YouBike, or Taipei Bike Sharing System, is a public bicycle sharing service offered by the Taipei City Department of Transportation in a BOT collaboration with local manufacturer Giant Bicycles. As of 26 May 2016, service stations in the bike system are available in Taipei City, New Taipei City, Taoyuan City, Hsinchu City, Taichung City, Changhua County, Miaoli County. In Taipei City, rental is NT$5 for the first 30 minutes of use and adopts progressive tolls from NT$10 to NT$40 thereafter. No other fee, such as yearly deposit, is required. In New Taipei City, Taichung City and Changhua County, rental is free for the first 30 minutes. There is a 15-minute renewal restriction period at the station. In 2014, the system saw 22 million rentals, double the 11 million rentals the previous year, with 196 rental stations circulating 6,046 bikes. Launched in 2009, the system saw an unexpectedly small number of daily users in the trial district of Xinyi; this prompted the city's Department of Transportation to expand the system along the Taipei Metro lines and into several more districts.
The slow initial adoption of YouBike rentals was overcome through adjusting the business model, such as by lowering rates, increasing ways to open an account. In April 2015, the Taipei Department of Transportation began charging YouBike riders for the first 30 minutes of use. According to the company, each of the system’s bikes costs about NT$10,000 because they are designed to withstand frequent use; the bicycles are built to be used 13 times a day on average, much more than the twice daily use that most other bicycles average. Each bicycle has an RFID tag for theft prevention. Official Website Station Map
Dublinbikes is a public bicycle rental scheme which has operated in the city of Dublin since 2009. At its launch, the scheme, sponsored by JCDecaux, used 450 French-made unisex bicycles with 40 stations. By 2011 this had expanded to 550 bicycles and 44 stations, in 2013 it was announced that a major expansion of the scheme would add a further 950 bikes and another 58 hire points. Dublin was the 17th city to implement such a scheme, it was considered one of the most successful bike sharing schemes in the world, however in recent times progress has stalled with only 2 of 14 phases being rolled out; the scheme loses €376,000 a year, leading to further expansion of Dublin Bikes being put on hold. The scheme was announced by Dubin City Council in 2006 when JCDecaux received 72 free advertising spaces around Dublin in a 15-year deal in return for the advertising company's funding of the project. Critics argued that the deal was an expensive one when compared to Copenhagen where companies pay to have their logos attached to the bicycle.
450 bicycle stands were installed in groups of ten and twenty in forty locations around Dublin from June 2009. The scheme was opposed by An Taisce who said it was "misuse of legislation by a local authority to facilitate a private development"; the Dublinbikes scheme was launched on 13 September 2009, with around 150 ordinary cyclists embarking on their first ride behind John Tierney, Dublin City Manager, Andrew Montague, a councillor, representing the Lord Mayor of Dublin on the journey. It was announced on 18 June 2014 that Coca-Cola Zero would become a commercial partner with Dublinbikes for three years. Starting at the end of June 2014, the brand was renamed Coca-Cola Zero Dublinbikes and the Coca-Cola Zero brand was added to each individual bike in return for investment in the scheme. On 20 July 2017, Just Eat took over as the commercial partner for the next three years. Just Eat invested €2.25 million in the scheme over the three year period. This is a 15% increase on the Coca-Cola Zero investment in order to help the profitability and expansion of the service.
The brand was therefore renamed Just Eat dublinbikes and all 1,500 bikes had the new branding applied to them by August 2017. As part of the announcement, it was confirmed that an additional 15 stations would open in the city and 100 bikes would be added to the network; the scheme proved to be a great success. 1,000 people used the bicycles in the first six hours, with a further thousand people having subscribed to use them. Some 11,000 people applied in the first fortnight and Dublin City Council's supply of subscriber cards was reduced to zero, with the Council having targeted a 5,000-person uptake in the first year. More than 25,000 people had applied to take part in the scheme by March 2010. Minister for the Environment and Local Government John Gormley said after the launch this level of uptake indicated the new "mainstream" approach to cycling in Ireland. In the first ten months of the scheme, it was reported that there were over 37,000 users, over 828,000 journeys, no accidents, no vandalism, only one bike missing.
On 10 May 2010, city councillors in Dublin voted for more advertising hoardings to be used to help with payments, with more than 30,000 people having subscribed. On 14 August 2010, it was announced. By May 2011, two million journeys had been made and the scheme had expanded to 550 bicycles and 44 stations. In 2013 it was announced that a major expansion of the scheme would add a further 950 bikes and another 58 hire points. To use the system, users need to take out a subscription, which allows the subscriber an unlimited number of rentals. Subscriptions can get a Long Term Hire Card costing €25, or a 3-day ticket costing €5. Prices effective from 13 February 2017. Users authorise Dublin Bikes to charge €150 from their credit card if the bike is not returned; the first half-hour of every journey is free. See below for pricing structure: After 4 hours, every extra 30 minutes costs €2. In practice, the system is free at the point of use for Long Term subscribers as over 95% of journeys last less than 30 minutes.
Dublinbikes only accepts Chip and PIN, will not accept magnetic stripe cards such as those used in the United States. The robust bicycles are produced by the French bicycle company Mercier in Hungary and are repaired by JCDecaux, they are three-speed bicycles, fitted with Shimano Nexus gears which can be changed up and down using a twist/grip shifter on the right handlebar. A Shimano hub dynamo in the front wheel generates power for rear always-on LED lighting; the bikes are fitted with Schwalbe Marathon tyres. Other components include a locking system, an adjustable cushioned saddle, a front bicycle basket, a kick stand and a bell; each station stands for 20 to 40 bicycles. Fourteen terminals have credit card facilities enabling the user to purchase a 3-Day Ticket. If a user arrives with a rented bicycle at a station without open spots, the terminal grants another fifteen minutes of free rental time; the rental terminals display information about neighbouring dublinbike stations, including location, number of available bicycles and open stands.
A fleet of bicycle-transporting vehicles are used to redistribute bicycles between empty and full stations. In November 2010, a major five-year expansion plan was adopted due to the huge success of the scheme thus far; the plan will see the number of bike
Cycling in Madrid
The city of Madrid has been increasing in the last years its network of bicycle paths. In 2016, there were 195 km of cyling routes; the city council has planned to build 400 km more for the year 2024 despite a vocal opposition to the construction of segregated infrastructure by a significant part of the local cycling community. Madrid's cycling law explicitly states that bicycle users are expected to ride on the center of the lane and that motorists must change lanes to overtake the cyclist. According to the City Council of Madrid, the bikeways in the city can be classified into five types: bike lanes, shared-use paths, car-shared lanes, bike sidewalk-path and greenways. Other argue that there are up to 16 types of bikeways in Madrid. In Madrid, there are many kilometres of bike lanes. There are two types: non-protected; some of this bike lanes can be found in streets like Alcalá Street, Mayor Street, Santa Engracia Street or Toledo Street. Shared-use paths, are independent paths shared by pedestrians.
In Madrid, ciclists can not run faster than 15 km/h in this shared-use paths. The most important shared-use path is Madrid Río, a park located in the banks of the Manzanares River and opened in 2011. Car-shared lanes and streets are frecuent in Madrid, they are marked with the drawing of a bicycle on the pavement, they are speed limited to 30 km/h. In Madrid, there are many bike sidewalk paths; some are located in Serrano Street. Greenways are independent cycle routes, for example the Royal Route GR-124. BiciMAD is a public service of bicycle-sharing, it began operations in 2014 and it comprises with 123 stations and 1580 bicycles. La Vuelta a España, Spain's most popular cycling competition, always ends in Madrid; the Anillo Verde Ciclista is a bikeway. It is 64 kilometres long, the average time to go across it is 4 hours and a half, it was built by phases, between the year 1995 and 2007. Madrid Río is a park located in the banks of the Manzanares River, it opened in 2011, it is crossed by a cycle route shared with pedestrians
Santander Cycles is a public bicycle hire scheme in London and Milton Keynes United Kingdom. The scheme's bicycles are popularly known as Boris Bikes, after Boris Johnson, the Mayor of London when the scheme was launched; the operation of the scheme is contracted by Transport for London to Serco. Bikes and docking stations are provided by 8D Technologies; the scheme is sponsored, with Santander UK being the main sponsor from April 2015. Barclays Bank was the first sponsor, from 2010 to March 2015. Credit for developing and enacting the scheme has been a source of debate. Johnson has taken credit for the plan, although the initial concept was announced by his predecessor Ken Livingstone, during the latter's term in office. Livingstone said that the programme would herald a "cycling and walking transformation in London" and Johnson said that he "hoped the bikes would become as common as black cabs and red buses in the capital". A study showed cyclists using the scheme are three times less to be injured per trip than cyclists in London as a whole due to motorists giving cycle hire users more road space than they do other cyclists.
Moreover, recent customer research showed that 49 per cent of Cycle Hire members say that the scheme has prompted them to start cycling in London. More than 73.5 million journeys have been made using the cycles since 2010, with the record for cycle hires in a single day of 73,000. In August 2007 the Mayor of London, Ken Livingstone, announced that he was planning to implement a cycle hire scheme modelled on the successful Vélib' network in Paris. Following discussions with the Mayor of Paris, Livingstone instructed transport officials to study the Paris and similar schemes, draw up proposals for London. Discussions were conducted between Transport for London, the London boroughs and transport commissioners from Lyon, Vienna, Munich and Copenhagen. In February 2008, plans for the London cycle hire scheme were unveiled by Livingstone; the CTC and Green Party hailed the proposals as revolutionary. The scheme commenced operations as Barclays Cycle Hire in July 2010 with 5,000 bicycles and 315 docking stations distributed across the City of London area and parts of eight London boroughs.
The scheme was at first located within the central zone bounded by the'Zone 1' area of the Transport for London zoning system, the initial target was for it to comprise 400 docking stations when complete, at 300-metre intervals. The initial planning and implementation costs were expected to total more than £140 million over the first six years of the project, exclusive of operating costs; the scheme required initial payment of registration and membership fees to be paid in exchange for an electronic access key, but on 3 December 2010 this was changed to allow casual cycle hires by non-members who have a valid credit or debit card. The project was expected to cost £140 million for planning and implementation over six years the only TfL system to fund its annual cost of operation, a goal estimated to take two to three years. The'on the road' cost of each bike is £28,000 per bicycle, with the docking stations themselves costing around £200,000 to install. Between December 2010 and the end of May 2013, the scheme had registered 22 million rides without a death.
The first fatality of a user of the scheme occurred in July 2013. A 20-year-old woman, Philippine De Gerin-Ricard, was killed outside Aldgate East Underground station after being struck by a lorry, prompting a protest ride calling for improved separation between cycle routes and other traffic. Owing to the success of the scheme, major expansions have taken place to increase the number of bikes and docking stations across London; the first major expansion was in March 2012, with a significant expansion in east London in Tower Hamlets and Hackney, with a minor expansion westwards to the new Westfield London shopping centre in Shepherds Bush. This expansion added 4,800 docking points. In December 2013, the scheme received a further significant expansion in west and south west London; this expansion added 2,000 more bikes and 150 new docking points, with new stations in the boroughs of Wandsworth, Hammersmith & Fulham and Kensington & Chelsea. In 2015, sponsorship of the scheme transferred from Barclays to Santander, with the branding of the scheme becoming Santander Cycles.
The scheme has continued to expand in recent years - to the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park in January 2016, Brixton in February 2018. The scheme now spreads across 100 square kilometres of London - the largest cycle hire scheme in Europe - with over 11,000 bikes and 800 stations. Regular users of the scheme can register on the TfL website and buy access for 24 hours, 7 days, or one year. Users are posted a key to operate the docking stations; the key allows a cycle to be released from the docking station. On 3 December 2010 the scheme was extended to casual users who are not members of the scheme but hold major payment cards; the cost is the same to members and casual users, except that casual use for one year is not available. A credit or debit card can be used in a docking station to release a bicycle. Access for 24 hours or 7 days can be purchased. Cycles may be rented at any time during the access period. Usage charges, additional to the access charge, are weighted to favour shorter use. Bicycles may be used any number of times within the access period, each use charged according to its duration.
The original bicycles were built by Cycles Devinci to the following specification: Puncture-resistant
Vienna is the federal capital and largest city of Austria, one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primate city, with a population of about 1.9 million, its cultural and political centre. It is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union; until the beginning of the 20th century, it was the largest German-speaking city in the world, before the splitting of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in World War I, the city had 2 million inhabitants. Today, it has the second largest number of German speakers after Berlin. Vienna is host to many major international organizations, including the United Nations and OPEC; the city is located in the eastern part of Austria and is close to the borders of the Czech Republic and Hungary. These regions work together in a European Centrope border region. Along with nearby Bratislava, Vienna forms a metropolitan region with 3 million inhabitants. In 2001, the city centre was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In July 2017 it was moved to the list of World Heritage in Danger.
Apart from being regarded as the City of Music because of its musical legacy, Vienna is said to be "The City of Dreams" because it was home to the world's first psychoanalyst – Sigmund Freud. The city's roots lie in early Celtic and Roman settlements that transformed into a Medieval and Baroque city, the capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, it is well known for having played an essential role as a leading European music centre, from the great age of Viennese Classicism through the early part of the 20th century. The historic centre of Vienna is rich in architectural ensembles, including Baroque castles and gardens, the late-19th-century Ringstraße lined with grand buildings and parks. Vienna is known for its high quality of life. In a 2005 study of 127 world cities, the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked the city first for the world's most liveable cities. Between 2011 and 2015, Vienna was ranked second, behind Melbourne. In 2018, it replaced Melbourne as the number one spot. For ten consecutive years, the human-resource-consulting firm Mercer ranked Vienna first in its annual "Quality of Living" survey of hundreds of cities around the world.
Monocle's 2015 "Quality of Life Survey" ranked Vienna second on a list of the top 25 cities in the world "to make a base within."The UN-Habitat classified Vienna as the most prosperous city in the world in 2012/2013. The city was ranked 1st globally for its culture of innovation in 2007 and 2008, sixth globally in the 2014 Innovation Cities Index, which analyzed 162 indicators in covering three areas: culture and markets. Vienna hosts urban planning conferences and is used as a case study by urban planners. Between 2005 and 2010, Vienna was the world's number-one destination for international congresses and conventions, it attracts over 6.8 million tourists a year. The English name Vienna is borrowed from the homonymous Italian version of the city's name or the French Vienne; the etymology of the city's name is still subject to scholarly dispute. Some claim that the name comes from Vedunia, meaning "forest stream", which subsequently produced the Old High German Uuenia, the New High German Wien and its dialectal variant Wean.
Others believe that the name comes from the Roman settlement name of Celtic extraction Vindobona meaning "fair village, white settlement" from Celtic roots, vindo-, meaning "bright" or "fair" – as in the Irish fionn and the Welsh gwyn –, -bona "village, settlement". The Celtic word Vindos may reflect a widespread prehistorical cult of a Celtic God. A variant of this Celtic name could be preserved in the Czech and Polish names of the city and in that of the city's district Wieden; the name of the city in Hungarian, Serbo-Croatian and Ottoman Turkish has a different Slavonic origin, referred to an Avar fort in the area. Slovene-speakers call the city Dunaj, which in other Central European Slavic languages means the Danube River, on which the city stands. Evidence has been found of continuous habitation in the Vienna area since 500 BC, when Celts settled the site on the Danube River. In 15 BC the Romans fortified the frontier city they called Vindobona to guard the empire against Germanic tribes to the north.
Close ties with other Celtic peoples continued through the ages. The Irish monk Saint Colman is buried in Melk Abbey and Saint Fergil served as Bishop of Salzburg for forty years. Irish Benedictines founded twelfth-century monastic settlements. Evidence of these ties persists in the form of Vienna's great Schottenstift monastery, once home to many Irish monks. In 976 Leopold I of Babenberg became count of the Eastern March, a 60-mile district centering on the Danube on the eastern frontier of Bavaria; this initial district grew into the duchy of Austria. Each succeeding Babenberg ruler expanded the march east along the Danube encompassing Vienna and the lands east. In 1145 Duke Henry II Jasomirgott moved the Babenberg family residence from Klosterneuburg in Lower Austria to Vienna. From that time, Vienna remained the center of the Babenberg dynasty. In 1440 Vienna became the resident city of the Habsburg dynasty, it grew to become the de facto capital of the Holy Roman Empire in 1437 and a cultural centre for arts and science and fine cuisine.
Hungary occupied the city between 1485 and 1490. In the 16th and 1
Pay and display
A pay and display machine is a type of ticket machine used for regulating parking in urban areas or in car parks. It relies on a customer purchasing a ticket from a machine and displaying the ticket on the dashboard, windscreen or passenger window of the vehicle. Details included on a printed ticket are the location and operator of the machine, expiry time, fee paid and time entered; the first generation of pay and display machines in the United States was introduced in 1950 by Park-UR-Self, based in San Francisco, California. Park-Ur-Self has grown to become the leading manufacturer of pay and display machines in the United States and now goes by the name Ventek International Pay and display systems differ from road-side parking meters in that one machine can service multiple vehicle spaces, resulting in lower set up costs. In addition, this system theoretically prevents drivers from taking advantage of parking meters that have time remaining. In addition and display machines can accept a wider variety of coins, many accept credit cards, making it unnecessary for drivers to carry large amounts of change.
The use of credit cards has another advantage - the machines do not have to be emptied of coins as and the costs of counting coin and possible pilfering by employees who empty the parking meters reduces their overall costs. In the UK pay and display is used for both on-street parking control and parking in car parks and multi-storey car parks where access barrier systems are not installed. Pay on foot is a variant where the driver is issued with a ticket at a barrier upon entering the car park. At the end of their stay the driver inserts the ticket into a machine which calculates the amount based on the duration of stay; the driver exits the car park by inserting the paid ticket into another barrier. This system means. Progressions of pay and display include pay by phone parking and Pay by Plate, where payment is linked to a specific vehicle registration plate. Coupon parking is a variation of display without the use of machines. To use a parking coupon, the motorist has to tear off tabs of the date and time, or scratch off panels on the date and time in which he/she leaves the vehicle.
This process is similar to disc parking, except that a parking disc is reusable whereas a coupon can only be used once. In the Republic of Ireland, reusable free-parking discs are unknown and parking coupons are called "parking discs"; the coupon is hung from the top of a door window facing the roadside. Multiple coupons are used if the parking time exceeds the allowance given for a single coupon, though this is not always permitted; the system is used in Singapore and Brazil, in parts of some countries such as New Zealand, Austria and Israel. Decriminalised parking enforcement Parking guidance and information Pay by phone parking
Lyon is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France. It is located in the country's east-central part at the confluence of the rivers Rhône and Saône, about 470 km south from Paris, 320 km north from Marseille and 56 km northeast from Saint-Étienne. Inhabitants of the city are called Lyonnais. Lyon had a population of 513,275 in 2015, it is the capital of the region of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes. The Lyon metropolitan area had a population of 2,265,375 in 2014, the second-largest urban area in France; the city is known for its cuisine and gastronomy, historical and architectural landmarks. Lyon was an important area for the production and weaving of silk. Lyon played a significant role in the history of cinema: it is where Auguste and Louis Lumière invented the cinematograph, it is known for its light festival, the Fête des Lumières, which begins every 8 December and lasts for four days, earning Lyon the title of Capital of Lights. Economically, Lyon is a major centre for banking, as well as for the chemical and biotech industries.
The city contains a significant software industry with a particular focus on video games, in recent years has fostered a growing local start-up sector. Lyon hosts the international headquarters of Interpol, the International Agency for Research on Cancer and Euronews, it was ranked 19th globally and second in France for innovation in 2014. It ranked second in 39th globally in Mercer's 2015 liveability rankings. According to the historian Dio Cassius, in 43 BC, the Roman Senate ordered the creation of a settlement for Roman refugees of war with the Allobroges; these refugees had been expelled from Vienne and were now encamped at the confluence of the Saône and Rhône rivers. The foundation was built on Fourvière hill and called Colonia Copia Felix Munatia, a name invoking prosperity and the blessing of the gods; the city became referred to as Lugdunum. The earliest translation of this Gaulish place-name as "Desired Mountain" is offered by the 9th-century Endlicher Glossary. In contrast, some modern scholars have proposed a Gaulish hill-fort named Lugdunon, after the Celtic god Lugus, dúnon.
The Romans recognised that Lugdunum's strategic location at the convergence of two navigable rivers made it a natural communications hub. The city became the starting point of the principal Roman roads in the area, it became the capital of the province, Gallia Lugdunensis. Two Emperors were born in this city: Claudius, whose speech is preserved in the Lyon Tablet in which he justifies the nomination of Gallic Senators, Caracalla. Early Christians in Lyon were martyred for their beliefs under the reigns of various Roman emperors, most notably Marcus Aurelius and Septimius Severus. Local saints from this period include Blandina and Epipodius, among others. In the second century AD, the great Christian bishop of Lyon was Irenaeus. To this day, the archbishop of Lyon is still referred to as "Primat des Gaules". Burgundians fleeing the destruction of Worms by the Huns in 437 were re-settled at Lugdunum. In 443 the Romans established the Kingdom of the Burgundians, Lugdunum became its capital in 461.
In 843, by the Treaty of Verdun, Lyon went to the Holy Roman Emperor Lothair I. It was made part of the Kingdom of Arles. Lyon did not come under French control until the 14th century. Fernand Braudel remarked, "Historians of Lyon are not sufficiently aware of the bi-polarity between Paris and Lyon, a constant structure in French development...from the late Middle Ages to the Industrial Revolution". In the late 15th century, the fairs introduced by Italian merchants made Lyon the economic counting house of France; the Bourse, built in 1749, resembled a public bazaar where accounts were settled in the open air. When international banking moved to Genoa Amsterdam, Lyon remained the banking centre of France. During the Renaissance, the city's development was driven by the silk trade, which strengthened its ties to Italy. Italian influence on Lyon's architecture is still visible among historic buildings. In the 1400s and 1500s Lyon was a key centre of literary activity and book publishing, both of French writers and of Italians in exile.
In 1572, Lyon was a scene of mass violence by Catholics against Protestant Huguenots in the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre. Two centuries Lyon was again convulsed by violence when, during the French Revolution, the citizenry rose up against the National Convention and supported the Girondins; the city was besieged by Revolutionary armies for over two months before surrendering in October 1793. Many buildings were destroyed around the Place Bellecour, while Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois and Joseph Fouché administered the execution of more than 2,000 people; the Convention ordered that its name be changed to "Liberated City" and a plaque was erected that proclaimed "Lyons made war on Liberty. A decade Napoleon ordered the reconstruction of all the buildings demolished during this period; the Convention was not the only target within Lyon during the 1789-1799 French Revolution. After the National Convention faded into history, the French Directory appeared and days after the September 4, 1797, Coup of 18 Fructidor, a Directory's commissioner was assassinated in Ly