Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
Bernedo is a town and municipality located in the province of Álava, in the Basque Country, northern Spain. The town of Bernedo is considered the capital of the municipality. Over the years, the municipality of Bernedo has absorbed other, smaller municipalities, which have ceased to exist; the name Bernedo appeared as early as 1025 in documentation of the region of San Millán de la Cogolla. During the Middle Ages, Bernedo was a walled fortress with tower; the King of Navarre, Sancho the Wise, granted charter rights for the town in the year 1182. For three centuries it was part of the Kingdom of Navarre, it passed to the Crown of Castile in 1476, in 1490 the Catholic Monarchs incorporated it to the city of Vitoria. Bernedo was the last populated area, incorporated to the province of Álava. Throughout modern history, a number of smaller municipalities have been merged into the municipality of Bernedo. In 1965, the municipalities of San Román de Campezo and Quintana were joined with Bernedo. In 1976, the municipality absorbed the short-lived municipality of Arlucea-Marquínez, which itself had been formed by a 1963 merger between the municipalities of Arlucea and Marquínez.
The municipality is composed of 11 towns or villages, which are governed by town councils: Angostina Arlucea Bernedo and main population of the municipality Marquínez Navarrete Oquina Quintana San Román de Campezo Urarte Urturi Villafría City and Municipality Website for Bernedo BERNEDO in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Website of Marquínez / Markinez
Álava or Araba Araba/Álava, is a province of Spain and a historical territory of the Basque Country, heir of the ancient Lordship of Álava, former medieval Catholic bishopric and now Latin titular see. Its capital city, Vitoria-Gasteiz, is the seat of the political main institutions of the autonomous community, it borders the Basque provinces of Biscay and Gipuzkoa to the north, the community of La Rioja to the south, the province of Burgos to the west and the community of Navarre to the east. The Enclave of Treviño, surrounded by Alavese territory, is however part of the province of Burgos, thus belonging to the autonomous community of Castile and León, not Álava, it is the largest of the three provinces in the Basque Autonomous Community in geographical terms, with 2,963 km2, but the least populated with 328,868 inhabitants. Built around the Roman mansion Alba located on the road ab Asturica Burdigalam, it has sometimes been argued the name may stem from that landmark. However, according to the Royal Academy of the Basque Language, the origin may be another: The name is first found on Muslim chronicles of the 8th century referring to the Alavese Plains, laua in old Basque with the Arab article added, developing into Spanish Álava and Basque Araba.
The province numbers 51 municipalities, a population of 315,525 inhabitants in an area of 3,037 km2, with an average of 104.50 inhabitants/km2. The vast majority of the population clusters in the capital city of Álava, Vitoria-Gasteiz, which serves as the capital of the Autonomous Community, but the remainder of the territory is sparsely inhabited with population nuclei distributed into seven counties: Añana. Álava is an inland territory and features a transitional climate between the humid, Atlantic neighbouring northern provinces and the dry and warmer lands south of the Ebro River. According to the relief and landscape characteristics, the territory is divided into five main zones: The Gorbea Foothills: Green hilly landscape; the Valleys: Low valleys, sparsely populated. The Plains: Heartland of Álava comprising Vitoria and Salvatierra-Agurain, with a central urban area and crop landscape prevailing around and bounded south and north by the Basque Mountains; the Alavese Mountains: Higher forest lands.
The Alavese Rioja: Oriented to the south on the left bank of the Ebro River, perfect for vineyards. Ayala: The area clustering around the Nervión River, with Amurrio and Laudio as its major towns; the region shows close bonds with an industrial landscape. Unlike Biscay and Gipuzkoa, but for Ayala and Aramaio, the waters of Álava pour into the Ebro and hence to the Mediterranean by means of two main waterways, i.e. the Zadorra and Bayas Rivers. In addition, the Zadorra Reservoir System harvests a big quantity of waters that supply not only the capital city but other major Basque towns and cities too, like Bilbao. While in 1950 agriculture and farming shaped the landscape of the territory, the trend shifted during the 60s and 70s on the grounds of a growing industrial activity in the Alavese Plains, with the main focus lying on the industrial estates of Vitoria-Gasteiz and, to a lesser extent, Salvatierra-Agurain and Araia. At the turn of the century, only 2% of the working Alavese people was in agriculture, while 60% was in the tertiary sector and 32% in manufacturing.
Industry associated with iron and metal developed earlier in the Atlantic area much in tune with Bilbao's economic dynamics, with droves of people flocking to and clustering in Amurrio and Laudio, which have since become the third and second main towns of Álava. List of rulers: Eylo, up to 866 Rodrigo c. 867–870, count of Castile Vela Jiménez 870–c. 887 Munio Velaz c. 887–c. 921 Álvaro Herraméliz c. 921–931 count of Cerezo and Lantarón Fernán González 931–970 count of Castile, Álava feudatary of Castile until 1030 García Fernández 970–995 Munio González 1030–1043 Fortunio Íñiguez 1043–1046 Munio Muñoz 1046–1060, Álava feudatary of Navarre, 1046–1085 Sancho Maceratiz 1046–1060 Ramiro 1060–1075 Marcelo 1075–1085 Lope Íñiguez 1085–?, Álava feudatary of Castile until 1123 Lope Díaz the White?–1093 Lope González 1093–1099 Lope Sánchez 1099–1114 Diego López I 1114–1123 Ladrón Íñiguez 1123–1158, Álava feudatary of Navarre until 1199 Vela Ladrón 1158–1175 Juan Velaz 1175–1181 Diego López II 1181–1187 Íñigo de Oriz 1187–1199 Diego López de Haro I 1199–1214, Álava feudatary of Castile until personal union of 1332 Lope Diaz de Haro I 1214–1240 Nuño González de Lara 1240–1252 Diego López de Haro II 1252–1274 Fernando de la Cerda 1274–1280 Lope Díaz II de Haro 1280–1288 Juan Alonso de Haro 1288–1310 Diego López de Salcedo 1310–1332The title is attributed to the Castilian kings after 1332.
The Arab invasion of the Ebro valley in the 8th century, many Christians of the Diocese of Calahorra sought refuge in areas further north free of Arab rule. The diocese called Álava or Armentaria was established in 870 on terrirory split off from the Diocese of Calahorra. From until the 11th century the names of several bishops of this see are recorded, the best known being the last, Fortún, who in 1072 went to Rome to argue before Pope Alexander II in defence of the Mozarabic Rite, which King Alfonso VI of León and Castile had decree
Campezo is a municipality located in the province of Álava, in the Basque Country, northern Spain. This municipality lies on the western side of the Codés mountain range. Antoñana Bujanda Orbiso Oteo Santa Cruz de Campezo/Santikurutze Kanpezu, capital of the Cuadrilla de Campezo-Montaña Alavesa comarca and main town of the municipality CAMPEZO in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia
Mantecadas are a type of spongy pastry from Spain similar to a muffin, but flatter. The best known mantecadas are from Northwestern Spain, being a traditional product of the city of Astorga, province of León, as well as the nearby Maragateria comarca, they taste much like pound cake. Other Spanish regions prepare mantecadas. There is a factory producing mantecadas in Sardón de Duero, Valladolid Province and another in Maliaño, Cantabria; the Casa Salinas bakery in Tudela, reputed for its excellent mantecadas, closed down in January 2011. Mantecadas are baked in square or rectangular box-shaped paper "cajillas" instead of in the typical muffin round paper cups; the mantecada leaves a characteristic cross-shaped silhouette on the paper. In the Alt Maestrat comarca the mantecada square paper cups are known as "caixetes". There is a type of cake known as mantecada in Colombia and Venezuela where the whole is cut into pieces after baking. Certain brands commercialize packed mini-mantecadas in Latin America.
Mantecadas should not be confused with mantecados, a much denser, non spongy different type of pastry. The most famous Mantecadas are the ones prepared in Astorga town under the name Mantecadas de Astorga, their ingredients are eggs, flour and sugar. Butter is essential in the preparation and differentiates the mantecadas de Astorga from average bizcocho or magdalenas, they are a protected product as per Geographical indication in the European Union. List of quick breads Madeleine Food portal Other type of Mantecadas recipe Mantecada con amor. Colombia style
Villamaderne is in Basque Country, northern Spain. It is located in the path of several routes frequented since remote times by the valley of Valdegovia, one of the intermediate lands that links the plateau with the sea. By being near to Salinas de Añana started to take part in the network of roads salt producers. Bellogin is inside the council of the village. Parish church The parish church of Villamaderne is dedicated to San Millán; the temple owns numerous Romanesque remains in its two covers, one of them today bricked up. In the start of the century, the temple was extended, hiding multiple attributes of the ancient construction. Due to the recent restoration carried out, they have been able to recover them; the most significant part of the parish temple is the romance bell gable. Palace-tower The most important component of the house is the beautiful and well drawn archery that unfolds in the angle of the building, giving way to a cozy open hallway that opens to the south through four vains and to the east by other three, all of them under arches.
On the other hand, the walls are made by bricks and masonry. The mill The mill is accessed by a descending path that comes up in front of the hermitage, in the other side of the road; the mill is located there strategically, sheltering the curve of the bed of the river, what is used as supplies to give motor strength. Hermitage The hermitage of Santa Lucia, next to the road and closed to one of the entrance paths of the centre of the village, shows a usual construction of the rural area, it shows a distinctive feature, a little arcade that can be entered under a big semicircular arc. The White Inn The White Inn or the Inn of Burguillos is located next to the national road and closed to other inns such as the ones located in Cárcamo. In the walls of the front entrance there are used different materials such as bricks and stones, its oceanic or transitional climate dictates the annual fluctuations in heat. The abundant rainfall throughout the year favours the colour and particular “atmosphere” prevalent in Valdegovía.
The region’s vegetation is characterised by pinewoods of albar pine, kermes oak, gall oak and beech. There are other typical vegetation types such as scrub, rock plants and vegetation associated with natural springs and still water; the most common mammals in the region are the roe deer, wild boar and hare. http://www.valdegovia.com/en/datosgenerales.asp http://www.valdegovia.com/es/p_villamaderne.asp
Provinces of Spain
Spain and its autonomous communities are divided into fifty provinces. Spain's provincial system was recognized in its 1978 constitution but its origin dates back to 1833. Ceuta and the Plazas de soberanía are not part of any provinces; the layout of Spain's provinces follows the pattern of the territorial division of the country carried out in 1833. The only major change of provincial borders since that time has been the subdivision of the Canary Islands into two provinces rather than one; the provinces served as transmission belts for policies enacted in Madrid, as Spain was a centralised state for most of its modern history. The importance of the provinces has declined since the adoption of the system of autonomous communities in the period of the Spanish transition to democracy, they remain electoral districts for national elections and as geographical references: for instance in postal addresses and telephone codes. A small town would be identified as being in, Valladolid province rather than the autonomous community of Castile and León.
The provinces were the "building-blocks". No province is divided between more than one of these communities. Most of the provinces—with the exception of Álava, Biscay, Guipúzcoa, Balearic Islands, La Rioja, Navarra — are named after their principal town. Only two capitals of autonomous communities — Mérida in Extremadura and Santiago de Compostela in Galicia — are not the capitals of provinces. Seven of the autonomous communities comprise no more than one province each: Asturias, Balearic Islands, Cantabria, La Rioja, Madrid and Navarra; these are sometimes referred to as "uniprovincial" communities. The table below lists the provinces of Spain. For each, the capital city is given, together with an indication of the autonomous community to which it belongs and a link to a list of municipalities in the province; the names of the provinces and their capitals are ordered alphabetically according to the form in which they appear in the main Wikipedia articles describing them. Unless otherwise indicated, their Spanish language names are the same.
List of Spanish provinces by population List of Spanish provinces by area Spanish Federation of Municipalities and Provinces Autonomous communities of Spain Comarcas of Spain ISO 3166-2:ESGeneral: Political divisions of Spain Maps of the provinces of Spain Maps of Spain's Provinces List of municipalities of Spain listed by province from the Spanish INE