Mexico, just north of the Rio Grande. While it encompasses numerous county seats and a few towns of regional economic importance, the district is predominantly rural, it stretches from western San Antonio to just outside El Paso. Its large size is due to its low population density—one of the lowest in the country, it encompasses all of Big Bend Ranch State Park. Major economic activities in the district include farming, ranching and mineral extraction, recreation and tourism; as of the 2000 census, the district contained 651,620 people. Of these, 41% are non-Hispanic white, 55.1% Hispanic regardless of race, 2% non-Hispanic black, 2.2% other. The district's population is 74.6% urban. Per capita Income for the district is $18,692; the district has a 6.5% unemployment rate.
Of the employed, 71.8% is private, 19.4% government, 8.4% self-employed. Major industries include Retail trade, Education services, Health Care, Manufacturing. 222,012 households are with an average of 2.8 persons per household. This district was created in 1967, following passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965. In addition, it followed the case of Wesberry v. Sanders, resulting in Texas' previous congressional map being tossed out. Democrats held the district until 1993. Following the 1990 census, in 1992, the Texas Legislature created the new 28th District from the eastern portion of the 23rd. In the process, the legislature left a Republican section of western San Antonio in the 23rd. Republican Henry Bonilla beat 4-term incumbent Albert Bustamante to take the seat in 1992. Although the 23rd leaned Democratic on paper, Bonilla had a conservative voting record; because of his popularity in San Antonio, he didn't face a credible challenger until 2002, when the former Democratic Texas Secretary of State, Henry Cuellar, came within 2 points of unseating him.
During the 2003 Texas redistricting, the Republican-controlled Texas Legislature shifted most of Laredo, one of the bases of the 23rd from the beginning, into the 28th district. Several Republican suburbs in the Texas Hill Country north of San Antonio were shifted into the 23rd district, all but ensuring Bonilla of a seventh term. On June 28, 2006, the U. S. Supreme Court, in League of United Latin American Citizens v. Perry ruled that the 23rd District violated the Voting Rights Act of 1965; the case turned on the fact. If the 23rd were redrawn to put Hispanics in a minority, a new majority-Hispanic district had to be created. Although Hispanics made up 55 percent of the new 23rd's population, they comprised only 46 percent of the new 23rd's voting-age U. S. citizen population. Therefore, the Court said, the new 23rd was not a true majority-minority district; the Court found that the new Austin-to-McAllen 25th District was not compact enough to be an acceptable replacement. The Court ruled; as a result, on August 4, 2006, a three-judge panel announced replacement district boundaries for the 2006 election in the 23rd district.
Due to the 23rd's size, nearly every district along the El Paso-San Antonio corridor had to be redrawn as well. In the change, the new 23rd lost many of the Republican areas given to it in 2003, as well as the rest of Laredo, it received a large portion of south San Antonio, Democratic. Four other districts were affected: the 28th, 25th, 15th and 21st; as a result, on November 7, 2006, these five districts held open primaries, called a "jungle primary." If no candidate were to receive as much as 50% of the vote, a runoff election in December would decide the seat. In the 23rd, the incumbent Bonilla had two significant opponents, both Democrats: the Vietnam War veteran Rick Bolanos and Ciro Rodriguez, the former Congressman of the 28th district. In the Spring, Bolanos won the now moot 23rd district Democratic primary. Rodriguez lost a primary challenge to Cuellar in the 28th district, vacated; the redrawing placed Rodriguez' home, along with most of his old base, into the 23rd district. Other candidates in the special election were: Albert Uresti, the retired San Antonio Fire Department district chief and brother of the state Senator Carlos Uresti.
Craig T. Stephens, an independent candidate filed to run. Rick Bolanos dropped out of the race on October 19, 2006 and endorsed fellow Democrat Lukin Gilliland. On November 7, 2006, Henry Bonilla received more votes than any of his challengers, but did not receive 50% of the votes cast. Though none of the Democratic candidates came close to Bonilla individually, as a whole the six Democratic candidates received more votes than Bonilla, the only Republican candidate. However, neither party received more than 50% of the vote because of a third party candidate. A runoff election was held on December 12, 2006 between Bonilla and Rodriguez, Rodriguez won; the National Republican Congressional Committee targeted Texas' 23rd Congressional District to try to regain it, supported the Republican campaign financially. Francisco "Quico" Canseco, a San Antonio businessman, became the Republican nominee for the
U.S. Route 277
U. S. Route 277 is a north–south United States Highway, it is a spur of U. S. Route 77, it runs for 633 miles across Texas. US 277's northern terminus is in Newcastle, Oklahoma at Interstate 44, the northern terminus of the H. E. Bailey Turnpike, its southern terminus is in Carrizo Springs, Texas at U. S. Route 83, it passes through the states of Texas. Most of U. S. 277's route through the two states overlaps other U. S. highways. Those include U. S. 62 from Newcastle to Chickasha, Oklahoma, U. S. 62 and U. S. 281 from five miles west of Elgin, Oklahoma, to Lawton, U. S. 281 from Lawton to Wichita Falls, Texas, U. S. 82 from Wichita Falls to Seymour, U. S. 83 from Anson, Texas to Abilene, Texas. Through the Lawton area and again from Randlett, Oklahoma, to near downtown Wichita Falls, U. S. 277 is co-signed with I-44. The highway begins at an intersection with US 83 in Carrizo Springs, about 60 miles northwest of Laredo; the highway runs until reaching Eagle Pass. From here to Del Rio, the highway parallels the Rio Grande River at the U.
S.-Mexico border. The highway overlaps US 377 for about 26 miles, with the highways passing the Amistad National Recreation Area. US 277 crosses I-10 near Sonora, before traveling to Eldorado and San Angelo; the highway overlaps US 87 in the city. In Abilene, the highway overlaps with the latter leaving shortly after. US 83 leaves in Anson. In Seymour, US 82 begins an overlap with US 277; the two highways enter the city of Wichita Falls, with US 82 leaving the highway at US 281/US 287. US 277 joins US 281/287 and the three highways travel into the downtown area of the city, where I-44 begins. US 287 leaves the freeway, while I-44/US 277/US 281 travel to Burkburnett, before crossing the Red River into Oklahoma. From its present terminus at Interstate 44 near Newcastle, U. S. 277 runs concurrent with U. S. 62 through Blanchard into downtown Chickasha, where U. S. 277 joins U. S. 81 for several miles to an intersection south of Chickasha near Ninnekah, where U. S. 277 turns west/southwest through the cities of Cement, Cyril and Elgin - crossing over I-44/H.
E. Bailey east of Cement, under the interstate south of Fletcher and under the interstate/turnpike on the west side of Elgin. About five miles west of Elgin, U. S. 277 rejoins U. S. 62 for the next 10 miles with the triplex 62-277-281 route joining Interstate 44 at the starting/ending point of the H. E. Bailey Turnpike north section near Medicine Park south through Fort Sill to I-44 Exit 40A, where U. S. 62 diverts from the interstate. U. S. 277 and 281 continue their concurrent route with I-44 through the Lawton-Fort Sill area to a point six miles south of Lawton where I-44 becomes the H. E. Bailey Turnpike south to Randlett. At this interchange which includes Oklahoma 36 west/southwest to Chattanooga and Grandfield, U. S. 277-281 diverts east and curve south to parallel the interstate past Geronimo, OK and 10 miles joins Oklahoma 5 about 5 miles west of Walters for three miles west crossing over I-44/H. E. Bailey Turnpike at the Walters exit and toll plaza. West of I-44, U. S. 277-281 turns south from Oklahoma 5 and continues south, crossing under I-44 south of Cookietown and joins U.
S. 70 at Randlett, from where the triplex U. S. 70-277-281 continues 3 miles west to an interchange with I-44 at the beginning/ending points of the H. E. Bailey Turnpike. At this interchange, U. S. 277-281 joins I-44 for the last 6 miles in Oklahoma before crossing the Red River into Texas. From Newcastle to the Red River north of Wichita Falls, Texas, U. S. 277 serves as an alternate free route to the two sections of the H. E. Bailey Turnpike between Oklahoma City and the Red River from Newcastle southwest of Oklahoma to near Medicine Park north of Lawton and from near Geronimo south of Lawton to Randlett just north of the Red River near Burkburnett, Texas; the former route of U. S. 277 through the City of Lawton via 2nd Street and 11th Street has been designated as U. S. 281 Business since the completion of Lawton's Pioneer Expressway in 1964 from present I-44 Exit 39-B to Exit 33. Present U. S. 281 Business and former U. S. 277-281 follows 2nd Street south of I-44 into the downtown area and south of Lee Boulevard, curves into the diagonal route to 11th Street and still locally designated by the City of Lawton as Highway 277 though it is designated as U.
S. 281 Business. From the end of the diagonal route at 11th and Tennessee Avenue south past the Lawton-Fort Sill Regional Airport to Exit 33 of Interstate 44, the former U. S. 277-281 and current U. S. Business 281 route follows 11th Street. South of this point, U. S. 281 Business ends/begins and current U. S. 277-281 continues to run concurrent with I-44 for another 3 miles to Exit 30, bypassing 3 miles of the former U. S. 277-281 concurrency that followed 11th Street south of Lawton until the completion of the present I-44 route south of Lawton in 1964, when the former highway reverted to local jurisdiction. At Exit 31, Oklahoma 36 begins its route to Chattanooga and Grandfield west of I-44 while U. S. 277-281 uses the same route east of the interstate for a half-mile and tur