Quebec is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is bordered to the west by the province of Ontario and the bodies of water James Bay and Hudson Bay. S. states of Maine, New Hampshire and New York. It shares maritime borders with Nunavut, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia. Quebec is Canada's largest province by its second-largest administrative division, it is and politically considered to be part of Central Canada. Quebec is the second-most populous province of Canada, after Ontario, it is the only one to have a predominantly French-speaking population, with French as the sole provincial official language. Most inhabitants live in urban areas near the Saint Lawrence River between Montreal and Quebec City, the capital. Half of Quebec residents live in the Greater Montreal Area, including the Island of Montreal. English-speaking communities and English-language institutions are concentrated in the west of the island of Montreal but are significantly present in the Outaouais, Eastern Townships, Gaspé regions.
The Nord-du-Québec region, occupying the northern half of the province, is sparsely populated and inhabited by Aboriginal peoples. The climate around the major cities is four-seasons continental with cold and snowy winters combined with warm to hot humid summers, but farther north long winter seasons dominate and as a result the northern areas of the province are marked by tundra conditions. In central Quebec, at comparatively southerly latitudes, winters are severe in inland areas. Quebec independence debates have played a large role in the politics of the province. Parti Québécois governments held referendums on sovereignty in 1980 and 1995. Although neither passed, the 1995 referendum saw the highest voter turnout in Quebec history, at over 93%, only failed by less than 1%. In 2006, the House of Commons of Canada passed a symbolic motion recognizing the "Québécois as a nation within a united Canada". While the province's substantial natural resources have long been the mainstay of its economy, sectors of the knowledge economy such as aerospace and communication technologies and the pharmaceutical industry play leading roles.
These many industries have all contributed to helping Quebec become an economically influential province within Canada, second only to Ontario in economic output. The name "Québec", which comes from the Algonquin word kébec meaning "where the river narrows" referred to the area around Quebec City where the Saint Lawrence River narrows to a cliff-lined gap. Early variations in the spelling of the name included Kébec. French explorer Samuel de Champlain chose the name Québec in 1608 for the colonial outpost he would use as the administrative seat for the French colony of New France; the province is sometimes referred to as "La belle province". The Province of Quebec was founded in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 after the Treaty of Paris formally transferred the French colony of Canada to Britain after the Seven Years' War; the proclamation restricted the province to an area along the banks of the Saint Lawrence River. The Quebec Act of 1774 expanded the territory of the province to include the Great Lakes and the Ohio River Valley and south of Rupert's Land, more or less restoring the borders existing under French rule before the Conquest of 1760.
The Treaty of Paris ceded territories south of the Great Lakes to the United States. After the Constitutional Act of 1791, the territory was divided between Lower Canada and Upper Canada, with each being granted an elected legislative assembly. In 1840, these become Canada East and Canada West after the British Parliament unified Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada; this territory was redivided into the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario at Confederation in 1867. Each became one of the first four provinces. In 1870, Canada purchased Rupert's Land from the Hudson's Bay Company and over the next few decades the Parliament of Canada transferred to Quebec portions of this territory that would more than triple the size of the province. In 1898, the Canadian Parliament passed the first Quebec Boundary Extension Act that expanded the provincial boundaries northward to include the lands of the local aboriginal peoples; this was followed by the addition of the District of Ungava through the Quebec Boundaries Extension Act of 1912 that added the northernmost lands of the Inuit to create the modern Province of Quebec.
In 1927, the border between Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador was established by the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Quebec disputes this boundary. Located in the eastern part of Canada, part of Central Canada, Quebec occupies a territory nearly three times the size of France or Texas, most of, sparsely populated, its topography is different from one region to another due to the varying composition of the ground, the climate, the proximity to water. The Saint Lawrence Lowland and the Appalachians are the two main topographic regions in southern Quebec, while the Canadian Shield occupies most of central and northern Quebec. Quebec has one of the world's largest reserves of fresh water, occupying 12% of its surface, it has 3 % of the world's renewable fresh water. Mor
Joseph-Armand Bombardier was a French-Canadian inventor and businessman, was the founder of Bombardier. His most famous invention was the snowmobile. Born in Valcourt, Joseph-Armand Bombardier dabbled in mechanics from an early age, he acquired experience by reading, taking notes and repairing what he found until he opened his own garage at age 19, where he would repair cars and sell gasoline in the summertime. During wintertime, he worked on developing a vehicle able to travel on snow. At that time, the Quebec government did not clear snow from secondary roads, so residents of these areas stored their cars for the winter season; the idea to build a winter vehicle came to Bombardier after a blizzard in which his young son fell ill of peritonitis and died because he could not be brought to the nearest hospital. The first B7 snowmobiles were well received. A new plant able to produce more than 200 vehicles a year was built in 1940. A new 12-passenger model was made available in 1941, but demand was halted when Canada entered World War II.
Bombardier offered his expertise to the Canadian government and started producing specialized military vehicles for the Allies. After the war, business declined when the Quebec government began clearing snow from secondary roads in 1948. Bombardier went on to build smaller snowmobiles during the 1950s and developed a new market for recreational products for one or two people. Bombardier died in 1964 of cancer but the snowmobile idea was a success and more than 8200 units were sold annually. In 2004, Autoroute 55 in Quebec was named autoroute Joseph-Armand-Bombardier between Stanstead and Autoroute 20 near Drummondville; the Bombardier Glacier in Antarctica is named after him. In 2000, Joseph-Armand Bombardier was honoured by the government of Canada with his image on a postage stamp, he is Engineering Hall of Fame. Bombardier Recreational Products Ski-doo Roski, a division founded by Joseph-Armand Bombardier Lacasse, Roger. Joseph-Armand Bombardier: An Inventor's Dream Come True. Libre expression.
ISBN 2-89111-341-1. J. Armand Bombardier Museum Joseph-Armand Bombardier at The Canadian Encyclopedia CBC's Bombardier: The Snowmobile Legacy Heritage Minute about Joseph-Armand Bombardier
A snowmobile known as a motor sled, motor sledge, snowscooter, or snowmachine, is a motorized vehicle designed for winter travel and recreation on snow. It is designed to be operated on snow and ice and does not require a road or trail, but most are driven on open terrain or trails. Snowmobiling is a sport. Older snowmobiles could accommodate two people. Snowmobiles built with the ability to accommodate two people are referred to as "2-up" snowmobiles or'touring' models and make up an small share of the market. Snowmobiles do not have any enclosures, except for a windshield, their engines drive a continuous track at the rear. Skis at the front provide directional control. Early snowmobiles used rubber tracks, but modern snowmobiles' tracks are made of a Kevlar composite. Snowmobiles were powered by two-stroke gasoline internal combustion engines and since the mid-2000s four-stroke engines have entered the market; the second half of the 20th century saw the rise of recreational snowmobiling, whose riders are called snowmobilers or sledders.
Recreational riding is known as snowcross/racing, trail riding, boondocking and grass drags. In the summertime snowmobilers can drag race on grass, asphalt strips, or across water. Snowmobiles are sometimes modified to compete in long-distance off-road races. In 1911 a 24 year old, Harold J. Kalenze, patented the Vehicle Propeller in Brandon, Canada. In 1915 Ray H. Muscott of Waters, received the Canadian patent for his motor sleigh, or "traineau automobile", on June 27, 1916, he received the first United States patent for a snow-vehicle using the now recognized format of rear track and front skis. Many individuals modified Ford Model Ts with the undercarriage replaced by tracks and skis following this design, they were popular for rural mail delivery for a time. The common name for these conversion of cars and small trucks was Snowflyers. In 1935 Joseph Bombardier assembled and tested the first snowmobile, it was a vehicle with a sprocket wheel and a track drive system, it was steered by skis.
The challenges of cross-country transportation in the winter led to the invention of the snowmobile, an all-terrain vehicle designed for travel across deep snow where other vehicles floundered. During the 20th century evolving designs produced machines that were two-person tracked vehicles powered by gas engines that enabled them to tow a sled or travel at low-to-moderate speeds, depending on snow conditions and obstacles protruding above the snow like brush and trees. Where early designs had 10 horsepower two-stroke engines, there has been a move toward newer style two and four-stroke gasoline engines, some with over 200 hp; the origin of the snowmobile is not the work of any one inventor but more a process of advances in engines for the propulsion of vehicles and supporting devices over snow. It parallels the development of the automobile and aviation inventors using the same components for a different use. Wisconsinites experimented with over-snow vehicles before 1900, experimenting with bicycles equipped with runners and gripping fins.
A patent for the Sled-Propeller design, without a model, was submitted on Sept. 5, 1895 by inventors William J. Culman and William B. Follis of Brule, Wisconsin. In the first races held near Three Lakes in 1926, 104 of these "snowbuggies" started. Carl Eliason of Sayner developed the prototype of the modern snowmobile in the 1920s when he mounted a two-cylinder motorcycle engine on a long sled, steered it with skis under the front, propelled it with single, endless track. Eliason made 40 snowmobiles, patented in 1927. Upon receiving an order for 200 from Finland, he sold his patent to the FWD Company of Clintonville, they made 300 for military use transferred the patent to a Canadian subsidiary. The American Motor Sleigh was a short-lived novelty vehicle produced in Boston in 1905. Designed for travel on snow, it consisted of a sleigh body mounted on a framework that held an engine, a drive-shaft system, runners. Although considered an interesting novelty, sales were low and production ceased in 1906.
The Aerosani, propeller-driven and running on skis, was built in 1909–1910 by Russian inventor Igor Sikorsky of helicopter fame. Aerosanis were used by the Soviet Red Army during the Winter War and World War II. There is some dispute over whether Aerosanis count as snowmobiles because they were not propelled by tracks. Adolphe Kégresse designed an original caterpillar tracks system, called the Kégresse track, while working for Tsar Nicholas II of Russia between 1906 and 1916; these used a flexible belt rather than interlocking metal segments and could be fitted to a conventional car or truck to turn it into a half-track, suitable for use over soft ground, including snow. Conventional front wheels and steering were used but the wheel could be fitted with skis as seen in the upper right image, he applied it to several cars in the Royal garage including Packard trucks. Although this was not a snowmobile, it is an ancestor of the modern concept; the dry snow conditions of the United States Midwest suited the converted Ford Model Ts and other like vehicles, but they were not suitable for humid snow areas such as southern Quebec and New England.
This led Joseph-Armand Bombardier from the small town of Valcourt, Quebec, to invent a different caterpilla
Racine is a municipality in Quebec, Canada. It is located in the Le Val-Saint-François Regional County Municipality, in the administrative region of Estrie, it is named after the first Bishop of Sherbrooke. Mother tongue List of municipalities in Quebec
Richmond, population 3,232, is a town nestled amidst rolling farmlands on the Saint-François River between Sherbrooke and Drummondville, in the heart of Estrie in Quebec, Canada. Settled by colonists from New England and the Richelieu River valley circa 1798, Richmond is considered to be one of the oldest settlements in the former region of the Eastern Townships. Richmond grew in importance during the 1800s; the St. Lawrence and Atlantic Railroad opened between Montreal and Portland, Maine, on April 4, 1853 and was purchased four months and absorbed into the Grand Trunk Railway's system. Two years the GTR opened a line from the mainline in Richmond northeast to Lévis to connect Montreal with Quebec City; the line was extended further east to Rivière-du-Loup and a connection with the Intercolonial Railway, which operated trains on the GTR through Richmond to Montreal until 1897. The town itself was first called Richmond in 1820. By the 1860s Richmond was an important centre, with a college, literary institute and a public library.
Richmond's importance has waned since the 1930s, however, as the railways have come to play a lesser role in the economy. The GTR was absorbed into the Canadian National Railways and the line to Levis was abandoned in favour of more direct lines from Montreal to Quebec City. In 1989, CNR sold the entire railway line from Montreal to Portland, via Richmond, to a short line operator. Richmond as it exists today was created on December 29, 1999 following the merger of the "old" town of Richmond on the right bank of the Saint-François and the village of Melbourne, located on the other side; the name Richmond is in memory of Charles Lennox, 4th Duke of Richmond and Lennox, Governor General of Upper Canada from 1818 to 1819. The origin of the name Melbourne is uncertain, but the village is believed to have been named for Melbourne, Derbyshire or Melbourne, Hampshire. Richmond has a humid continental climate typical of southern Quebec. Precipitation is high year-round, resulting in warm and rainy summers as well as cold and snowy winters.
There is a significant temperature difference between seasons as typical of the North American interior, with 25.8 °C as July high and −4.9 °C as the high for January. Mother tongue Joseph Bédard was a merchant and political figure in Quebec. Walter George Mitchell was politician. Peter Samuel George Mackenzie and politician, Minister of Finance in the Quebec government Mack Sennett, Hollywood director/pioneer Yvon Vallières and teacher Frederick Simpson Coburn, Québécois artist/illustrator/painter Sylvain Lefebvre Joueur de Hockey Professionel, et entraineur Professionel dans la LNH Jean Airoldi, fashion designer The reverse side of the 1954-series Canadian $2 bill featured a view of the village of Melbourne. Richmond plays host to the second largest St. Patrick's Day Parade in the province of Quebec, behind only Montreal. List of cities in Quebec