Ankylosauria is a group of herbivorous dinosaurs of the order Ornithischia. It includes the great majority of dinosaurs with armor in the form of bony osteoderms. Ankylosaurs were bulky quadrupeds, with powerful limbs, they are known to have first appeared in the early Jurassic Period, persisted until the end of the Cretaceous Period. They have been found on every continent; the first dinosaur discovered in Antarctica was the ankylosaurian Antarctopelta, fossils of which were recovered from Ross Island in 1986. Ankylosauria was first named by Henry Fairfield Osborn in 1923. In the Linnaean classification system, the group is considered either a suborder or an infraorder, it is contained within the group Thyreophora, which includes the stegosaurs, armored dinosaurs known for their combination of plates and spikes. They sported a small brain size in proportion to their body, second only to the Saurischian sauropods, they were rather slow moving because of the shortness of the limbs combined with being incapable of running.
Their top speed was less than 10 km/hour. All ankylosaurians had armor over much of their bodies scutes and nodules, with large spines in some cases; the scutes, or plates, are rectangular to oval objects organized in transverse rows with keels on the upper surface. Smaller nodules and plates filled in the open spaces between large plates. In all three groups, the first two rows of plates tend to form a sort of half-ring around the neck; the skull has armor plastered on to it, including a distinctive piece on the outside-rear of the lower jaw. Ankylosaurs were built low to the ground one foot off the ground surface, they had triangular teeth that were loosely packed, similar to stegosaurs. The large hyoid bones left in skeletons indicates that they had flexible tongues, they had a large, side secondary palate. This means that they could breathe unlike crocodiles, their expanded gut region suggests the use of fermentation to digest their food, using symbiotic bacteria and gut flora. Their diet consisted of ferns and angiosperms.
Mallon et al. examined herbivore coexistence on the island continent of Laramidia during the Late Cretaceous. It was concluded that ankylosaurs were restricted to feeding on vegetation at, or below, the height of 1 meter. Possible neonate-sized ankylosaur fossils have been documented in the scientific literature. Ankylosauria is split into two families: Nodosauridae and Ankylosauridae. A third family, the Polacanthidae, is sometimes used, but is more found to be a sub-group of one of the primary families; the first formal definition of Ankylosauria as a clade, a group containing all species of a certain evolutionary branch, was given in 1997 by Carpenter. He defined the group as all dinosaurs closer to Ankylosaurus than to Stegosaurus; this definition is followed by most paleontologists today. This "stem-based" definition means that the primitive armored dinosaur Scelidosaurus, closer to ankylosaurids than to stegosaurids, is technically a member of Ankylosauria. Upon the discovery of Bienosaurus, Dong Zhiming erected the family Scelidosauridae for both of these primitive ankylosaurs.
In 2001, Carpenter proposed a new group uniting Scelidosaurus, Ankylosauridae and Polacanthidae, with Minmi, to the exclusion of Stegosaurus. However, many taxonomists find; this group traditionally includes Nodosaurus and Sauropelta. The nodosauridae had longer snouts than their ankylosaurid cousins, they did not sport the archetypal'clubs' at the ends of their tails. Nodosaurids had muscular shoulders and a specialized knob of bone on each shoulder blade called the acromial process, it served as an attachment site for the muscles. These spines would be used for self-defense against predators, they had wide, flaring hips and thick limbs. They had smaller, narrow beaks than the ankylosaurids, which allowed them to be selective over what plant matter they grazed on. Most nodosaurid finds are from North America. Major differences distinguishing the ankylosaurids from the nodosaurids is that the ankylosaurids had bony clubs at the end of their tails, domed snouts in front of the eyes, large squamosal plates projecting from the top and bottom of each side of the skull, all of which nodosaurids lacked.
The traditional ankylosaurids are from in the Cretaceous. They had much wider bodies and have been discovered with bony eyelids; the large clubs at the end of their tails may have been used in sexual selection. This family included Ankylosaurus and Pinacosaurus; the clubs were made of several plates of bone that were permeated by soft tissue, allowing them to absorb thousands of pounds of force. Their beaks were larger and broader than the nodosaurids, indicating that these ankylosaurs were generalists in their diet; the family Polacanthidae was named by George Reber Wieland in 1911 to refer to a group of ankylosaurs that seemed to him to be intermediate between the ankylosaurids and nodosaurids. This grouping was ignored by most researchers until the late 1990s, when it was used as a subfamily by Kirkland for a natural group recovered by his 1998 analysi
Neocomites is a genus of ammonite from the Lower Cretaceous, Berriasian to Hauterivian, type genus for the Neocomitidae. The shell of Neocomites is involute and compressed with flattish sides. Ribs may cross the venter transversely on whorls. Sutures have deep 1st lateral lobes. Neocomites has a widespread distribution and has been found in such places as central and southern Europe, North Africa, northern India, Sumatra, Mexico, Colombia and Argentina. W. J. Arkell, et al. 1957. Mesozoic Ammonoidea, Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology Part L, Ammonoidea. Piraquive, Alejandro. 2011. Reactivación Neógena de estructuras de rift del Cretácico Temprano asociadas con la Falla de Chámeza, Boyacá: evidencias tectónicas y bioestratigráficas. Geología Colombiana 36. 197–216. Accessed 2017-08-04
Valangin is a municipality in the district of Val-de-Ruz in the canton of Neuchâtel in Switzerland. Valangin is first mentioned in 1241 as de Valengiz. Valangin has an area, as of 2009, of 3.8 square kilometers. Of this area, 1.48 km2 or 39.4% is used for agricultural purposes, while 1.87 km2 or 49.7% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 0.34 km2 or 9.0 % is settled, 0.01 km2 or 0.3 % is either lakes. Of the built up area and buildings made up 2.4% and transportation infrastructure made up 5.3%. Out of the forested land, 46.8% of the total land area is forested and 2.9% is covered with orchards or small clusters of trees. Of the agricultural land, 22.3% is used for growing crops and 17.0% is pastures. All the water in the municipality is flowing water; the municipality is located in the Val de Ruz district, at the northern entrance of the Seyon canyon. It consists of the village of Valangin, the hamlet of La Borcaderie and the agricultural areas of Bussy and Sorgereux; the Valanginian Age of the Cretaceous Period of geological time is named for Valangin.
The blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Gules, on three Chevrons Sable. Valangin has a population of 504; as of 2008, 22.4% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of 1.7%. It has changed at a rate of 7.3 % due to births and deaths. Most of the population speaks French as their first language, Portuguese is the second most common and German is the third. There are 10 people; as of 2008, the population was 52.0% male and 48.0% female. The population was made up of 163 Swiss men and 50 non-Swiss men. There were 156 Swiss women and 41 non-Swiss women. Of the population in the municipality, 104 or about 26.0% were born in Valangin and lived there in 2000. There were 141 or 35.3% who were born in the same canton, while 73 or 18.3% were born somewhere else in Switzerland, 69 or 17.3% were born outside of Switzerland. As of 2000, children and teenagers make up 21.5% of the population, while adults make up 62.3% and seniors make up 16.3%.
As of 2000, there were 164 people who were single and never married in the municipality. There were 201 married individuals, 20 widows or widowers and 15 individuals who are divorced; as of 2000, there were 167 private households in the municipality, an average of 2.3 persons per household. There were 55 households that consist of only one person and 9 households with five or more people. In 2000, a total of 165 apartments were permanently occupied, while 8 apartments were seasonally occupied and 5 apartments were empty; the historical population is given in the following chart: Valangin Castle and the Collégiale are listed as Swiss heritage site of national significance. The small city of Valangin, the Bussy/Le Sorgereux region and the La Borcarderie region are all part of the Inventory of Swiss Heritage Sites. In the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the SP; the next three most popular parties were the SVP and the LPS Party. In the federal election, a total of 158 votes were cast, the voter turnout was 58.3%.
As of 2010, Valangin had an unemployment rate of 5.1%. As of 2008, there were 14 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 4 businesses involved in this sector. 12 people were employed in the secondary sector and there were 3 businesses in this sector. 49 people were employed in the tertiary sector, with 12 businesses in this sector. There were 204 residents of the municipality who were employed in some capacity, of which females made up 41.7% of the workforce. In 2008 the total number of full-time equivalent jobs was 58; the number of jobs in the primary sector was 11, all of which were in agriculture. The number of jobs in the secondary sector was 11; the number of jobs in the tertiary sector was 36. In the tertiary sector. In 2000, there were 51 workers who commuted into the municipality and 139 workers who commuted away; the municipality is a net exporter of workers, with about 2.7 workers leaving the municipality for every one entering. Of the working population, 12.7% used public transportation to get to work, 59.8% used a private car.
From the 2000 census, 108 or 27.0% were Roman Catholic, while 164 or 41.0% belonged to the Swiss Reformed Church. Of the rest of the population, there were 25 individuals who belonged to another Christian church. There was 1 individual, Islamic. There were 1 individual. 93 belonged to no church, are agnostic or atheist, 20 individuals did not answer the question. In Valangin about 158 or of the population have completed non-mandatory upper secondary education, 61 or have completed additional higher education. Of the 61 who completed tertiary schooling, 50.8% were Swiss men, 31.1% were Swiss women, 13.1% were non-Swiss men. In the canton of Neuchâtel most municipalities provide two years of non-mandatory kindergarten, followed by five years of mandatory primary educa
In the geological timescale, the Tithonian is the latest age of the Late Jurassic epoch or the uppermost stage of the Upper Jurassic series. It spans the time between 152.1 ± 4 145.0 ± 4 Ma. It is followed by the Berriasian stage; the Tithonian was introduced in scientific literature by German stratigrapher Albert Oppel in 1865. The name Tithonian is unusual in geological stage names. Tithonus was the son of Laomedon of Troy, he fell in love with Eos, the Greek goddess of dawn and finds his place in the stratigraphy because this stage, the Tithonian, finds itself hand in hand with the dawn of the Cretaceous. The base of the Tithonian stage is at the base of the ammonite biozone of Hybonoticeras hybonotum. A global reference profile for the base of the Tithonian had in 2009 not yet been established; the top of the Tithonian stage is marked by the first appearance of small globular calpionellids of the species Calpionella alpina, at the base of the Alpina Subzone. The Tithonian is subdivided into Lower/Early and Upper/Late substages or subages.
The Late Tithonian is coeval with the Portlandian stage of British stratigraphy. The Tithonian stage contains seven ammonite biozones in the Tethys domain, from top to base: zone of Durangites zone of Micracanthoceras micranthum zone of Micracanthoceras ponti or Burckardticeras peroni zone of Semiformiceras fallauxi zone of Semiformiceras semiforme zone of Semiformiceras darwini zone of Hybonoticeras hybonotum In the ocean of Tethys, the Tithonian has a calcareous facies with a typical cephalopod fauna; the Solnhofen limestone of southern Germany, known for its fossils, is of Tithonian age. Gradstein, F. M.. G. & Smith, A. G.. Oppel, C. A.. GeoWhen Database - Tithonian Jurassic-Cretaceous timescale, at the website of the subcommission for stratigraphic information of the ICS Stratigraphic chart of the Upper Jurassic, at the website of Norges Network of offshore records of geology and stratigraphy
The Campanian is the fifth of six ages of the Late Cretaceous epoch on the geologic timescale of the International Commission on Stratigraphy. In chronostratigraphy, it is the fifth of six stages in the Upper Cretaceous series. Campanian spans the time from 83.6 to 72.1 million years ago. It is preceded by the Santonian and it is followed by the Maastrichtian; the Campanian was an age. The morphology of some of these areas has been preserved: it is an unconformity beneath a cover of marine sedimentary rocks; the Campanian was introduced in scientific literature by Henri Coquand in 1857. It is named after the French village of Champagne in the département Charente-Maritime; the original type locality was an outcrop near the village of Aubeterre-sur-Dronne in the same region. Due to changes of the stratigraphic definitions, this section is now part of the Maastrichtian stage; the base of the Campanian stage is defined as a place in the stratigraphic column where the extinction of crinoid species Marsupites testudinarius is located.
The top of the Campanian stage is defined as the place in the stratigraphic column where the ammonite Pachydiscus neubergicus first appears. The Campanian can be subdivided into Lower and Upper subages. In the Tethys domain, the Campanian encompasses six ammonite biozones, they are, from young to old: zone of Nostoceras hyatti zone of Didymoceras chayennense zone of Bostrychoceras polyplocum zone of Hoplitoplacenticeras marroti/Hoplitoplacenticeras vari zone of Delawarella delawarensis zone of Placenticeras bidorsatum During the Campanian age, a radiation among dinosaur species occurred. In North America, for example, the number of known dinosaur genera rises from 4 at the base of the Campanian to 48 in the upper part; this development is sometimes referred to as the "Campanian Explosion". However, it is not yet clear if the event is artificial, i.e. the low number of genera in the lower Campanian can be caused by a lower preservation chance for fossils in deposits of that age. The warm climates and large continental area covered in shallow sea during the Campanian favoured the dinosaurs.
In the following Maastrichtian stage, the number of North American dinosaur genera found is 30% less than in the upper Campanian. Animals that lived in the Campanian include: David J. Varrichio observes that during the late Campanian Alberta and Montana had similar theropods despite significant differences in the types of herbivorous dinosaur faunas. Gradstein, F. M.. G. & Smith, A. G.. Varricchio, D. J. 2001. Late Cretaceous oviraptorosaur dinosaurs from Montana. Pp. 42–57 in D. H. Tanke and K. Carpenter, Mesozoic Vertebrate Life. Indiana University Press, Indiana. Weishampel, D. B.. M.. A.. M. P. & Noto, C. N.. B.. GeoWhen Database - Campanian Late Cretaceous timescale, at the website of the subcommission for stratigraphic information of the ICS Stratigraphic chart of the Late Cretaceous, at the website of Norges Network of offshore records of geology and stratigraphy Campanian Microfossils: 75+ images of Foraminifera
The Tethys Ocean called the Tethys Sea or the Neotethys, was an ocean during much of the Mesozoic Era located between the ancient continents of Gondwana and Laurasia, before the opening of the Indian and Atlantic oceans during the Cretaceous Period. The name stems from the mythological Greek sea goddess Tethys and consort of Oceanus, mother of the great rivers and fountains of the world and of the Oceanid sea nymphs; the eastern part of the Tethys Ocean is sometimes referred to as Eastern Tethys. The western part of the Tethys Ocean is called Tethys Sea, Western Tethys Ocean, or Paratethys or Alpine Tethys Ocean; the Black and Aral seas are thought to be its crustal remains, though the Black Sea may, in fact, be a remnant of the older Paleo-Tethys Ocean. The Western Tethys was not a single open ocean, it covered many small plates, Cretaceous island arcs, microcontinents. Many small oceanic basins were separated from each other by continental terranes on the Alboran and Apulian plates; the high sea level in the Mesozoic flooded most of these continental domains.
As theories have improved, scientists have extended the "Tethys" name to refer to three similar oceans that preceded it, separating the continental terranes: in Asia, the Paleo-Tethys, Meso-Tethys, Ceno-Tethy are recognized. Neither Tethys Ocean should be confused with the Rheic Ocean, which existed to the west of them in the Silurian Period. To the north of the Tethys, the then-land mass was called Angaraland and to the south of it, it was called Gondwanaland. From the Ediacaran into the Devonian, the Proto-Tethys Ocean existed and was situated between Baltica and Laurentia to the north and Gondwana to the south. From the Silurian through the Jurassic periods, the Paleo-Tethys Ocean existed between the Hunic terranes and Gondwana. Over a period of 400 million years, continental terranes intermittently separated from Gondwana in the Southern Hemisphere to migrate northward to form Asia in the Northern Hemisphere. About 250 Mya, during the Triassic, a new ocean began forming in the southern end of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean.
A rift formed along the northern continental shelf of Southern Pangaea. Over the next 60 million years, that piece of shelf, known as Cimmeria, traveled north, pushing the floor of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean under the eastern end of northern Pangaea; the Tethys Ocean formed between Cimmeria and Gondwana, directly over where the Paleo-Tethys used to be. During the Jurassic period about 150 Mya, Cimmeria collided with Laurasia and stalled, so the ocean floor behind it buckled under, forming the Tethyan Trench. Water levels rose, the western Tethys shallowly covered significant portions of Europe, forming the first Tethys Sea. Around the same time and Gondwana began drifting apart, opening an extension of the Tethys Sea between them which today is the part of the Atlantic Ocean between the Mediterranean and the Caribbean; as North and South America were still attached to the rest of Laurasia and Gondwana the Tethys Ocean in its widest extension was part of a continuous oceanic belt running around the Earth between about latitude 30°N and the Equator.
Thus, ocean currents at the time around the Early Cretaceous ran differently from the way they do today. Between the Jurassic and the Late Cretaceous, which started about 100 Mya, Gondwana began breaking up, pushing Africa and India north across the Tethys and opening up the Indian Ocean; as these land masses crowded in on the Tethys Ocean from all sides, to as as the Late Miocene, 15 Mya, the ocean continued to shrink, becoming the Tethys Seaway or second Tethys Sea. Throughout the Cenozoic, global sea levels fell hundreds of meters, the connections between the Atlantic and the Tethys closed off in what is now the Middle East. During the Oligocene, large parts of central and eastern Europe were covered by a northern branch of the Tethys Ocean, called the Paratethys; the Paratethys was separated from the Tethys with the formation of the Alps, Dinarides and Elburz mountains during the Alpine orogeny. During the late Miocene, the Paratethys disappeared, became an isolated inland sea. In 1885, the Austrian palaeontologist Melchior Neumayr deduced the existence of the Tethys Ocean from Mesozoic marine sediments and their distribution, calling his concept Zentrales Mittelmeer and described it as a Jurassic seaway, which extended from the Caribbean to the Himalayas.
In 1893, the Austrian geologist Eduard Suess proposed the theory that an ancient and extinct inland sea had once existed between Laurasia and the continents which formed Gondwana II. He named it the Tethys Sea after the Greek sea goddess Tethys, he provided evidence for his theory using fossil records from the Africa. He proposed the concept of Tethys in his four-volume work Das Antlitz der Erde. In the following decades during the 20th century, "mobilist" geologists such as Uhlig and Daque regarded Tethys as a large trough between two supercontinents which lasted from the late Palaeozoic until continental fragments derived from Gondwana obliterated it. After World War II, Tethys was described as a triangular ocean with a wide eastern end. From 1920s to the 1960s, "fixist" geologists, regarded Tethys as a composite trough, which evolved through a series of orogenic cycles, they used the terms'Paleotethys','Mesotethys', and'Neotethys' for the Caledonian and Alpine orogenies, respe
The Cretaceous is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic Period 145 million years ago to the beginning of the Paleogene Period 66 mya. It is the last period of the Mesozoic Era, the longest period of the Phanerozoic Eon; the Cretaceous Period is abbreviated K, for its German translation Kreide. The Cretaceous was a period with a warm climate, resulting in high eustatic sea levels that created numerous shallow inland seas; these oceans and seas were populated with now-extinct marine reptiles and rudists, while dinosaurs continued to dominate on land. During this time, new groups of mammals and birds, as well as flowering plants, appeared; the Cretaceous ended with the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, a large mass extinction in which many groups, including non-avian dinosaurs and large marine reptiles died out. The end of the Cretaceous is defined by the abrupt Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary, a geologic signature associated with the mass extinction which lies between the Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras.
The Cretaceous as a separate period was first defined by Belgian geologist Jean d'Omalius d'Halloy in 1822, using strata in the Paris Basin and named for the extensive beds of chalk, found in the upper Cretaceous of Western Europe. The name Cretaceous was derived from Latin creta; the Cretaceous is divided into Early and Late Cretaceous epochs, or Lower and Upper Cretaceous series. In older literature the Cretaceous is sometimes divided into three series: Neocomian and Senonian. A subdivision in eleven stages, all originating from European stratigraphy, is now used worldwide. In many parts of the world, alternative local subdivisions are still in use; as with other older geologic periods, the rock beds of the Cretaceous are well identified but the exact age of the system's base is uncertain by a few million years. No great extinction or burst of diversity separates the Cretaceous from the Jurassic. However, the top of the system is defined, being placed at an iridium-rich layer found worldwide, believed to be associated with the Chicxulub impact crater, with its boundaries circumscribing parts of the Yucatán Peninsula and into the Gulf of Mexico.
This layer has been dated at 66.043 Ma. A 140 Ma age for the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary instead of the accepted 145 Ma was proposed in 2014 based on a stratigraphic study of Vaca Muerta Formation in Neuquén Basin, Argentina. Víctor Ramos, one of the authors of the study proposing the 140 Ma boundary age sees the study as a "first step" toward formally changing the age in the International Union of Geological Sciences. From youngest to oldest, the subdivisions of the Cretaceous period are: Late Cretaceous Maastrichtian – Campanian – Santonian – Coniacian – Turonian – Cenomanian – Early Cretaceous Albian – Aptian – Barremian – Hauterivian – Valanginian – Berriasian – The high sea level and warm climate of the Cretaceous meant large areas of the continents were covered by warm, shallow seas, providing habitat for many marine organisms; the Cretaceous was named for the extensive chalk deposits of this age in Europe, but in many parts of the world, the deposits from the Cretaceous are of marine limestone, a rock type, formed under warm, shallow marine circumstances.
Due to the high sea level, there was extensive space for such sedimentation. Because of the young age and great thickness of the system, Cretaceous rocks are evident in many areas worldwide. Chalk is a rock type characteristic for the Cretaceous, it consists of coccoliths, microscopically small calcite skeletons of coccolithophores, a type of algae that prospered in the Cretaceous seas. In northwestern Europe, chalk deposits from the Upper Cretaceous are characteristic for the Chalk Group, which forms the white cliffs of Dover on the south coast of England and similar cliffs on the French Normandian coast; the group is found in England, northern France, the low countries, northern Germany, Denmark and in the subsurface of the southern part of the North Sea. Chalk is not consolidated and the Chalk Group still consists of loose sediments in many places; the group has other limestones and arenites. Among the fossils it contains are sea urchins, belemnites and sea reptiles such as Mosasaurus. In southern Europe, the Cretaceous is a marine system consisting of competent limestone beds or incompetent marls.
Because the Alpine mountain chains did not yet exist in the Cretaceous, these deposits formed on the southern edge of the European continental shelf, at the margin of the Tethys Ocean. Stagnation of deep sea currents in middle Cretaceous times caused anoxic conditions in the sea water leaving the deposited organic matter undecomposed. Half the worlds petroleum reserves were laid down at this time in the anoxic conditions of what would become the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Mexico. In many places around the world, dark anoxic shales were formed during this interval; these shales are an important source rock for oil and gas, for example in the subsurface of the North Sea. During th