Antártica Chilena Province
Antártica Chilena Province is the southernmost and one of four provinces in Chile's southernmost region and Antártica Chilena Region. The capital is Puerto Williams; the province comprises the extreme southern part of Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, the islands south and west of Isla Grande, Chile's claims in Antarctica. The province is administratively divided into two communes: Cabo de Hornos, located at the southern tip of South America, Antártica, a wedge-shaped claim of Antarctica, not internationally recognized, its total area of 1,265,853.7 km2 makes it twice as large as all other provinces of Chile combined. Commune of Cabo de Hornos, area 14,146 km2, population as of census 2002: 2,262, of which 1,952 are in the capital; as a commune, Cabo de Hornos is a third-level administrative division of Chile administered by a municipal council, headed by an alcalde, directly elected every four years. The 2016-2020 alcalde is Patricio Fernández; the communal council has the following members:Daniel Fernando Valdebenito Contreras Ángela Barría Barrientos Juan Velásquez Carolina Guenel González Francis Delgado Ibaceta Paola Speake Ojeda Commune of Antártica, area 1,250,000 km2, population as of census 2002: 130.
This territory as a whole is not recognized internationally. The Municipality of Cabo de Hornos governs both Antártica and Cabo de Hornos from Cabo de Hornos, making it the only Chilean municipality to administer more than one commune. According to the 2002 census by the National Statistics Institute, it had a population of 2,392 inhabitants, giving it a population density of 0.0019/km2. Of these, 1,952 lived in urban 440 in rural areas; the province is largest in Chile, yet it is the least populated and most sparsely populated province in the country. Between the 1992 and 2002 censuses, the population grew by 23%; the South American portion of the territory is internationally recognized as part of Chile. It forms the Chilean claim to Antarctica; the Commune of Antártica is uninhabited except for research stations of various countries, although Chile maintains a permanent civilian population at Villa Las Estrellas, including women and children, a small school, a bank, in order to support its territorial claim of the area.
The official population for the area as of the census 2002 is 130. This does not include the staff of non-Chilean bases in the area. According to the Chilean argument, its claim to Antártica Chilena is as old as Chile itself; the Tordesilhas Line established a west/east division of colonial territories between Portugal and Spain. On the first organization of the new conquered territories, Charles V, ruler of the Spanish Empire assigned to Pedro Sancho de la Hoz control over Terra Australis, which included the Southern part of South America, Tierra del Fuego Archipelago, all southern undiscovered territories; this gobernation merged with other territories in the Captaincy General of the Kingdom of Chile. Early settlement by prehistoric man is known to have occurred from archaeological recovery within this Province. Yaghans established many settlements on the islands of the present day province of the Antártica espana Province. Puerto Williams and Porvenir were established in the late 19th century by Western European immigrants and navigators in cruise ships and fish boats.
The Chilean government transplanted Chilean settlers from the central part of the country in the 20th century to increase the province's sparse population. Chilean Antarctic Territory Antártica Territorial claims in Antarctica Argentine Antarctica and Tierra del Fuego Province British Antarctic Territory Antarctic Treaty System Antarctic Peninsula Diego Ramirez Islands Ildefonso Islands Gobierno Regional Magallanes y Antártica Chilena Official website Gobernación Provincia de Antártica Chilena Official website Prensa Antártica - News of the Antártica Chilena Province Instituto Antártico Chileno Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve
National Statistics Institute (Chile)
The National Statistics Institute of Chile is a state-run organization of the Government of Chile, created in the second half of the 19th century and tasked with performing a general census of population and housing collecting and publishing official demographic statistics of people in Chile, in addition to other specific tasks entrusted to it by law. Its antecedents lie in the initiatives of president Manuel Bulnes and his minister, Manuel Rengifo, to draw up the second population census and obtain statistical data of the country. By Decree No. 18 March 27, 1843, the Office of Statistics was created, Ministry of the Interior to provide knowledge of the departments and provinces. It put the INE in charge of producing the national population census every 10 years, as required by the Census Act of July 12, 1843. Law No. 187 of September 17, 1847 established the office as a permanent body of the state. By 1853, it was required that each section chief of the ministries collect and submit data to the Bureau of Statistics.
Subsequently and by various legal modifications, it was called Dirección General de Estadísticas, Servicio Nacional de Estadísticas y Censos, Dirección de Estadísticas y Censos. It has called by its current name since 1970, it has been under the Ministry of Economy since 1927; the first official publication, National Repertoire, was released in 1850. It was followed by the Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Chile published without interruption from 1837 to 1866. In 1882 they published Geographical Synopsis of Chile. In 1911, they began publishing independent volumes of statistics by subject. Official website
The Valdivia River or Río Valdivia, as it is known locally, is a major river in southern Chile. It is the continuation of the Calle-Calle River, from the point where it meets the Cau-Cau River in the city of Valdivia; the Valdivia river ends on the Pacific coast. Other tributaries are the Tornagaleones River and the Futa River. Pedro de Valdivia Bridge crosses the river in downtown Valdivia. Valdivia River
Arica Province is one of two provinces of Chile's northernmost region, Arica y Parinacota. The province is bordered on the north by the Tacna Province of Peru, on the south by the Tamarugal Province in the Tarapacá Region, on the east the Parinacota Province and on the west by the Pacific Ocean, its capital is the port city of Arica. On October 8 of 2007, Law 20.175 entered into force, effective on March 23 of 2007. It was signed by President Michelle Bachelet in the city of Arica. At a ceremony held on that morning, the community received in new milestone in its history; the law divided the former Tarapacá Region into two: the northern portion became the XV Arica y Parinacota Region, the southern portion remained the I Tarapacá Region. According to the 2002 census by the National Statistics Institute, the province spans an area of 8,726.4 km2 and had a population of 186,488 inhabitants, giving it a population density of 21.4/km2. Between the 1992 and 2002 censuses, the population grew by 9.5%.
As a province, Arica is a second-level administrative division of Chile, consisting of two communes: Arica in the northern portion and Camarones in the south. The coastal city of Arica serves as the provincial capital; the province is administered by a presidentially appointed governor. José Durana Semir was appointed by president Sebastián Piñera. Official website Municipality of Arica
Arauco Province is one of four provinces of the Chilean region of Bío Bío. It spans a coastal area of 6,366 km2 just south of the mouth of the Biobío River, the traditional demarcation between the nation's major natural regions, Zona Central and Zona Sur; the province covered the once-independent indigenous territory of Araucanía, but this was afterward divided into four provinces. It is devoted to agricultural pursuits; the capital Lebu is situated on the coast about 90 km south of Concepción with which it is connected by rail. As a province, Arauco is a second-level administrative division of Chile, governed by a provincial governor, appointed by the president; the province is composed of seven communes, each governed by a municipality consisting of an elected alcalde and municipal council. According to the 2002 census by the National Statistics Institute, the province spans an area of 5,457.2 km2 and had a population of 157,255 inhabitants, giving it a population density of 28.8/km2. Of these, 117,569 lived in 39,686 in rural areas.
Between the 1992 and 2002 censuses, the population grew by 5%
Valdivia is a city and commune in southern Chile, administered by the Municipality of Valdivia. The city is named after its founder Pedro de Valdivia and is located at the confluence of the Calle-Calle and Cau-Cau Rivers 15 km east of the coastal towns of Corral and Niebla. Since October 2007, Valdivia has been the capital of Los Ríos Region and is the capital of Valdivia Province; the national census of 2002 recorded the commune of Valdivia as having 140,559 inhabitants, of whom 127,750 were living in the city. The main economic activities of Valdivia include tourism, wood pulp manufacturing, forestry and beer production; the city is the home of the Austral University of Chile, founded in 1954 and the Centro de Estudios Científicos. The city of Valdivia and the Chiloé Archipelago were once the two southernmost outliers of the Spanish Empire. From 1645 to 1740 the city depended directly on the Viceroyalty of Peru, which financed the building of the Valdivian fort system that turned Valdivia into one of the most fortified cities of the New World.
In the second half of the 19th century, Valdivia was the port of entry for German immigrants who settled in the city and surrounding areas. In 1960 Valdivia was damaged by the Great Chilean earthquake, the most powerful earthquake recorded at magnitude 9.5. Debris and destroyed buildings from the earthquake can still be found in the suburban areas. In addition, land subsidence and sediments have resulted in complex navigation challenges on the local rivers and in some areas, ruins of buildings are visible from the water; the area around Valdivia may have been populated since 12,000 – 11,800 BC, according to archaeological discoveries in Monte Verde, which would place it about a thousand years before the Clovis culture in North America. This challenges the "Clovis First" model of migration to the New World. Researchers speculate that the first inhabitants of Valdivia and Chile travelled to America by watercraft and not across a land-bridge in the Bering Strait. During at least the Middle Archaic, southern Chile was populated by indigenous groups who shared a common lithic culture called the Chan-Chan Complex, named for the archaeological site of Chan-Chan located some 35 km north of Valdivia along the coast.
By the time of the arrival of the Spanish conquistadores, Valdivia was inhabited by the Huilliche. The Huilliche and Mapuche were both referred to by the Spaniards as Araucanos, their main language was a variant of the Mapuche language. A large village called; the Huilliche called Ainilebu. Ainil seemed to have been an important trade center. Ainil may be described as "a kind of little Venice," as it had large areas of canals. Since that period, most of these waterways and wetlands have been filled; the market in Ainil received shellfish and fish from the coast, legumes from Punucapa, other foods from San José de la Mariquina, an agricultural zone northeast of Valdivia. A remnant of this ancient trade is the modern Feria Fluvial on the banks of Valdivia River; the surroundings of Valdivia were described as extensive plains having a large population that cultivated potatoes, maize and legumes, among other crops. The population has been estimated by some historians as 30 to 40 thousand inhabitants as of 1548, based on descriptions made by the conquistadors.
Pedro Mariño de Lobera, an early conquistador and chronicler, wrote that there were half a million Indians living within ten leagues from the city. Other historians consider these numbers too high and argue that early Spaniards exaggerated in their descriptions; the British naturalist Charles Darwin observed that "there is not much cleared land near Valdivia." This suggests that pre-Hispanic agriculture in Valdivia was far more extensive than the agriculture practiced in the early 19th century at the time of his visit. The first European to visit Valdivia River's estuary was the Genoese captain Juan Bautista Pastene, who took possession of it in 1544 in the name of the Spanish king, Charles V, he named the river after the Governor of Chile Pedro de Valdivia. Pedro de Valdivia travelled by land to the river described by Pastene, founded the city of Valdivia in 1552 as Santa María la Blanca de Valdivia, it was the southernmost Spanish settlement in the Americas at the time of the founding. Following the establishment of the church of Santa María la Blanca in Valdivia, more buildings were constructed.
Mariño de Lobera described it as "the second city in the Kingdom of Chile". Many of Chile's most influential conquistadors and future governors were granted land in Valdivia, such as Jerónimo de Alderete, Rodrigo de Quiroga and Pedro de Villagra, apart from the proper Pedro de Valdivia. Jerónimo de Bibar, a chronicler who witnessed the founding wrote: "Having the governor seen such good comarca and site for populate a city and riverside of such good river, having such good harbour he founded a city and named it ciudad de Valdivia, he assigned Alcaldes and a town council." After Pedro de Valdivia's death, the war with the Mapuches, called the War of Arauco, continued. The Spanish made many attempts to defeat the Mapuche and defend the cities and forts built on their territory. On March 17 of 1575 the city was damaged by a massive earthquake, it has since been likened to the Great Chilean earthquake of 1960 in t
The Cruces River is a river near Valdivia, Chile. Río Cruces originates from hills near the Villarica volcano and flows in south-west direction; the southern and final part of the river follows the Valdivian Coastal Range. At the latitude of Valdivia it is crossed by Río Cruces Bridge near its outflow into Valdivia River; the small village of Punucapa is the main centre for tourism in Río Cruces. The river flow through the cities of Loncoche and Mariquina; some of the wetlands in the river's lower flow are inside Carlos Anwandter Nature Sanctuary, a protected area that in the river that extends from Punucapa in the south to San Luis de Alba Fort in the north. Since pre-Hispanic times the river has been used by the Indians to transport food for commerce. In its early days the city of Valdivia received vegetables from villages via the Cruces River. Before Valdivia became isolated from the rest of the Spanish Empire due to the Arauco War, its main land route to Concepción was drawn following the Cruces river.
The river is home to thousands of birds. The wetlands were created when the soil that surrounded the river sunk during the Great Chilean earthquake; the wetlands The most known bird of the place is the black-necked swan. In 2004 a CELCO pulp mill opened near San José de la Mariquina, begun to contaminate the wetlands of the river