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Vale Limited

Vale Canada Limited is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Brazilian mining company Vale. Vale's nickel mining and metals division is headquartered in Toronto, Canada, it produces nickel, cobalt, rhodium, iridium and silver. Prior to being purchased by CVRD in 2006, Inco was the world's second largest producer of nickel, the third largest mining company outside South Africa and Russia of platinum group metals, it was a charter member of the 30-stock Dow Jones Industrial Average formed on October 1, 1928. The company was founded following the discovery of copper deposits in Ontario. Ore was shipped for smelting to a plant in Constable Hook, New Jersey, owned by the Orford Copper Company. Processing revealed in 1884 that the ore was rich in nickel and exploration tests revealed an enormous potential. Nickel mining started in Sudbury, Ontario in 1902, that year, the International Nickel Company, Ltd. was created in New York, NY as a joint venture between Canadian Copper, Orford Copper, American Nickel Works.

In 1916, the International Nickel Company of Canada, Ltd. was incorporated in Copper Cliff in Sudbury. S; the company built a new refinery in Port Colborne in 1918 and during the following year, the company first began using the trade name Inco. In 1928, the corporation merged with the British-owned Mond Nickel Company. A head office for Inco was established in Toronto. During World War II, Inco's Frood Mine produced 40% of the nickel used in artillery by the Allies. After the war, demand for nickel remained high because of the Korean War and the Cold War of the 1950’s. Inco maintained a machining plant located in Sterling Forest, New York; the Sterling Forest Site is now owned and occupied by International Business Machines. In 1972 the Inco Superstack was built in Sudbury. In 1976, the company’s name was changed to Inco Limited. In order to generate cash Inco sold its manufacturing sites of nickel alloys to Special Metals Corporation in 1998. Special Metals Corporation however filed Chapter 11 in March 2002.

On October 11, 2005, Inco announced a friendly takeover bid to buy out the operations of longtime rival Falconbridge for $12 billion. If approved, the deal would have made Inco the world's largest producer of nickel. Xstrata subsequently submitted a hostile takeover bid for Falconbridge, resulting in a bidding war between Inco and Xstrata; the Xstrata bid was successful, but not before Falconbridge employed a poison pill to delay the acquisition, raising its share price from $28 to $62.50 in the meantime. Teck Cominco submitted a hostile takeover bid to purchase Inco on May 8, 2006 for $16 billion if it agreed to abandon its takeover of Falconbridge. On June 26 of the same year, Phelps Dodge submitted a friendly takeover bid to purchase a combined Inco and Falconbridge for around $40 billion. On August 14, 2006 Brazilian mining company CVRD extended an all-cash offer to buy Inco for $17 billion; that offer received approval from the Canadian government's investment review agency on October 19, was accepted by Inco shareholders on October 23.

Part of the takeover deal was. Inco was delisted from the NYSE on November 16, 2006 and the TSX on January 5, 2007. According to its current web site, Inco is now a wholly owned subsidiary of Vale. Vale has since changed the name of Vale-Inco to Vale, stating the change is "a milestone that aligns it more with other Vale operations worldwide and reflects its position as part of the world’s second largest mining company"Vale is exploring as of 2015 an IPO of its base metals unit for $30–35 billion, in order to lighten its debt load. In 2006 Inco was removed from the FTSE4Good Index for failing to meet their human rights criteria; the company has had disputes with environmental concerns over mine runoff. Employees for Inco in Canada are represented by the United Steelworkers throughout all the mergers; because of the mergers, the United Steelworkers signed an agreement with all the unions that represent mining workers in countries where Vale/Inco operate to "work together cooperatively and strategically as global partners, to build the bargaining power of worker."

The unions include Confederação Nacional dos Trabalhadores no Setor Minera, SINTICIM, Union syndicale des ouvriers et employés de Nouvelle-Calédonie, Union des Syndicats des Travailleurs Kanak et Exploités, Fagforbundet for Industri og Energi, Forestry and Energy Union, the United Steelworkers. Coleman Mine, Vale's flagship nickel mine Copper Cliff North Mine Copper Cliff South Mine Creighton Mine Garson Mine Refinery in Port Colborne Clarabelle Mill Totten mine Copper Cliff Smelter Copper Cliff Nickel Refinery Birchtree Mine Thompson Mine Voisey's Bay Mine Long Harbour Nickel Processing Plant Vale Inco's Indonesian joint venture PT Inco, an Indonesian company, 20 percent publicly owned, is located in Soroako. In August 2011, a dispute began because PT Inco broke its promise to build 2 smelters in Pomala and Bahodopi in 2005 and 2010 and to hand over 50,000 hectares of its 118,000-hectare concession to locals. Based on the latest feasibility study, only the Bahodopi smelter facil

Tomato omelette

A tomato omelette is a breakfast dish prepared in Maharashtra. It is referred to as an omelette because of its visual appearance, but contains no egg product or by-product; the main ingredient is chickpea besan. Sometimes, it is made with dosa batter, with a small quantity of besan only to provide binding, in which case it is classified as Uttapam. A batter of pouring consistency is made with the flour; the mix is brushed with cooking oil and cooked on both sides. Tomato omelettes are served hot with coconut chutney, sambar or any other pickle, it has a popularity and easy availability amongst multitudes of restaurants, canteens throughout Maharashtra namely in cities like Pune, Mumbai. It is a popular dish like VJTI and Pune University. While this filling breakfast snack is available across the country, it is prepared in Maharashtrian homes along with other similar filling breakfast snacks such as thalipeeth or dhirde. Omelette Indian omelette Cheela, Indian pancake List of tomato dishes Food portal http://aahaaramonline.com/2015/02/20/tomato-omelette-vegetarian-omelet-maharashtra-recipe/ http://aahaaramonline.com/category/indian-food/maharashtrian-recipes/page/8/ http://www.aayisrecipes.com/breakfast-or-snacks/tomato-omelet-vegetarian http://chakali.blogspot.in/2008/03/tomato-omelette_07.html

Józef Sebastian Pelczar

Saint Józef Sebastian Pelczar was a Polish Roman Catholic bishop and was the co-founder of the Sister Servants of the Most Sacred Heart of Jesus which he had established in 1894 with Ludwika Szczęsna. He served in several episcopal posts and served as the Bishop of Przemyśl. Pope John Paul II - on his fourth visit to Poland - beatified Pelczar in 1991 and presided over the canonization in 2003. Józef Sebastian Pelczar was born in Poland in 1842 to Marianna Mięsowicz; as a child he felt a strong calling to serve God and so once wrote in his journal: "Earthly ideals are fading away. I see the ideal of life in sacrifice, the ideal of sacrifice in priesthood". Pelczar studied in Rzeszow and commenced his studies for the priesthood in Przemyśl in 1860. At the age of 16 he became a member of the Saint Vincent de Paul Society and of the organization known as Popular Education. After the completion of his studies, he was ordained as a priest on 17 July 1864, he was assigned to be a parish priest at Sambor.

He was transferred to Rome in 1866 for further studies and he studied at the Institute of Saint Apollinaris and at the Collegium Romanum. He gained a doctorate in canon law, he served as a professor from 1869 to 1877 and served in that role in both Przemyśl and Krakow from 1882 to 1883. Pelczar established several libraries and he delivered free lectures and published countless books, he would write on historical topics as well as on canon law. He started a school for those, he founded the Fraternity of Our Lady, Queen of the Polish Crown in 1891 with the objective of caring for the poor and for orphans as well as for the sick and those who had no job. While in Krakow in 1893 he met Ludwika Szczęsna and the two established the Sister Servants of the Most Sacred Heart of Jesus on 15 April 1894 with the aim of working with women. Pope Leo XIII appointed Pelczar as the Bishop of Przemyśl on 17 December 1900 and he was installed in 1901, he supported all religious orders. He conducted three episcopal meetings to discuss diocesan issues and worked to reform seminaries to promote better education and greater access to resources for them.

In addition to this, he built and restored churches, established nurseries, homeless shelters and schools. He ensured that the implementation of the social doctrine described in the writings of Leo XIII — such as the papal encyclical Rerum Novarum - was a top priority. Pelczar served as one of the co-consecrators at the consecration of Achille Ratti — the future Pope Pius XI on 28 October 1919. Pelczar died on 28 March 1924 with a strong reputation for holiness and was hailed as a shepherd who paid close attention to pastoral issues, it is said. The sainthood process was introduced on a formal level on 25 January 1983 despite the fact that the local process had opened and the positio had been submitted for evaluation; the local process had spanned from 26 March 1954 until 1957 which granted Pelczar16 the posthumous title of Servant of God. The positio — documentation and a biography — was submitted to the Congregation for the Causes of Saints in 1982. Pope John Paul II approved that Pelczar had lived a life of heroic virtue and declared him to be Venerable on 18 February 1989.

The miracle, required for Pelczar's beatification was investigated and was ratified on 23 June 1989. John Paul II approved the miracle on 10 July 1990 and beatified him on his visit to Poland on 2 June 1991; the pope approved the second miracle required for canonization and presided over the canonization on 18 May 2003. Hagiography Circle Saints SQPN Catholic Hierarchy Sister Servants of the Most Sacred Heart of Jesus

Periodic annual increment

In forestry, periodic annual increment is the change in the size of a tree between the beginning and ending of a growth period, divided by the number of years, designated as the growing period. For sigmoid growth, the graph of PAI increases and quickly declines, approaching zero. PAI may go negative if a tree loses volume due to disease. Periodic annual increment is used instead of current annual increment as a basis for computing growth per cent. Growth per cent indicates the rate of increase with relation to the wood capital required for its production, this is based on a single year's growth. P A I = Y 2 − Y 1 T 2 − T 1 Where: Y is the yield at times 1 and 2 and T1 represents the year starting the growth period, T2 is the end year. Example: Say that the growth period is from age 5 to age 10, the yield, is 14 feet at the beginning of the period and 34 feet at the end. Then: 34 − 14 10 − 5 = 4 f e e t / y e a r The maximum point on the curve of PAI is the same as the inflection point on a graph of yield versus time.

The inflection point is the point corresponding to the fastest change in yield. When mean annual increment and periodic annual increment are graphed together, the point in which they intersect is called the biological rotation age; the biological rotation age is the age in which a stand should be harvested to maximize long-term yield

Seward & Kissel

Seward & Kissel is an American law firm with offices in New York City and Washington, D. C., founded in 1890. Its primary expertise is in the financial services industry; the firm's clientele includes commercial banks, investment funds, institutional investors, shipping and transport companies. Noted for its “substantial hedge-fund practice,” it has been described as “the leading law firm to the industry.” As of September 2015, the firm had 160 lawyers. Seward & Kissel began as Smith & Martin and has been headquartered in downtown New York City since its founding. In 1949, the firm advised in the formation of the first hedge fund, it opened its Washington office in 1977 and its transportation and shipping practice in 1992. The firm “has remained independent since its founding in 1890, a rarity for a midsize law firm these days,” noted one financial website in 2015. Seward & Kissel takes the first half of its name from George Seward, who became a partner at Meyer, Matz & Kissel, one the previous iterations of the firm, in 1953.

He remained an active partner until 1983 and continued working at the firm until 2011. He held many leadership positions at the American Bar Association, founded the business law section of the International Bar Association, was the honorary life president of the International Bar Association, he died in 2012 at the age of 101. In September 2015, the firm celebrated its 125th anniversary by burying a time capsule outside its Battery Park offices; the plan is for the capsule to be recovered 125 years later. Managing Partner John Tavss expressed the hope “that Seward & Kissel will still be thriving in the year 2140, when this time capsule is to be opened.” Among the items placed in the time capsule were a BlackBerry, a business card, a Zagat guide, a New York City Subway map. Chambers USA 2019: 4 practices and 14 lawyers ranked. Legal 500 US 2018: 2 practices and 4 lawyers ranked. 25 lawyers ranked as SuperLawyers. The U. S. News - Best Lawyers: 4 practices nationally ranked and 5 additional practices ranked regionally.

On February 27, 2012, ruling in favor of a group of plaintiffs represented by Seward and Kissel, the Delaware Court of Chancery enjoined the sale of BankAtlantic by BankAtlantic Bancorp to Branch Bank & Trust, agreeing that the sale would violate the contractual rights of holders of BBX trust securities. “This decision is significant,” stated one report, “because it sends a message to all Banks with trust preferred securities that they cannot infringe on the rights of the TruPS holders when trying to restructure.”In May 2016, Gray Financial Group sued Seward & Kissel in a Georgia federal court for $12 million. Gray charged the firm with malpractice, saying that it had been negligent in advising Gray to sell funds to a state pension, thus rendering Gray “vulnerable to federal investigations.” In response, Seward & Kissel called the allegations “meritless and sanctionable.” The firm maintains three blogs: The Broker Dealings, which covers “legal and compliance issues related to broker-dealers and capital markets”.

In 2014, two Seward & Kissel lawyers, Denise Mazzeo and Dave Knowles, won the women's and men's races in the J. P. Morgan Corporate Challenge. Official website

Bibliothèque historique de la ville de Paris

The Bibliothèque Historique de la Ville de Paris abbreviated with the acronym BHVP, is a public library specializing in the history of the city of Paris, France. In the Hôtel Saint-Fargeau, when it was known as the Bibliothèque Saint-Fargeau, since 1969 the BHVP has been located in the Hôtel d'Angoulême Lamoignon at 24 rue Pavée, in the Marais in Paris; the old city library was located in the Paris Hôtel de Ville, which fire destroyed in May 1871. In 1872, pursuant to a bequest by Jules Cousin, the city moved to create a library devoted to the history of the capital: the Bibliothèque Historique de la Ville de Paris; the BHVP collection brings together documents dating from the 16th century through the present on the history of Paris and the Île-de-France region. The BHVP is open to the public, allowing access to one million books and booklets, 21,000 manuscripts, as well as plans and photographs that cover a variety of aspects of Paris including topographic, social, literary, etc; the BHVP is one of the specialized libraries integrated into the network of Paris municipal libraries, houses the city's historical research service.

Presentation and history of the BHVP on paris.fr On-line catalogue of the BHVP