The River Mole is a tributary of the River Thames in southern England. It rises in West Sussex near Horsham and flows northwest through Surrey for 80 km to the Thames at East Molesey, opposite Hampton Court Palace; the river gives its name to the Surrey district of Mole Valley. The Mole crosses the North Downs between Dorking and Leatherhead, where it cuts a steep-sided valley, known as the Mole Gap, through the chalk. Much of the catchment area lies on impermeable rock, meaning that the river level responds to heavy rainfall. During the second half of the 20th century pollution levels in the river were high, however since 1995 the water quality has improved and the Mole now boasts the greatest diversity of fish species of any river in England. Twelve Sites of Special Scientific Interest that include wetland habitats are located within the Mole catchment area and the stretch of river through Leatherhead has been designated a Local Nature Reserve; the Mole Gap is an SSSI of European importance.
The river has captured the imagination of several authors and poets since in hot summers the river channel can become dry between Dorking and Leatherhead. In John Speed's 1611 map of Surrey this stretch of the river is denoted by a series of hills accompanied by the legend "The river runneth under"; however the river's name is unlikely to have derived from this behaviour: The Oxford Dictionary of English Place Names suggests that Mole either comes from the Latin mola or is a back-formation from Molesey. Domesday Book lists twenty mills on the river in 1086, of which Sidlow Mill was the oldest, dating from Saxon times; the drainage area of the River Mole is 512 km2 and forms 5% of the River Thames's catchment area above Teddington. Annually the catchment area receives 761 mm of rain each year; the Mole catchment reaches a maximum elevation of 265 m above Ordnance Datum at Leith Hill to the southwest of Dorking. There is only one aquifer in the drainage basin, at Fetcham, which means that the majority of the water in the river is from surface drainage from Gatwick Airport and the urban areas of Horley and Crawley, that the flow rate responds to rainfall.
River Mole rises in Baldhorns Copse 700 m to the south of the village of Rusper in West Sussex. The river flows southwards for 1 km to a small lake at Baldhorns Park, before running eastwards through a rural area towards Crawley; the first tributaries to join the young river drain the northernmost part of St Leonard's Forest, between Horsham and Crawley, although much of the forest is in the catchment area of the River Arun. The Mole skirts the northern suburbs of Crawley where it is joined by its first major tributary, Ifield Brook, which drains Ifield Mill Pond; the first gauging station on the Mole is south of Gatwick Airport. The mean flow is 0.33 m3/s and the river ran dry at this point for the first time in the summer of 1995. The Mole runs under the airport runway in a culvert completed in 1985; the course of the Mole within the airport perimeter has been altered several times since commercial flights began in 1945. The Mole enters Surrey to the south of Horley, where it meets the Gatwick Stream, a tributary draining Worth Forest to the southeast of Crawley.
The second-largest Sewage Treatment Works in the Mole catchment is located on the Gatwick Stream 3 km upstream of the confluence with the Mole: Crawley STW discharges 15,000 m3 of water per day, in prolonged dry periods it accounts for up to 75% of the flow of the Mole downstream of the confluence. The mean flow measured at Horley gauging station is 1.40 m3/s. The Mole passes Horley to the west, flowing north towards Sidlow and entering a rural area. 0.7 km south of Sidlow the mean flow is measured as 2.21 m3/s at Kinnersley Manor gauging station. The Earlswood Brook, a tributary draining the urban area of Reigate and Redhill, joins the Mole at Sidlow; the largest STW in the Mole catchment discharges up to 118,500 m3 per day into the Earlswood Brook. From Sidlow the Mole turns north west towards Brockham. A number of minor tributaries join the river from the west and are second order streams draining the woodland and arable land between Horsham and Dorking; the 18th-century weir at Betchworth was modified in 2004 to facilitate the installation of two 27.5 kW low-head hydro turbines.
About 90% of the energy generated is fed into the regional electricity grid, while the remainder is used to supply the Betchworth Park Estate, where the weir is situated. The river leaves the Wealden Clay at Brockham, passing Betchworth Castle and flowing across greensand and Gault Clay to Pixham, 1 km north east of Dorking. A mean flow of 3.74 m3/s is measured at a fourth gauging station, located at Castle Mill. At Pixham the Mole meets a tributary draining the northeastern slopes of Leith Hill. Between Dorking and Leatherhead the Mole cuts a steep-sided valley though the North Downs, carving a 170-metre-high river cliff on the western flank of Box Hill and a smaller 50-metre cliff at Ham Bank in Norbury Park; the sudden change from i
Newlands Corner is a 103-hectare nature reserve east of Guildford in Surrey. It is owned by the Albury Estate managed by the Surrey Wildlife Trust under an access agreement between the estate and Surrey County Council; the site reaches 567 feet with hill-grazed grass slopes below interspersed with trees. There woodlands. Visible are some of the greatest prominences of the Western Greensand Ridge and the site lies on the North Downs Way. There are 129 ancient yews with a girth over 3.5m with some over 6m girth on the northern wooded slope. Some trees are so old the centre is hollow and the whole tree can be walked through. Newlands Corner was a key location in the crime writer Agatha Christie's disappearance in December 1926, her car was found in a bush overhanging a chalk pit at Newlands Corner, at the bottom of the south side of the hill. She was found some days having checked in under an alias at a hotel in Harrogate; as a result, Newlands Corner is the setting of the climax of the final scene of the Doctor Who episode "The Unicorn and the Wasp".
Drove Road at Newlands Corner is a good site in the region for amateur astronomy as it is a dark sky site close to London and its southern satellite towns. With a downhill slope facing south, the viewer faces many constellations such as Orion and Gemini in winter. Once or twice a year the Guildford Astronomical Society and other local societies hold public events at Newlands Corner with about 25 telescopes and 150 members of the public in attendance. In October 2015, Surrey County Council announced the first stage of plans to cut funding of Surrey Wildlife Trust; the plans have spawned an online petition, drawn criticism from the local residents and parish councils in the area, a “Save Newlands Corner” website. In July 2018, parking charges were introduced, although the plans for development of a restaurant and coach park have been halted. Guildford Astronomical Society
Gomshall is a village in the borough of Guildford in Surrey, England. It is on the A25 halfway between Guildford and Dorking, in Shere civil parish, reaching to Peaslake and Colmar's Hill, in 2001 recorded a human population of 3,359. Nearest places are Shere and Abinger Hammer; the River Tillingbourne flows through Gomshall. The village has a railway station, served by Great Western Railway trains running between Reading and Redhill; the Manor of Gumesele was a Saxon feudal landholding that included the present day Gomshall. Gomshall appears in Domesday Book of 1086 as Gomeselle, it was held by William the Conqueror. Its domesday assets were: 20 ploughs, 3 acres of meadow, woodland worth 30 hogs, it rendered £30. In 1154, Henry II of England divided the Manor of Gumesele into three: West Gomshall, East Gomshall and Somersbury. In 1240, West Gomshall was granted to the Cistercian Abbey of Netley in Hampshire and became known as Gomshall Netley. East Gomshall was granted to the Abbey of St Mary Graces, Tower Hill, London in 1376 and became known as Gomshall Towerhill.
For the 1380 poll tax, Gomshall had 267 names registered. The occupations written beside the names show land-holders and the usual country crafts but a high proportion of skills relating to the wool trade. Local industries developed based on the plentiful and constant water supply of the River Tillingbourne; those that survived into the 20th century, but are now gone, were corn milling, watercress growing, leather tanning. Gomshall Mill, now a public house, was the corn mill. Netley Mill pumped water for the Hurtwood Water Company for part of its existence. List of places of worship in the Borough of Guildford Guildford Borough Council English Heritage search for buildings and monuments in Gomshall
Ashford is a town in the county of Kent, England. It lies on the River Great Stour at the south edge of the North Downs, about 61 miles southeast of central London and 15.3 miles northwest of Folkestone by road. In the 2011 census, it had a population of 74,204; the name comes from the Old English æscet. It has been a market town since the Middle Ages, a regular market continues to be held. St Mary's Church in Ashford has been a local landmark since the 13th century, expanded in the 15th. Today, the church functions in a dual role as a centre for entertainment. Ashford has two grammar schools; the town has been a communications hub and has stood at the centre of five railway lines since the 19th century. The arrival of the railways contributed to the town's growth. With the opening of the international passenger station it is now a European communications centre, with new lines running between London and the Channel Tunnel; the M20 motorway links Ashford to those two destinations for road traffic.
Ashford has been marked as a place for expansion since the 1960s and appeared on several Government plans for growth. Changes have included the County Square shopping centre, the redevelopment of the Templer Barracks at Repton Park, the award-winning Ashford Designer Outlet. In the 1970s, a controversial ring road scheme and construction of the multi-storey Charter House building destroyed significant parts of the old town, though some areas were spared and preserved. There has been evidence of human habitation around Ashford since the Iron Age, with a barrow on what is now Barrow Hill dating back to 1500 BC. Two axes from the Lower Paleolithic period have been found near Ashford. During the construction of the Park Farm estate in the late 1990s, excavation in the area revealed tools from the Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic period dating back to the 7th millennium BC. A number of other Mesolithic tools were discovered during construction of the Channel Tunnel Rail Link through Ashford. During Roman Britain, iron ore was mined in the Weald and transported to Ashford where two ironworks processed the ore into a workable metal.
Archaeological studies have revealed the existence of a Roman town to the north of the current centre at the junction of Albert Road and Wall Road. The present town originates from an original settlement established in 893 AD by inhabitants escaping a Danish Viking raid, who were granted land by a Saxon Lord for their resistance; the name comes from the Old English æscet. At the time of the Domesday Book of 1086 it was still known by its original Saxon name of Essetesford; the manor was owned by Hugh de Montfort, Constable of England and companion of William the Conqueror, had a church, two mills and a value of 150 shillings at the time. One of the earliest houses in the area still in existence is Lake House at Eastwell Park to the north of the town, which contains the grave of Richard Plantagenet. Ashford's importance as an agricultural and market town grew in the 13th century, in 1243, King Henry III granted the town a charter to hold a market for livestock; the pottery industry expanded in the 13th and 14th centuries, with the main works based at what is now Potter's Corner, a few miles west of the town centre.
Evidence from examining waste suggests that production was on a large scale. The Kent Archaeological society have discovered sandy ware at this location dating from around 1125 – 1250. Jack Cade, who led the Cade's Rebellion against corrupt Royal officials in 1450, is believed to be from Ashford. In William Shakespeare's Henry VI, Part 2, Cade is shown conversing with "Dick, the Butcher from Ashford". In the 16th and 17th centuries, Ashford became known for nonconformism. A local resident, John Brown, was executed for heresy in 1511, may have inspired the namesake of the song "John Brown's Body". Thomas Smythe acquired the manor of Ashford as dowry from Queen Elizabeth I in the mid-16th century, is buried in the parish church. Dr John Wallis, the internationally recognised mathematician and one of Isaac Newton's main tutors was born in Ashford in 1616, but moved to Tenterden in 1625 to avoid the plague, he was a promising student, subsequently graduated from Emmanuel College, Cambridge. By the 1780s, local farmers had begun to hold informal market days, advertised the town's ideal location between London and the Kent Coast.
The market was held in the High Street until 1856, when local farmers and businessmen relocated to Elwick Road and formed a market company, the oldest surviving registered company in England and Wales. There is still a regular street market in the town, but the market company relocated outside Ashford town centre after part of the 19th-century site was demolished to make way for the Channel Tunnel Rail Link, it is still used by around 5,000 farmers. The Army first established a presence in Ashford in 1797 when it built a garrison on Barrow Hill, storerooms along what is now Magazine Road; the military presence was scaled back during the 19th century, though the town was still considered strategically important in the event of an invasion. The Territorial Army established a presence in Ashford in 1910. During World War I, Ashford's importance as a transport hub and its location between the continent and London made it a target for aerial bombing. A bomb fell on the railway works on 25 March 1917, killing 61 people, while the town was a target in the Battle of Britain during World War II, including an attack on 15 September 1940.
During the latter war 94 civilians were
The North Downs are a ridge of chalk hills in south east England that stretch from Farnham in Surrey to the White Cliffs of Dover in Kent. Westerham Heights, at the northern edge of the North Downs, near Bromley, South London, is the highest point in London at an elevation of 245 m; the North Downs lie within two Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty, the Surrey Hills and the Kent Downs. The North Downs Way National Trail runs along the North Downs from Farnham to Dover.'Downs' is from Old English dun, amongst other things, "hill". The word acquired the sense of "elevated rolling grassland" around the 14th century; the name contains "North" to distinguish them from a similar range of hills – the South Downs – which runs parallel to them but some 50 km to the south. The narrow spine of the Hog's Back between Farnham and Guildford forms the western extremity of the North Downs, whilst the cliffs between Folkestone and Deal terminate the ridge in the east. There are two distinct aspects, the steep south-facing escarpment and the gentle north-facing dip slope.
The southern boundary is defined by the foot of the escarpment which gives way to the flat, broad clay lands between the Downs and Greensand Ridge known as the Vale of Holmesdale. The northern boundary is less apparent but occurs where the chalk submerges below the more recent Paleocene deposits; the Downs are highest near the Kent–Surrey border reaching heights in excess of 200 m above sea level at the crest of the escarpment. The highest point is Botley Hill in Surrey at 269 m; the County top of Kent at Betsom's Hill, with a height of 251 m is located nearby, the highest point in Greater London, Westerham Heights, at 245 m is on the northern side of the same hill. East of the Medway Valley the Downs become broader and flatter, extending as far as the Isle of Thanet; the ridge is intersected by the valleys of a series of rivers: the Wey, Darent and Stour rivers. These drain much of the Weald to the south; the western rivers are tributaries of the Thames. In addition to existing rivers, the Downs are crossed by a number of wind gaps – prehistoric river valleys no longer occupied by rivers – including those at Farnham, Caterham and Hawkinge.
Except for the river valleys and wind gaps, the crest of the escarpment is continuous along its length. The dip slope is dissected by many small dry valleys, in the broad eastern part in Kent, by further river valleys such as that of the Little Stour. Leith Hill is sometimes incorrectly referred to as part of the North Downs, but it is located on the parallel Greensand Ridge and does not consist of chalk; the Downland of the North Downs consists of distinct lithostratigraphic units: The more level tops of the Downs are covered by acidic strata including a layer of Clay-with-Flints, a sandy clay with many flints, or various sands and gravels. The Chalk Group, composed entirely of chalk, a kind of soft fine-grained limestone, it is formed of three parts, the Upper Chalk, which has many flints, the Middle Chalk, with fewer flints, the Lower Chalk or Coombe Rock, with few flints. The chalk is most exposed on slopes or as cliffs, where the overlying acidic strata have been quarried or washed away.
The buried upper surface of the chalk beneath the acidic strata is eroded into pipes and pinnacles, sometimes visible in road cuttings and quarries. The Upper Greensand Formation, a whitish, limy sandstone used for building, for which it has been mined from beneath the chalk; the Upper Greensand of the North Downs is a thin bed of one or two metres thickness, it is visible at the surface. The Upper Greensand marks the southern edge of the Downs, being underlain by: The Gault Formation of stiff blue clay; the Lower Greensand Formation of the Lower Cretaceous period, containing greensand, a glauconite sand or sandstone, as well as a certain amount of silts, clays and limestone. The topography of the North Downs consists of the Chalk Group, the rock strata of the Upper Cretaceous period which in certain areas is overlain by superficial deposits of gravels or clay-with-flints. Citing Dr D. T. Aldiss of the British Geological Survey: The Greensand Ridge is separate from the Downs. Again, one has to be aware of the distinction between'greensand' and'the Greensand', a lithostratigraphic term which refers to the Lower Greensand Group.
The Lower Greensand does contain some greensand, but much silt and limestone: most of it is neither green nor sand. It forms a distinct layer below the Gault Formation and the Upper Greensand Formation which directly underlie the Chalk Group. The'Greensand Ridge' refers to one of a series of escarpments formed by the Lower Greensand. In Surrey, the Upper Greensand is thin and is not separately marked by rising ground, but elsewhere it too forms an escarpment; these groups and formations each occur in separate layers. In Surrey these dip northwards at an angle of 2 degrees or less but increasing to as much as 55 degrees in the Hog's Back area, west of Guildford; the North Downs support several important habitats. The most distinctive of these is chalk grassland, limited to steep escarpment and valley slopes; this semi-natural habitat is maintained through sheep and rabbit grazing
Wotton is a well-wooded parish with one main settlement, a small village south of the A25 between Guildford in the west and Dorking in the east. The nearest village with a small number of shops is Westcott. Wotton lies in a narrow valley, collecting the headwaters of the Tilling Bourne which has its first combined flow in the Vale of Holmesdale; the parish is long north to south, reaching to the North Downs escarpment in the north to the escarpment of the Greensand Ridge at Leith Hill in the south. Wotton Common forming the south of the parish is elevated woodland dotted with a few vernacular-style houses and has the county's only natural waterfall; the common's main settlement is Friday Street. The civil parish of Wotton is wholly within the Surrey Hills Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty and includes the small village itself, the smaller settlement of Friday Street, Leith Hill to the south and Ranmore Common to the north. Wotton lies in a small north west facing valley, amassing the headwaters of the Tilling Bourne joining together in what becomes the west of the Vale of Holmesdale.
The parish is long north to south. To the south it reaches as far as the escarpment of the Greensand Ridge at Leith Hill. Wotton appears in Domesday Book of 1086 as Odetone, it was held by Osuuold. Its domesday assets were: 5 hides, it rendered £ 7 and a half per year to a modest drop since the Norman Conquest. The English Place-Name Society volume on Surrey records early spellings of Wotton as Wodeton, Woddeton and Wodyton. In 1548 it was "Wodyngeton alias Wotton" and in 1610 it was "Wutton"; the same source explains the name as meaning "Farm by the wood", the first element being "Wood" and the final element being "tun" or farmstead. John Evelyn, the diarist was born at Wotton House in 1620, which includes two grottos in the grounds. In 1694 he moved in as the main legatee. After the Evelyn family relinquished occupation, Wotton House was leased as a training college for the Fire Service from 1947 to 1981 and after being empty for nearly 13 years, was converted into a hotel and conference centre with over 100 bedrooms.
Three areas of the house remain in the original layout and architectural style, the hotel has a building and grounds of historic importance from the 17th century. Its unusually II* graded garden and architecture for example are well documented, it has an orangery with decorative parapet and banded piers, terracotta decorations on brickwork, octagonal turrets and stacks, winged gryphons on the porch and Jean Derraux Chinese panels. The parish church of St John the Evangelist is situated in the scattered hamlet of Wotton at the end of Church Lane overlooking a broad sweep of the North Downs; the parish itself is a long finger stretching from the foot of the North Downs to Friday Street. The founding of the church dates back to Saxon times, although only a few of the original footings now remain to the west of the Norman tower. Much of the church was, of necessity, restored in Victorian times, but there are still many interesting original features to see. John and Mary Evelyn are buried in the Evelyn Chapel in the church.
At the census of 2011 there were 583 people forming 244 households in the parish. 456 persons are aged 16–74 of which 59 work in extractive or manufacturing industries and 55 run a business. There is significant gravel quarrying in the region. 94 people walk/cycle to work or work at home and 34 people use public transport to travel to work. The Wotton House hotel constitutes the largest employer, with many of the farms being arable owing to the rich soil, it caters for large weddings as well as providing business meetingss. To the north and south, on the North Downs and Leith Hill, the land is owned by the National Trust; the average level of accommodation in the region composed of detached houses was 28%, the average, apartments was 22.6%. The proportion of households in the civil parish who owned their home outright compares to the regional average of 35.1%. The proportion who owned their home with a loan compares to the regional average of 32.5%. The remaining % is made up of rented dwellings.
John Evelyn, born at Wotton House 1620, buried in the Evelyn Chapel in St John's Church, Wotton. Thomas Malthus clergyman and political economist, was curate at Oakwood Chapel in the parish of Wotton, 1789–1834. Ralph Vaughan Williams, owned Leith Hill Place until 1944. Vernon White, the noted theologian, was rector from 1987–1993. Friday Street Old photographs Wotton House website Media related to Friday Street, Surrey at Wikimedia Commons Friday Street at InfoBritain.com
Kent is a county in South East England and one of the home counties. It borders Surrey to the west and East Sussex to the south-west; the county shares borders with Essex along the estuary of the River Thames, with the French department of Pas-de-Calais through the Channel Tunnel. The county town is Maidstone. Canterbury Cathedral in Kent has been the seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury, leader of the Church of England, since the Reformation. Prior to that it was built by Catholics, dating back to the conversion of England to Catholicism by Saint Augustine that began in the 6th century. Before the English Reformation the cathedral was part of a Benedictine monastic community known as Christ Church, Canterbury, as well as being the seat of the Catholic Archbishop of Canterbury; the last Catholic Archbishop of Canterbury was Reginald Pole. Rochester Cathedral is in Kent, in Medway, it is the second-oldest cathedral in England, with Canterbury Cathedral being the oldest. Between London and the Strait of Dover, which separates it from mainland Europe, Kent has seen both diplomacy and conflict, ranging from the Leeds Castle peace talks of 1978 and 2004 to the Battle of Britain in World War II.
England relied on the county's ports to provide warships through much of its history. France can be seen in fine weather from Folkestone and the White Cliffs of Dover. Hills in the form of the North Downs and the Greensand Ridge span the length of the county and in the series of valleys in between and to the south are most of the county's 26 castles; because of its relative abundance of fruit-growing and hop gardens, Kent is known as "The Garden of England". Kent's economy is diversified. In northwest Kent industries include extraction of aggregate building materials and scientific research. Coal mining has played its part in Kent's industrial heritage. Large parts of Kent are within the London commuter belt and its strong transport connections to the capital and the nearby continent makes Kent a high-income county. Twenty-eight per cent of the county forms part of two Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty: the North Downs and The High Weald; the name Kent is believed to be of British Celtic origin and was known in Old English as Cent, Cent lond, Centrice.
In Latin sources Kent is mentioned as Canticum. The meaning is explained by some researchers as "coastal district," or "corner-land, land on the edge". If so, the name could be etymologically related to the placename Cantabria a Celtiberian-speaking coastal region in pre-Roman Iberia, today a province of Spain; the area has been occupied since the Palaeolithic era, as attested by finds from the quarries at Swanscombe. The Medway megaliths were built during the Neolithic era. There is a rich sequence of Bronze Age, Iron Age, Roman era occupation, as indicated by finds and features such as the Ringlemere gold cup and the Roman villas of the Darent valley; the modern name of Kent is derived from the Brythonic word kantos meaning "rim" or "border", or from a homonymous word kanto "horn, hook". This describes the eastern part of the current county area as coastal district. Julius Caesar had described the area as um, or home of the Cantiaci in 51 BC; the extreme west of the modern county was by the time of Roman Britain occupied by Iron Age tribes, known as the Regnenses.
Caesar wrote that the people of Kent are'by far the most civilised inhabitants of Britain'. East Kent became a kingdom of the Jutes during the 5th century and was known as Cantia from about 730 and recorded as Cent in 835; the early medieval inhabitants of the county were known as the Kent people. These people regarded the city of Canterbury as their capital. In 597, Pope Gregory I appointed the religious missionary as the first Archbishop of Canterbury. In the previous year, Augustine converted the pagan King Æthelberht of Kent to Christianity; the Diocese of Canterbury became England's first Episcopal See with first cathedral and has since remained England's centre of Christianity. The second designated English cathedral was in Kent at Rochester Cathedral. In the 11th century, the people of Kent adopted the motto Invicta, meaning "undefeated" or "unconquered"; this naming followed the invasion of Britain by William of Normandy. The Kent people's continued resistance against the Normans led to Kent's designation as a semi-autonomous county palatine in 1067.
Under the nominal rule of William's half-brother Odo of Bayeux, the county was granted similar powers to those granted in the areas bordering Wales and Scotland. Kent was traditionally partitioned into East and West Kent, into lathes and hundreds; the traditional border of East and West Kent was the Medway. Men and women from east of the Medway are Men of Kent, those from the west are Kentishmen or Kentish Maids. During the medieval and early modern period, Kent played a major role in several of England's most notable rebellions, including the Peasants' Revolt of 1381, led by Wat Tyler,Jack Cade's Kent rebellion of 1450, Wyatt's Rebellion of 1554 against Queen Mary I; the Royal Navy first used the River Medway in 1547. By the reign of Elizabeth I a small dockyard had been established at Chatham. By 1618, storehouses, a ropewalk, a drydock, houses for officials had