Sempere known as Sant Pere d'Albaida, is a municipality in the comarca of Vall d'Albaida in the Valencian Community, Spain
L'Olleria is a municipality in the comarca of Vall d'Albaida in the Valencian Community, Spain. It is famous by its glass manufacturing activity blown glass. L'Olleria is an important industrial site in the Vall d'Albaida area. Media related to L'Olleria at Wikimedia Commons
James I of Aragon
James I the Conqueror was King of Aragon, Count of Barcelona, Lord of Montpellier from 1213 to 1276. His long reign—the longest of any Iberian monarch—saw the expansion of the House of Aragon and House of Barcelona in three directions: Languedoc to the north, the Balearic Islands to the southeast, Valencia to the south. By a treaty with Louis IX of France, he wrested the County of Barcelona from nominal French suzerainty and integrated it into his crown, he renounced northward expansion and taking back the once Catalan territories in Occitania and vassal counties loyal to the County of Barcelona, lands that were lost by his father Peter II of Aragon in the Battle of Muret during the Albigensian Crusade and annexed by the Kingdom of France, decided to turn south. His great part in the Reconquista was similar in Mediterranean Spain to that of his contemporary Ferdinand III of Castile in Andalusia. One of the main reasons for this formal renunciation of most of the once Catalan territories in Languedoc and Occitania and any expansion into them is the fact that he was raised by the Knights Templar crusaders, who had defeated his father fighting for the Pope alongside the French, so it was forbidden for him to try to maintain the traditional influence of the Count of Barcelona that existed in Occitania and Languedoc.
As a legislator and organiser, he occupies a high place among the European kings. James compiled the Llibre del Consolat de Mar, which governed maritime trade and helped establish Aragonese supremacy in the western Mediterranean, he was an important figure in the development of the Catalan language, sponsoring Catalan literature and writing a quasi-autobiographical chronicle of his reign: the Llibre dels fets. James was born at Montpellier as the only son of Peter II of Marie of Montpellier; as a child, James was made a pawn in the power politics of Provence, where his father was engaged in struggles helping the Cathar heretics of Albi against the Albigensian Crusaders led by Simon IV de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, who were trying to exterminate them. Peter endeavoured to placate the northern crusaders by arranging a marriage between his son James and Simon's daughter, when the former was only two years old, he entrusted the boy to be educated in Montfort's care in 1211, but was soon forced to take up arms against him, dying at the Battle of Muret on 12 September 1213.
Montfort would willingly have used James as a means of extending his own power had not the Aragonese appealed to Pope Innocent III, who insisted that Montfort surrender him. James was handed over to the papal legate Peter of Benevento at Carcassonne in May or June 1214. James was sent to Monzón, where he was entrusted to the care of Guillem de Montredó, the head of the Knights Templar in Spain and Provence; the kingdom was given over to confusion until, in 1217, the Templars and some of the more loyal nobles brought the young king to Zaragoza. In 1221, he was married to daughter of Alfonso VIII of Castile; the next six years of his reign were full of rebellions on the part of the nobles. By the Peace of Alcalá of 31 March 1227, the nobles and the king came to terms. In 1228, James faced the sternest opposition yet from a vassal. Guerau IV de Cabrera occupied the County of Urgell in opposition to Aurembiax, the heiress of Ermengol VIII, who had died without sons in 1208. Although Aurembiax's mother, had made herself a protegée of James's father, upon her death in 1220 Guerau occupied the county and displaced Aurembiax, claiming that a woman could not inherit.
James intervened to whom he owed protection. He bought Guerau off and allowed Aurembiax to reclaim her territory, which she did at Lleida also becoming one of James' earliest mistresses, she agreed to hold Urgell in fief for him. On her death in 1231, James exchanged the Balearic Islands for Urgell with her widower, Peter of Portugal. From 1230 to 1232, James negotiated with Sancho VII of Navarre, who desired his help against his nephew and closest living male relative, Theobald IV of Champagne. James and Sancho negotiated a treaty whereby James would inherit Navarre on the old Sancho's death, but when this occurred in 1234, the Navarrese nobles elevated Theobald to the throne instead, James disputed it. Pope Gregory IX was required to intervene. In the end, James accepted Theobald's succession. James endeavoured to form a state straddling the Pyrenees in order to counterbalance the power of France north of the Loire; as with the much earlier Visigothic attempt, this policy was victim to physical and political obstacles.
As in the case of Navarre, he declined to launch into perilous adventures. By the Treaty of Corbeil, signed in May 1258, he ended his conflict with Louis IX of France, securing the renunciation of French claims to sovereignty over Catalonia. After his false start at uniting Aragon with the Kingdom of Navarre through a scheme of mutual adoption, James turned to the south and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. On 5 September 1229, the troops from Aragon, consisting of 155 ships, 1,500 horsemen and 15,000 soldiers, set sail from Tarragona and Cambrils to conquer Majorca from Abú Yahya, the semi-independent Almohad governor of the island. Although a group of Aragonese knights took part in the campaign because of their obligations to the king, the conquest of Majorca was a Catalan undertaking, Catalans would make up the majority of Majorca's settlers. James conquered Majorca on 31 December 1229, Menorca and Ibi
Bocairent is a municipality in the comarca of Vall d'Albaida in the Valencian Community, Spain. Serra Mariola Natural Park
Expulsion of the Moriscos
The Expulsion of the Moriscos was decreed by King Philip III of Spain on April 9, 1609. The Moriscos were descendants of Spain's Muslim population that had converted to Christianity by coercion or by Royal Decree in the early 16th century. Since the Spanish were fighting wars in the Americas, feeling threatened by the Turks raiding along the Spanish coast and by two Morisco revolts in the century since Islam was outlawed in Spain, it seems the expulsions were a reaction to an internal problem of the stretched Spanish Empire. Between 1609 through 1614, the Crown systematically expelled Moriscos through a number of decrees affecting Spain's various kingdoms, meeting varying levels of success. Although initial estimates of the number expelled such as those of Henri Lapeyre range between 275,000 and 300,000 Moriscos, the extent and actual success of the expulsion order in purging Spain of its Moriscos has been challenged by modern historians, starting with the seminal studies carried out by François Martinez and Trevor J. Dadson.
Dadson estimates that, out of a total Morisco population of 500,000, a figure accepted by many, around 40% avoided expulsion altogether and tens of thousands of those expelled managed to return. The only place where the expulsion was successful was the eastern region of Valencia, where Muslims represented the bulk of the peasantry and ethnic tension with the Christian, Catalan-speaking middle class was high; as a result, this region implemented the expulsion most and leading to the economic collapse and depopulation of much of its territory and aggravated by the bubonic plague which hit Valencia only a few years later. Of those permanently expelled, the majority settled in the Maghreb or the Barbary coast, with between 30,000 and 75,000 returning to Spain; those who avoided expulsion or who managed to return to Spain merged into the dominant culture. The last mass prosecution against Moriscos for crypto-Islamic practices took place in Granada in 1727, with most of those convicted receiving light sentences.
By the end of the 18th century, indigenous Islam and Morisco identity were considered to have been extinguished in Spain. Suspicions and tensions between Moriscos, who were called New Christians, the other Christians, who were called Old Christians, were high in some parts of Spain and nonexistent in others. While some Moriscos did hold influence and power, had positions in the clergy, others in Valencia and Aragon, were a source of cheap labour for the local nobility. Where sectarian conflict existed, old Christian communities suspected the Moriscos of not being sincere in their Christianity; the Moors who remained Muslims were known as Mudéjar. Many of these Moriscos, on the other hand, were devout in their new Christian faith, in Granada, many Moriscos became Christian martyrs, as they were killed by Muslims for refusing to renounce Christianity; as such the conflict between Old Christians and New Christians was an ethnically inspired one. Several revolts broke out, the most notable being the 1568–1573 revolt against an edict of Phillip II's banning Arabic, Arabic names, requiring Moriscos to give up their children to be educated by priests.
After the suppression of the revolt, Philip ordered the dispersal of the Moriscos of Granada to other areas. Philip expected that this would break down the Morisco community and facilitate their assimilation into the rest of the Christian population; this may have happened to a degree to Granada's Moriscos, but not in Valencia or Aragon, where Islam was still practised and ethnic tensions were much higher than in the rest of Spain. At around the same time, Spain recognized the loss of more than half of its holdings in the Low Countries to the Protestant Dutch Republic; the ruling class thought of Spain as the defender of Catholic Christendom, this defeat helped lead to a radicalization of thinking and a desire to strike a blow to regain Spain's honor. Some critiques of Spain from Protestant countries included insults of the Spanish as corrupted by the Muslims and crypto-Muslims amongst them, which some of the nobility may have taken personally; the situation further deteriorated in the early 17th century.
A recession struck in 1604 as the amount of treasure from Spain's American holdings fell. The reduction in the standard of living led to increased tension between the Moriscos and Old Christians for precious jobs; the number of Moriscos in Spain at the time of expulsion is unknown and most estimates are based on the numbers of Moriscos who were expelled. Figures of between 300,000 and 400,000 are cited. However, modern studies estimate between 500,000 and one million moriscos present in Spain at the beginning of the 17th century out of a total population of 8.5 million. A significant proportion resided in the former Crown of Aragon, where it is estimated they constituted 20% of the population, the Valencia area where they were 33% of the total population; the rich and those who lived in the cities were Christians, while the Moriscos occupied the outlying countryside and the poor suburbs of the cities. In the Crown of Castile, which included the Guadalquivir valley in present Andalusia, the situation was different.
Overall, the proportion of Moriscos is considered to be lower but more the majority of them were former Mudejar Christians who were integrated in mainstream society, had abandoned many of their distinguishing cultural traits and crucially, unlike in Valencia, they did not suffer from hostility from their old-Christian neighbours, many of whom protected them fro
Montaverner is a municipality in the comarca of Vall d'Albaida in the Valencian Community, Spain
Albaida, Province of Valencia
Albaida is a municipality in the comarca of Vall d'Albaida in the Valencian Community, Spain. Palace of Milà i Aragó Segrelles Museum Route of the Borgias Route of the Valencian classics Daniel Olcina, footballer