In political science, a communist party is a political party that seeks to realize the social and economic goals of Communism through revolution and state policy. The term communist party was popularized by the title of the Manifesto of the Communist Party, by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels; as a vanguard party, the communist party guides the political education and development of the working class. Lenin developed the role of the communist party as the revolutionary vanguard, when social democracy in Imperial Russia was divided into ideologically opposed factions, the Bolshevik faction and the Menshevik faction. To be politically effective, Lenin proposed a small vanguard party managed with democratic centralism, which allowed centralized command of a disciplined cadre of professional revolutionaries. In contrast, the Menshevik faction included Trotsky, who said that the party should not neglect the importance of the mas populations in realizing a communist revolution. In the course of revolution, the Bolshevik party became the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, assumed government power in Russia after the October Revolution in 1917.
With the creation of the Communist International in 1919, the concept of "communist party leadership" was adopted by many revolutionary parties, worldwide. In effort to ideologically standardize the international Communist movement and maintain central control of the member parties, the Comintern required that parties identify as a Communist party. In the CPSU, the interpretations of Orthodox Marxism to Russia produced Leninist and Marxist-Leninist political parties. After the death of Lenin, the official interpretation of Leninism in the USSR was the book Foundations of Leninism, by Joseph Stalin. Communist parties are illegal in Estonia and Iran, Latvia and Myanmar, Poland and South Korea, Ukraine and Hungary. In the U. S. the Communist Party USA is banned under authority of the Communist Control Act of 1954, never enforced. As the membership of a Communist party was to be limited to active cadres in Lenin's theory, there was a need for networks of separate organizations to mobilize mass support for the party.
Communist parties have built up various front organizations whose membership is open to non-Communists. In many countries the single most important front organization of the Communist parties has been its youth wing. During the time of the Communist International, the youth leagues were explicit Communist organizations, using the name'Young Communist League'; the youth league concept was broadened in many countries, names like'Democratic Youth League' were adopted. Some trade unions and students', women's, grifters', peasants', cultural organizations have been connected to communist parties. Traditionally, these mass organizations were politically subordinated to the political leadership of the party. However, in many contemporary cases mass organizations founded by communists have acquired a certain degree of independence. In some cases mass organizations have outlived the Communist parties in question. At the international level, the Communist International organized various international front organizations, such as the Young Communist International, Krestintern, International Red Aid, etc.
These organizations were dissolved in the process of deconstruction of the Communist International. After the Second World War new international coordination bodies were created, such as the World Federation of Democratic Youth, International Union of Students, World Federation of Trade Unions, Women's International Democratic Federation and the World Peace Council. In countries where Communist Parties were struggling to attain state power, the formation of wartime alliances with non-Communist parties and wartime groups was enacted. Upon attaining state power these Fronts were transformed into nominal "National" or "Fatherland" Fronts in which non-communist parties and organizations were given token representation, the most popular examples of these being the National Front of East Germany and the United Front of the People's Republic of China. Other times the formation of such Fronts were undertaken without the participation of other parties, such as the Socialist Alliance of Working People of Yugoslavia and the National Front of Afghanistan, though the purpose was the same: to promote the Communist Party line to non-communist audiences and to mobilize them to carry out tasks within the country under the aegis of the Front.
Recent scholarship has developed the comparative political study of global communist parties by examining similarities and differences across historical geographies. In particular, the rise of revolutionary parties, their spread internationally, the appearance of charismatic revolutionary leaders and their ultimate demise during the decline and fall of communist parties worldwide have all been the subject of investigation. A uniform naming scheme for Communist parties was adopted by the Communist International. All parties were required to use the name'Communist Party of', resulting in separate communist parties in some countries operating using homonymous party names. Today, there are a few cases where the original section
Sylvia Townsend Warner
Sylvia Townsend Warner was an English novelist and poet. She made a contribution to musicology as a young woman. Sylvia Nora Townsend Warner was born at Harrow on the Hill, the only child of George Townsend Warner and his wife Eleanor "Nora" Mary, her father was a house-master at Harrow School and was, for many years, associated with the prestigious Harrow History Prize, renamed the Townsend Warner History Prize in his honour, after his death in 1916. As a child, Townsend Warner was home-schooled by her father, she enjoyed a idyllic childhood in rural Devonshire, but was affected by her father's death. She moved to London and worked in a munitions factory at the outbreak of World War I, her first major success was the novel Lolly Willowes. In 1923, she met T. F. Powys, whose writing influenced her own and whose work she in turn encouraged, it was at Powys' home that Warner, in 1930, first met a young poet. Alarmed by the growing threat of fascism, they were active in the Communist Party, she participated in the II International Congress of Writers for the Defense of Culture, held in Valencia between July 4 and 17, 1937, while serving in the Red Cross during the Spanish Civil War.
They lived together from 1930 until Ackland's death in 1969. Ackland and Warner are buried together at Chaldon Herring, Dorset. Early in her career Warner researched 16th century music. From 1917 she was in regular employment as one of the editors of Tudor Church Music, ten volumes published by Oxford University Press in the 1920s with the support of the Carnegie UK Trust; the lead editor was Sir Richard Terry, who as the Master of Music at Westminster Cathedral, had been a pioneer in the revival of Tudor vocal repertoire. Warner obtained the work as the protegee of her lover and music teacher Sir Percy Buck, on the editorial committee. Warner was involved in travelling to study source material and in transcribing the music into modern musical notation for publication. Warner wrote a section on musical notation for the Oxford History of Music. In 1934 she published a joint collection of poems with Ackland, Whether a Seagull, she was encouraged to write fiction by David Garnett. Warner's novels included Lolly Willowes, Mr Fortune's Maggot, Summer Will Show, The Corner That Held Them.
Recurring themes are evident in a number of her works. These include a rejection of Christianity. Mr Fortune's Maggot, about a missionary in the Pacific Islands, has been described as a "satirical, anti-imperialist novel". In Summer Will Show, the heroine, Sophia Willoughby, travels to Paris during the 1848 Revolution and falls in love with a woman; the Corner That Held Them focuses on the lives of a community of nuns in a medieval convent. Warner's short stories include the collections A Moral Ending and Other Stories, The Salutation, More Joy in Heaven, The Cat's Cradle Book, A Garland of Straw, The Museum of Cheats. Winter in the Air, A Spirit Rises, A Stranger with a Bag, The Innocent and the Guilty, One Thing Leading to Another, her final work was a series of linked short stories set in the supernatural Kingdoms of Elfin. Many of these stories were published in The New Yorker. In addition to fiction, Warner wrote anti-fascist articles for such leftist publications as Time and Tide and Left Review.
After the death of the novelist T. H. White, Warner was given access to his papers, she published a biography which The New York Times declared "a small masterpiece which may well be read long after the writings of its subject have been forgotten." White's long-time friend and literary agent, David Higham, questioned Warner's work, suggesting a bias in her approach due to her own homosexuality: he gave Warner the address of one of White's lovers "so that she could get in touch with someone so important in Tim's story. But she never, the girl told me, took that step. So she was able to present Tim in such a light. A heterosexual affair would have made her blush."Warner produced several books of poetry, including Opus 7, a book-length pastoral poem about an elderly female flower-seller. Although Warner never wrote an autobiography, Scenes of Childhood was compiled after her death on 1 May 1978 at age 84, based on short reminiscences published over the years in the New Yorker, she translated Contre Sainte-Beuve by Marcel Proust from the original French into English.
In the 1970s, she became known as a significant writer of feminist or lesbian sentiment, her novels were among the earlier ones to be revived by Virago Press. Selected letters of Warner and Valentine Ackland have been published twice: Wendy Mulford edited a collection titled This Narrow Place in 1988, ten years Susanna Pinney published another selection, I’ll Stand by You. Tudor Church Music. Edited by R. R. Terry, etc. Lolly Willowes Mr Fortune's Maggot The True Heart Summer Will Show After the Death of Don Juan The Corner That Held Them The Flint Anchor The Maze: A Story To Be Read Aloud Some World Far From Ours.
Elizabeth Wade White
Elizabeth Wade White was an American author and activist. She was a lover of Valentine Ackland and wrote The Life of Anne Bradstreet: The Tenth Muse, about the early American poet and first American writer to be published in the Thirteen Colonies. Elizabeth Wade White was born at 107 Prospect Street, Connecticut, the first child of William Henry White and Mary Elizabeth Wade, she had Henry Wade White. Her paternal grandfather was George Luther White, one of the leading American paper box manufacturers and a stockholder of White & Wells and L. C. White Co, his estate amounted to half a million dollars which, at the time of his wife's death, Julia Phelps Haring, became $1.67 million. Her maternal grandfather was Henry Lawton Wade, a stockholder of the Waterbury Clock Company who left $1.75 million to his two daughters and Mary, Elizabeth's mother. The Wade and White families descended from the Puritans; the Whites were well-off and in addition to the Prospect Street house they owned a country house at Breakneck Hill, Middlebury and another house at Bass Rocks, Massachusetts.
They owned a house and shooting camp in Middleton, South Carolina, Strawberry Hill House, 30 miles north of Savannah, inherited by Henry Wade. White attended Westover School in Middlebury. White's closest female friend was Katherine Bullock, daughter of Calvin Bullock from Denver, who attended Westover, they remained life-long friends and White was a guest at the 18th-century Royalston, Massachusetts houses Bullock's father bought and restored. Bullock married Henry P. Cole from Denver, White was the godmother of their first child. After graduation, White made her debut into society in December 1925 at a reception given at the Waterbury Club. Early in 1927, White attended the Miss Risser's school in Rome together with her cousin, Helen "Henny" Chase Streeter, daughter of Edward Clark Streeter and Alice Chase, who married John Bertram Whitelaw. After Rome, White attended school in New York City to study sculpture. In 1937, White with her brother Henry and their friend, George Heard Hamilton, attended the coronation of George VI.
In the 1930s, White supported his New Deal program. She conducted investigations in industrial and mining towns to understand labor conditions there, her father did not approve of her support for Roosevelt. In 1937, White moved to Dorset, ostensibly to conduct a research on Anne Bradstreet, an early American poet and the first American writer to be published in the Thirteen Colonies; this was an excuse used with her family. Back in Connecticut, White had raised $1180 for the Spanish Medical Aid Committee. Between 1937 and 1938, White traveled many times to Spain, while her parents urged her to return to the United States. White rented a house in Dorset and continued to support Spain's cause hosting refugees. At the beginning of World War II, White went back to the United States, living in New York City and volunteering for the American Red Cross as an ambulance driver, she tried to raise awareness of the Russian War Relief effort. For her support of the Soviets, White was excluded from her mother's will: Mary left everything to her son, White's brother Henry, with the agreement that Henry was to be the manager of her sister's part of inheritance.
Henry did not share his mother's concerns, as soon as possible, he passed the property of the "Patch", the house Mary had inherited from her own mother, where White was living, to White, as well with her share of money. At the end of the 1940s, White became active in the Progressive Party, she was involved in the Communism movement, was a supporter of the 1948 presidential campaign of Henry A. Wallace. Late in 1938, White had a nervous breakdown and spent the Christmas season at Ackland and Warner's home in Dorset. In For Sylvia: An Honest Account, Ackland tries to explain her affair with White. White was a supporter of a painter friend of Ackland. For this reason she was in contact with Peter Pears, collecting Craske's works, she donated her papers about the artists to the Aldeburgh Festival Archive. In 1939 White met Evelyn Virginia Holahan and they shared an apartment in Greenwich Village. Holahan was from Rochester, New York, moved to New York City to work at Benton & Bowles, an advertising agency.
Holahan's older sister was Elizabeth Holahan, a famous interior decorator with several historical restorations in New York State to her credit. She met Ackland in Dorset, where Holahan arrived to retrieve her sister, who had followed Llewelyn Powys, British novelist and essayist, Ackland's neighbor, to England. From the correspondence between Holahan and Ackland, it appears that they were having an affair at the time. In May 1939 White accompanied Ackland to the New York pier after a visit, there White met Holahan. At the end of 1945, White moved back to Middlebury, living at "The Patch", the house her grandmother, Martha Starkweat
Dorchester is the county town of Dorset, England. It is situated between Bridport on the A35 trunk route. A historic market town, Dorchester is on the banks of the River Frome to the south of the Dorset Downs and north of the South Dorset Ridgeway that separates the area from Weymouth, 7 miles to the south; the area around the town was first settled in prehistoric times. The Romans established a garrison there after defeating the Durotriges tribe, calling the settlement that grew up nearby Durnovaria. After the departure of the Romans, the town diminished in significance, but during the medieval period became an important commercial and political centre, it was the site of the "Bloody Assizes" presided over by Judge Jeffreys after the Monmouth Rebellion, the trial of the Tolpuddle Martyrs. In the 2011 census, the population of Dorchester was 19,060, with further people coming from surrounding areas to work in the town which has six industrial estates; the Brewery Square redevelopment project is taking place in phases, with other development projects planned.
The town has a land-based college, Kingston Maurward College, the Thomas Hardye Upper School, three middle schools and thirteen first schools. The Dorset County Hospital offers an accident and emergency service, the town is served by two railway stations. Through vehicular traffic is routed round the town by means of a bypass; the town has a football club and a rugby union club, several museums and the biannual Dorchester Festival. It is twinned with three towns in Europe; as well as having many listed buildings, a number of notable people have been associated with the town. It was for many years the home and inspiration of the author Thomas Hardy, whose novel The Mayor of Casterbridge uses a fictionalised version of Dorchester as its setting. Dorchester's roots stem back to prehistoric times; the earliest settlements were about 2 miles southwest of the modern town centre in the vicinity of Maiden Castle, a large Iron Age hill fort, one of the most powerful settlements in pre-Roman Britain. Different tribes lived there from 4000 BC.
The Durotriges were to have been there when the Romans arrived in Britain in 43 AD. The Romans defeated the local tribes by 70 AD and established a garrison that became the town the Romans named Durnovaria, a Brythonic name incorporating durn, "fist", loosely interpreted as'place with fist-sized pebbles', it appears to have taken part of its name from the local Durotriges tribe. Durnovaria was recorded in the 4th-century Antonine Itinerary and became a market centre for the surrounding countryside, an important road junction and staging post, subsequently one of the twin capitals of the Celtic Durotriges tribe; the remains of the Roman walls that surrounded the town can still be seen. The majority have been replaced by pathways that form a square inside modern Dorchester known as'The Walks'. A small segment of the original wall remains near the Top'o Town roundabout. Other Roman remains include part of the town walls and the foundations of a town house near the county hall. Modern building works within the walls have unearthed.
Other Roman finds include silver and copper coins known as Dorn pennies, a gold ring, a bronze figure of the Roman god Mercury and large areas of tessellated pavement. The County Museum contains many Roman artefacts; the Romans built an aqueduct to supply the town with water. It was rediscovered in 1900 as the remains of a channel cut into the chalk and contouring round the hills; the source is believed to be the River Frome at Notton, about 12 miles upstream from Dorchester. Near the town centre is Maumbury Rings, an ancient British henge earthwork converted by the Romans for use as an amphitheatre, to the north west is Poundbury Hill, another pre-Roman fortification. Little evidence exists to suggest continued occupation after the withdrawal of the Roman administration from Britain; the name Durnovaria survived into Old Welsh as Durngueir, recorded by Asser in the 9th century. The area remained in British hands until the mid-7th century and there was continuity of use of the Roman cemetery at nearby Poundbury.
Dorchester has been suggested as the centre of a sub-kingdom of Dumnonia or other regional power base. One of the first raids of the Viking era may have taken place near Dorchester around 790. According to a chronicler, the King's reeve assembled a few men and sped to meet them thinking that they were merchants from another country; when he arrived at their location, he admonished them and instructed that they should be brought to the royal town. The Vikings slaughtered him and his men. By 864, the area around Durnovaria was dominated by the Saxons who referred to themselves as Dorsaetas,'People of the Dor' – Durnovaria; the original local name would have been Dorn-gweir giving the Old English Dornwary. The town became known as Dornwaraceaster or Dornwaracester, combining the original name Dor/Dorn from the Latin and Celtic languages with cester, an Old English word for a Roman station; this name evolved over time to Dorchester. At the time of the Norman conquest, Dorchester was not a place of great significance.
A priory was founded, in 1364, though this has since disappeared. In the medieval period the town prospered. In the time of Edward III, the town was governed by bailiffs and burgesses, with the number of
Liberal Party (UK)
The Liberal Party was one of the two major parties in the United Kingdom with the opposing Conservative Party in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The party arose from an alliance of Whigs and free trade Peelites and Radicals favourable to the ideals of the American and French Revolutions in the 1850s. By the end of the 19th century, it had formed four governments under William Gladstone. Despite being divided over the issue of Irish Home Rule, the party returned to government in 1905 and won a landslide victory in the following year's general election. Under Prime Ministers Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman and H. H. Asquith, the Liberal Party passed the welfare reforms that created a basic British welfare state. Although Asquith was the party's leader, its dominant figure was David Lloyd George. Asquith was overwhelmed by the wartime role of coalition Prime Minister and Lloyd George replaced him as Prime Minister in late 1916, but Asquith remained as Liberal Party leader; the pair fought for years over control of the party.
Historian Martin Pugh in The Oxford Companion to British History argues: Lloyd George made a greater impact on British public life than any other 20th-century leader, thanks to his pre-war introduction of Britain's social welfare system. Furthermore, in foreign affairs, he played a leading role in winning the First World War, redrawing the map of Europe at the peace conference, partitioning Ireland; the government of Lloyd George was dominated by the Conservative Party, which deposed him in 1922. By the end of the 1920s, the Labour Party had replaced the Liberals as the Conservatives' main rival; the party went into decline after 1918 and by the 1950s won no more than six seats at general elections. Apart from notable by-election victories, its fortunes did not improve until it formed the SDP–Liberal Alliance with the newly formed Social Democratic Party in 1981. At the 1983 general election, the Alliance won over a quarter of the vote, but only 23 of the 650 seats it contested. At the 1987 general election, its share of the vote fell below 23% and the Liberal and Social Democratic parties merged in 1988 to form the Liberal Democrats.
A splinter group reconstituted the Liberal Party in 1989. It was formed by party members opposed to the merger who saw the Liberal Democrats diluting Liberal ideals. Prominent intellectuals associated with the Liberal Party include the philosopher John Stuart Mill, the economist John Maynard Keynes and social planner William Beveridge; the Liberal Party grew out of the Whigs, who had their origins in an aristocratic faction in the reign of Charles II and the early 19th century Radicals. The Whigs were in favour of increasing the power of Parliament. Although their motives in this were to gain more power for themselves, the more idealistic Whigs came to support an expansion of democracy for its own sake; the great figures of reformist Whiggery were Charles James Fox and his disciple and successor Earl Grey. After decades in opposition, the Whigs returned to power under Grey in 1830 and carried the First Reform Act in 1832; the Reform Act was the climax of Whiggism, but it brought about the Whigs' demise.
The admission of the middle classes to the franchise and to the House of Commons led to the development of a systematic middle class liberalism and the end of Whiggery, although for many years reforming aristocrats held senior positions in the party. In the years after Grey's retirement, the party was led first by Lord Melbourne, a traditional Whig, by Lord John Russell, the son of a Duke but a crusading radical, by Lord Palmerston, a renegade Irish Tory and a conservative, although capable of radical gestures; as early as 1839, Russell had adopted the name of "Liberals", but in reality his party was a loose coalition of Whigs in the House of Lords and Radicals in the Commons. The leading Radicals were John Bright and Richard Cobden, who represented the manufacturing towns which had gained representation under the Reform Act, they favoured social reform, personal liberty, reducing the powers of the Crown and the Church of England, avoidance of war and foreign alliances and above all free trade.
For a century, free trade remained the one cause. In 1841, the Liberals lost office to the Conservatives under Sir Robert Peel, but their period in opposition was short because the Conservatives split over the repeal of the Corn Laws, a free trade issue; this allowed ministries led by Russell and the Peelite Lord Aberdeen to hold office for most of the 1850s and 1860s. A leading Peelite was William Ewart Gladstone, a reforming Chancellor of the Exchequer in most of these governments; the formal foundation of the Liberal Party is traditionally traced to 1859 and the formation of Palmerston's second government. However, the Whig-Radical amalgam could not become a true modern political party while it was dominated by aristocrats and it was not until the departure of the "Two Terrible Old Men", Russell and Palmerston, that Gladstone could become the first leader of the modern Liberal Party; this was brought about by Palmerston's death in 1865 and Russell's retirement in 1868. After a brief Conservative government, Gladstone won a huge victory at the 1868 election and formed the first Liberal government.
John Donne was an English poet and cleric in the Church of England. He is considered the pre-eminent representative of the metaphysical poets, his works are noted for their strong, sensual style and include sonnets, love poems, religious poems, Latin translations, elegies, songs and sermons. His poetry is noted for its vibrancy of language and inventiveness of metaphor compared to that of his contemporaries. Donne's style is characterised by abrupt openings and various paradoxes and dislocations; these features, along with his frequent dramatic or everyday speech rhythms, his tense syntax and his tough eloquence, were both a reaction against the smoothness of conventional Elizabethan poetry and an adaptation into English of European baroque and mannerist techniques. His early career was marked by poetry that bore immense knowledge of English society and he met that knowledge with sharp criticism. Another important theme in Donne's poetry is the idea of true religion, something that he spent much time considering and about which he theorized.
He wrote secular poems as well as love poems. He is famous for his mastery of metaphysical conceits. Despite his great education and poetic talents, Donne lived in poverty for several years, relying on wealthy friends, he spent much of the money he inherited during and after his education on womanising, literature and travel. In 1601, Donne secretly married Anne More, with. In 1615 he was ordained deacon and Anglican priest, although he did not want to take Holy Orders and only did so because the king ordered it. In 1621, he was appointed the Dean of St Paul's Cathedral in London, he served as a member of Parliament in 1601 and in 1614. Donne was born in London, into a recusant Roman Catholic family when practice of that religion was illegal in England. Donne was the third of six children, his father named John Donne, was of Welsh descent and a warden of the Ironmongers Company in the City of London. However, he avoided unwelcome government attention out of fear of persecution, his father died in 1576, when Donne was four years old, leaving his mother, Elizabeth Heywood, with the responsibility of raising the children alone.
Heywood was from a recusant Roman Catholic family, the daughter of John Heywood, the playwright, sister of the Reverend Jasper Heywood, a Jesuit priest and translator. She was a great-niece of the Roman Catholic martyr Thomas More. A few months after her husband died, Donne's mother married Dr. John Syminges, a wealthy widower with three children of his own. Donne thus acquired a stepfather. Donne was educated privately. In 1583, at the age of 11, he began studies at Hart Hall, now Hertford College, Oxford. After three years of studies there, Donne was admitted to the University of Cambridge, where he studied for another three years. However, Donne could not obtain a degree from either institution because of his Catholicism, since he refused to take the Oath of Supremacy required to graduate. In 1591 he was accepted as a student at the Thavies Inn legal school, one of the Inns of Chancery in London. On 6 May 1592 he was admitted to one of the Inns of Court. In 1593, five years after the defeat of the Spanish Armada and during the intermittent Anglo-Spanish War, Queen Elizabeth issued the first English statute against sectarian dissent from the Church of England, titled "An Act for restraining Popish recusants".
It defined "Popish recusants" as those "convicted for not repairing to some Church, Chapel, or usual place of Common Prayer to hear Divine Service there, but forbearing the same contrary to the tenor of the laws and statutes heretofore made and provided in that behalf". Donne's brother Henry was a university student prior to his arrest in 1593 for harbouring a Catholic priest, William Harrington, died in Newgate Prison of bubonic plague, leading Donne to begin questioning his Catholic faith. During and after his education, Donne spent much of his considerable inheritance on women, literature and travel. Although no record details where Donne travelled, he did cross Europe and fought with the Earl of Essex and Sir Walter Raleigh against the Spanish at Cadiz and the Azores, witnessed the loss of the Spanish flagship, the San Felipe. According to his earliest biographer... he returned not back into England till he had stayed some years, first in Italy, in Spain, where he made many useful observations of those countries, their laws and manner of government, returned perfect in their languages.
By the age of 25 he was well prepared for the diplomatic career he appeared to be seeking. He was appointed chief secretary to the Lord Keeper of the Great Seal, Sir Thomas Egerton, was established at Egerton's London home, York House, Strand close to the Palace of Whitehall the most influential social centre in England. During the next four years Donne fell in love with Egerton's niece Anne More, they were secretly married just before Christmas in 1601, against the wishes of both Egerton and George More, Lieutenant of the Tower and Anne's father. Upon discovery, this wedding ruined Donne's career, getting him dismissed and put in Fleet Prison, along with the Church of England priest Samuel Brooke, who married them, the man who acted as a witness to the wedding. Donne was released shortly thereafter when the marriage was proven valid, he soon secured the release of the other two. Walton tells us that when Donne wrote to his wife to tell her about losing his post, he wrote after his name: John Donne, Anne Donne, Un-done.
It was not until 160
Chaldon Herring or East Chaldon is a village and civil parish in the English county of Dorset, situated within the Purbeck administrative district about 8 miles south-east of the county town Dorchester. It is sited 2 miles from the coast in the chalk hills of the South Dorset Downs, the highest point in the area being Chaldon Hill about 1.5 miles to the south overlooking the sea. In the 2011 census the civil parish had 59 households and a population of 140. In 1086 in the Domesday Book Chaldon Herring was recorded as Calvedone and, together with West Chaldon, appears in three entries; the Herring family were landowners for a long period of time, so the village and parish appended their family name to the placename. Elizabeth Herring, daughter of John Herring of Chaldon Herring, was the great grandmother of John Russell, 1st Earl of Bedford. Chaldon Herring is notable for being the home of Llewelyn Powys, his wife, Alyse Gregory. In 1925 the couple moved to Dorset: firstly to the Coastguard Cottages on White Nothe and to the nearby farmhouse Chydyok, where his two sisters, the poet and novelist, Philippa Powys, the artist, Gertrude Powys, occupied the adjacent cottage.
Various other writers and artists lived in the village at different times, such as sisters Elizabeth Muntz, a sculptor, author and historian Hope Muntz, who wrote The Golden Warrior, novelists Sylvia Townsend Warner and David Garnett, the poets Valentine Ackland and Gamel Woolsey, the sculptor Stephen Tomlin. The novelist T. F. Powys, older brother of Llewelyn, lived in Chaldon from 1904 until 1940, when he moved to Mappowder because of the war. Chaldon Herring was the inspiration for the fictitious village of Folly Down in his novel Mr. Weston's Good Wine and other works, it was at Theodore Powys's house, that novelist Sylvia Townsend Warner first met the poet Valentine Ackland. Sylvia Townsend Warners's diaries record that they lived together in Frome Vauchurch from 1930 until Valentine's death in 1969. Sylvia Townsend Warner died May 1978 at Frome Vauchurch. Chaldon Herring Local History