Andalusia is an autonomous community in southern Spain. It is the most populous, the second largest autonomous community in the country; the Andalusian autonomous community is recognised as a "historical nationality". The territory is divided into eight provinces: Almería, Cádiz, Córdoba, Huelva, Jaén, Málaga and Seville, its capital is the city of Seville. Andalusia is located in the south of the Iberian peninsula, in south-western Europe south of the autonomous communities of Extremadura and Castilla-La Mancha. Andalusia is the only European region with both Atlantic coastlines; the small British overseas territory of Gibraltar shares a three-quarter-mile land border with the Andalusian province of Cádiz at the eastern end of the Strait of Gibraltar. The main mountain ranges of Andalusia are the Sierra Morena and the Baetic System, consisting of the Subbaetic and Penibaetic Mountains, separated by the Intrabaetic Basin. In the north, the Sierra Morena separates Andalusia from the plains of Extremadura and Castile–La Mancha on Spain's Meseta Central.
To the south the geographic subregion of Upper Andalusia lies within the Baetic System, while Lower Andalusia is in the Baetic Depression of the valley of the Guadalquivir. The name "Andalusia" is derived from the Arabic word Al-Andalus; the toponym al-Andalus is first attested by inscriptions on coins minted in 716 by the new Muslim government of Iberia. These coins, called dinars, were inscribed in both Arabic; the etymology of the name "al-Andalus" has traditionally been derived from the name of the Vandals. Halm in 1989 derived the name from a Gothic term, *landahlauts, in 2002, Bossong suggested its derivation from a pre-Roman substrate; the region's history and culture have been influenced by the native Iberians, Carthaginians, Romans, Visigoths, Jews, Muslim Moors and the Castilian and other Christian North Iberian nationalities who reconquered and settled the area in the latter phases of the Reconquista. Andalusia has been a agricultural region, compared to the rest of Spain and the rest of Europe.
However, the growth of the community in the sectors of industry and services was above average in Spain and higher than many communities in the Eurozone. The region has a strong identity. Many cultural phenomena that are seen internationally as distinctively Spanish are or Andalusian in origin; these include flamenco and, to a lesser extent and Hispano-Moorish architectural styles, both of which are prevalent in other regions of Spain. Andalusia's hinterland is the hottest area of Europe, with cities like Córdoba and Seville averaging above 36 °C in summer high temperatures. Late evening temperatures can sometimes stay around 35 °C until close to midnight, with daytime highs of over 40 °C common. Seville has the highest average annual temperature in mainland Spain and mainland Europe followed by Almería, its present form is derived from the Arabic name for Muslim Iberia, "Al-Andalus". However, the etymology of the name "Al-Andalus" is disputed, the extent of Iberian territory encompassed by the name has changed over the centuries.
The Spanish place name Andalucía was introduced into the Spanish languages in the 13th century under the form el Andalucía. The name was adopted to refer to those territories still under Moorish rule, south of Castilla Nueva and Valencia, corresponding with the former Roman province hitherto called Baetica in Latin sources; this was a Castilianization of Al-Andalusiya, the adjectival form of the Arabic language al-Andalus, the name given by the Arabs to all of the Iberian territories under Muslim rule from 711 to 1492. The etymology of al-Andalus is itself somewhat debated, but in fact it entered the Arabic language before this area came under Muslim rule. Like the Arabic term al-Andalus, in historical contexts the Spanish term Andalucía or the English term Andalusia do not refer to the exact territory designated by these terms today; the term referred to territories under Muslim control. In the Estoria de España of Alfonso X of Castile, written in the second half of the 13th century, the term Andalucía is used with three different meanings: As a literal translation of the Arabic al-Ándalus when Arabic texts are quoted.
To designate the territories the Christians had regained by that time in the Guadalquivir valley and in the Kingdoms of Granada and Murcia. In a document from 1253, Alfonso X styled himself León y de toda Andalucía. To designate the territories the Christians had regained by that time in the Guadalquivir valley but not the Kingdom of Granada; this was the most common significance in Early modern period. From an administrative point of view, Granada remained separate for many years after the completion of the Reconquista due, above all, to its emblematic character as the last territory regained, as the seat of the important Real Chancillería de Granada, a court of last resort. Stil
Geographical indications and traditional specialities in the European Union
Three European Union schemes of geographical indications and traditional specialties, known as protected designation of origin, protected geographical indication, traditional specialities guaranteed and protect names of quality agricultural products and foodstuffs. Products registered under one of the three schemes may be marked with the logo for that scheme to help identify those products; the schemes are based on the legal framework provided by the EU Regulation No 1151/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 November 2012 on quality schemes for agricultural products and foodstuffs. This regulation ensures that only products genuinely originating in that region are allowed to be identified as such in commerce; the legislation first came into force in 1992. The purpose of the law is to protect the reputation of the regional foods, promote rural and agricultural activity, help producers obtain a premium price for their authentic products, eliminate the unfair competition and misleading of consumers by non-genuine products, which may be of inferior quality or of different flavour.
These laws protect the names of wines, hams, seafood, olive oils, balsamic vinegar, regional breads, raw meats and vegetables. Foods such as Gorgonzola, Parmigiano-Reggiano, the Waterford blaas, Herve cheese, Melton Mowbray pork pies, Piave cheese, Asiago cheese, Herefordshire cider, cognac and champagne can only be labelled as such if they come from the designated region. To qualify as roquefort, for example, cheese must be made from milk of a certain breed of sheep, matured in the natural caves near the town of Roquefort-sur-Soulzon in the Aveyron region of France, where it is colonised by the fungus Penicillium roqueforti that grows in these caves; this system is similar to appellation systems used throughout the world, such as the appellation d'origine contrôlée used in France, the denominazione di origine controllata used in Italy, the denominação de origem controlada used in Portugal, the denumire de origine controlată system used in Romania and the denominación de origen system used in Spain.
In many cases, the EU PDO/PGI system works parallel with the system used in the specified country, in some cases is subordinated to the appellation system, instituted with wine, for example, in France with cheese, for example Maroilles has both PDO and AOC classifications, but only the AOC classification will be shown. In countries where Protected Geographical Status laws are enforced, only products which meet the various geographical and quality criteria may use the protected indication, it is prohibited to combine the indication with words such as "style", "type", "imitation", or "method" in connection with the protected indications, or to do anything which might imply that the product meets the specifications, such as using distinctive packaging associated with the protected product. Protected indications are treated as intellectual property rights by the Customs Regulation 1383/2003, infringing goods may be seized by customs on import. Within the European Union, enforcement measures vary: infringement may be treated as counterfeit, misleading advertising, passing off or as a question of public health.
Outside Europe, the protection of PGS products require bilateral agreements between the EU and the importing countries, while protected indications may not always supersede other intellectual property rights such as trademarks. On 15 November 2011, the European Court of Auditors presented its report Do the design and management of the Geographical Indications Scheme allow it to be effective? to the European Parliament. The preambles to the regulations cite consumer demand for quality foodstuffs, identify a number of goals for the protection regimes: the promotion of products with specific characteristics those coming from less-favoured or rural areas; the provision of a recompense for efforts to improve quality and the need for consumer protection are cited as justifications for trade mark protection in other domains, geographical indications operate in a similar manner to trademarks. The general regime governs the use of protected designations of origin and protected geographical indications for food and certain other agricultural products.
There are separate regimes for aromatised drinks as well as for wines. The origin of the product is only one of the criteria for use of the protected terms: the product must meet various quality criteria; the label "Traditional Specialities Guaranteed" is a similar protected term which does not impose any restrictions on the geographical origin of the product. The protection of geographical indications was extended to foodstuffs and other agricultural products in 1992. Given the different national provisions, this "general regime" gives much more power to the European Commission to ensure a harmonised protection across the European Union
Navarre. The capital city is Pamplona; the first documented use of a name resembling Navarra, Nafarroa, or Naparroa is a reference to navarros, in Eginhard's early-9th-century chronicle of the feats of the Holy Roman Emperor Charlemagne. Other Royal Frankish Annals feature nabarros. There are two proposed etymologies for the name. Basque nabar: "brownish", "multicolour". Basque naba: "valley", "plain" + Basque herri; the linguist Joan Coromines considers naba to be linguistically part of a wider Vasconic or Aquitanian language substrate, rather than Basque per se. During the Roman Empire, the Vascones, a pre-Roman tribe, populated the southern slopes of the Pyrenees, including the area which would become Navarre. In the mountainous north, the Vascones escaped large-scale Roman settlement, except for some coastal areas—for example Oiasso —and the flatter areas to the south, which were amenable to large-scale Roman farming—vineyards and wheat crops. There is no evidence of battles fought or general hostility between Romans and Basques, as they had the same enemies.
Neither the Visigoths nor the Franks completely subjugated the area. The Vascones assimilated neighbouring tribes as of the 7th century AD. In the year 778, the Basques defeated a Frankish army at the Battle of Roncevaux Pass. Following the Battle of Roncevaux Pass, the Basque chieftain Iñigo Arista was elected King of Pamplona supported by the muwallad Banu Qasi of Tudela, establishing a Basque kingdom, called Navarre; that kingdom reached its zenith during the reign of Sancho III, comprising most of the Christian realms to the south of the Pyrenees, a short overlordship of Gascony. When Sancho III died in 1035, the kingdom was divided between his sons, it never recovered its political power, while its commercial importance increased as traders and pilgrims poured into the kingdom via the Way of Saint James. In 1200, Navarre lost the key western Basque districts to Alphonse VIII of Castile, leaving the kingdom landlocked. Navarre contributed with a small but symbolic force of 200 knights to the decisive Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in 1212 against the Almohads.
The native line of kings came to an end in 1234. However, the Navarrese kept most of their strong institutions; the death of Queen Blanche I inaugurated a civil war period between the Beaumont and Agramont confederacies with the intervention of the Castilian-Aragonese House of Trastámara in Navarre's internal affairs. In 1512, Navarre was invaded by Ferdinand the Catholic's troops, with Queen Catherine and King John III withdrawing to the north of the Pyrenees, establishing a Kingdom of Navarre-Béarn, led by Queen Joan III as of 1555. To the south of the Pyrenees, Navarre was annexed to the Crown of Castile, but kept a separate ambiguous status, a shaky balance up to 1610—King Henry III ready to march over Spanish Navarre. A Chartered Government was established, the kingdom managed to keep home rule. Tensions with the Spanish government came to a head as of 1794, when Spanish premier Manuel Godoy attempted to suppress Navarrese and Basque self-government altogether, with the end of the First Carlist War bringing the kingdom and its home rule to an end.
After the 1839 Convention of Bergara, a reduced version of home rule was passed in 1839. However, the 1841 Act for the Modification of Fueros made the kingdom into a province after a compromise was reached by the Spanish government with officials of the Provincial Council of Navarre; the relocation of customs from the Ebro river to the Pyrenees in 1841 prompted the collapse of Navarre’s customary cross-Pyrenean trade and the rise of smuggling. Amid instability in Spain, Carlists took over in the rest of the Basque provinces. An actual Basque state was established during the Third Carlist War with Estella as its capital, but King Alfonso XII's restoration in the throne of Spain and a counter-attack prompted the Carlist defeat; the end of the Third Carlist War saw a renewed wave of Spanish centralisation directly affecting Navarre. In 1893–1894 the Gamazada popular uprising took place centred in Pamplona against Madrid's governmental decisions breaching the 1841 chartered provisions. Except for a small faction, all parties in Navarre agreed on the need for a new political framework based on home rule within the Laurak Bat, the Basque districts in Spain.
Among these, the Carlists stood out, who politically dominated the province, resented an increased string of rulings and laws passed by Madrid, as well as left leaning influences. Unlike Biscay or Gipuzkoa, Navarre did not develop manufacturing during this period, remaining a rural economy. In 1932, a Basque Country's separate statute failed to take off over disagreements on the centrality of Catholicism, a scene of political radicalisation ensued dividing the leftist and rightist forces during the 2nd
Listán Negro is a red Spanish wine grape variety, planted in the Canary Islands on the island of Tenerife where it is a permitted variety in the Denominaciones de Origen wines of Tacoronte-Acentejo, Valle de la Orotava, Ycoden-Daute-Isora, Valle de Güímar. It is permitted in the Spanish wine regions of El Hierro, Gran Canaria, La Gomera, La Palma, Lanzarote. Across the Canary Islands more than 5,000 hectares are planted to the variety. In 2007, DNA fingerprinting done by the Centro Nacional de Biotecnología in Madrid, Spain discovered that the Mission grape, planted in the earliest New World vineyards in the America was a genetic match to Listán Prieto. Despite the genetic match, there is enough clonal variation that has occurred over the centuries of geographical separation that the Mission grape of the Americas and the Listán Prieto grape of the Canary Islands are classified by the Vitis International Variety Catalogue as two separate grape varieties. Part of the variation is because some of earliest plantings by the Spanish missionaries were from grape seeds which are the result of pollination and sexual propagation and thus more to have slight differences from the parent vine than propagation through cuttings.
It is thought that Listán Negro and Listán Prieto were planted in the Castile region during the 16th century. Settlers to the Canary Islands brought the vines with them and Listán Prieto made its way to the Spanish colonies in Mexico and Peru. From there, the grape spread throughout North and South America where it developed clonal variations that became grape varieties that are now known as Mission in California and Mexico, País in Chile and Criolla Chica in Argentina. Many winemakers on the Canary Islands favor the use of carbonic maceration to produce a soft fruity, medium-bodied wines that can be aromatic. In recent years, producers have been experimenting with oak aging, it is seen as a varietal wine in Tacoronte-Acentejo but in other DOs it is blended-usually with Negramoll and Malvasia Rosada. Some producers on Tenerife make a sweet wine from Listán Negro with grapes that have been dried in the sun. On the island of Lanzarote, Listán Negro is planted in hollowed pits dug into the volcanic soils, sheltered from the strong Atlantic winds by stone walls that are built around the vines in a semicircle.
The vines are braided together into a formation called the "cordón trenzado." Various synonyms have been used to describe Listán Negro and its wines, including Almuñeco, Listán Negra, Palomino Negro, Printanier Rouge, Negra Común and Negromuelle. Under the name of Listán Prieto, the Vitis International Variety Catalogue list Duhamelii, Listan Morado, Mollar, Mollar de Cadiz, Mollar de Granada, Mollar de Huelva, Mollar Morado, Mollar Negro, Mollar Prieto, Mollar Sevillano, Mollar Zucari, Mollissima, Morisca Negra Mole, Sabra Molle, Tinta Molle, Tinta Sabreirinha and Tinta Sobreirinha
Malvasia is a group of wine grape varieties grown in the Mediterranean region, Balearic Islands, Canary Islands and the island of Madeira, but now grown in many of the winemaking regions of the world. In the past, the names Malvasia and Malmsey have been used interchangeably for Malvasia-based wines. Grape varieties in this family include Malvasia bianca, Malvasia di Schierano, Malvasia negra, Malvasia nera, Malvasia nera di Brindisi, Malvasia di Candia aromatica, Malvasia odorosissima, a number of other varieties. Malvasia wines are produced in Italy, Croatia, the Iberian Peninsula, the Canary Islands, the island of Madeira, Arizona, New Mexico and Brazil; these grapes are used to produce white table wines, dessert wines, fortified wines of the same name, or are sometimes used as part of a blend of grapes, such as in Vin Santo. Most ampelographers believe that the Malvasia family of grapes are of ancient origin, most originating in Crete, Greece; the name "Malvasia" comes from Monemvasia, a medieval and early Renaissance Byzantine fortress on the coast of Laconia, known in Italian as "Malvasia".
During the Middle Ages, the Venetians became so prolific in the trading of "Malvasia wine" that merchant wine shops in Venice were known as malvasie. The occasional claim that it might come from the district of Malevizi, near Iraklion, Crete is not taken by scholars. In any case, Malmsey was one of the three major wines exported from Greece in medieval times.. It is alleged that when Edward IV of England convicted his brother, George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence, of high treason, his private execution consisted of being "drowned in a butt of Malmsey wine,", dramatized in Shakespeare's Richard III. Both Monemvasia and Candia have lent their names to modern grape varieties. In Greece, there is a variety known as Monemvasia, evidently named after the port, though now grown in the Cyclades. In western Europe, a common variety of Malvasia is known as Malvasia Bianca di Candia, from its reputed origin in that area; the Monemvasia grape was long thought to be ancestral to the western European Malvasia varieties, but recent DNA analysis does not suggest a close relationship between Monemvasia and any Malvasia varieties.
DNA analysis does, suggest that the Athiri wine grape is ancestral to Malvasia. Most varieties of Malvasia are related to Malvasia bianca. One notable exception is the variety known as Malvasia di Candia, a distinctly different sub-variety of Malvasia. Malvasia bianca is grown throughout the world in places like Italy, the San Joaquin Valley of California, the Greek Islands of Paros and Syros, the Canary Islands and Navarra. Throughout central Italy, Malvasia is blended with Trebbiano to add flavor and texture to the wine. In Rioja, it performs a similar function. Malvazija Istarska Malvazija Istarska got the name after peninsula of Istria shared between Croatia and Italy, it represents one of the main white wines of the north Dalmatian coast. The vine was introduced to the area by Venetian merchants; the malvasia is called malvazija in Croatian language. It is the main white wine in the region. OtherThe Dalmatian Maraština is identical to the Italian variety Malvasia Lunga. Malvasia IstrianaIn Italy this wine is grown in the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region in Collio DOC and Isonzo DOC.
The name comes from the Istria peninsula, which takes in parts of Croatia and Italy. The vine was introduced into the area by Venetian merchants. Malvasia Istriana is found in the Colli Piacentini region of Emilia, where it is used to make sparkling wine known locally as champagnino or "little Champagne". Malvasia di Grottaferrata, Malvasia di Bosa, Malvasia di PlanargiaIn the 19th century and early 20th century, sweet passito style dessert wines made from the Malvasia grape were held in high esteem and considered among Italy's finest wines. Following the Second World War, lack of interest in the consumer market led to a sharp decline in plantings, with many varieties going to the verge of extinction. Today only a few dedicated producers are still making these Malvasia dessert wines from local varieties including the Malvasia di Grottaferrata in Lazio and the Malvasia di Bosa and Malvasia di Planargia in Sardinia. Malvasia delle LipariSince the 1980s, dessert wines made from the Malvasia delle Lipari variety has seen a resurgence in interest on the volcanic Aeolian Islands off the north east coast of Sicily.
With distinctive orange notes, this Sicilian wine saw its peak of popularity just before the phylloxera epidemic, when more than 2.6 million gallons were produced annually. Malvasia neraWhile most varieties of Malvasia produce white wine, Malvasia nera is a red wine variety that in Italy is used as a blending grape, being valued for the dark color and aromatic qualities it can add to a wine; the Piedmont of that region is the only significant wine to make varietal Malvasia nera, with two
Tenerife is the largest and most populated island of the seven Canary Islands. It is the most populated island of Spain, with a land area of 2,034.38 square kilometres and 904,713 inhabitants, 43 percent of the total population of the Canary Islands. Tenerife is the largest and most populous island of Macaronesia. Five million tourists visit Tenerife each year, the most visited island of the archipelago, it is one of the most important tourist destinations in the world. Tenerife hosts one of the world's largest carnivals and the Carnival of Santa Cruz de Tenerife is working to be designated UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage of the World. Tenerife is served by Tenerife-North Airport and Tenerife-South Airport. Tenerife is the economic capital of the Canary Islands; the capital of the island, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, is the seat of the island council. The city is capital of the autonomous community of Canary Islands, sharing governmental institutions such as presidency and ministries. Between the 1833 territorial division of Spain and 1927, Santa Cruz de Tenerife was the sole capital of the Canary Islands.
In 1927 the Crown ordered that the capital of the Canary Islands be shared, as it remains at present. Santa Cruz contains the modern Auditorio de Tenerife, the architectural symbol of the Canary Islands; the island is home to the University of La Laguna. The city of La Laguna is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, it is the second city most populated on the third in the archipelago. It was capital of the Canary Islands before Santa Cruz replaced it in 1833. Teide National Park is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and is located in the center of the island. In it, the Mount Teide rises as the highest elevation of Spain, the highest of the islands of the Atlantic Ocean, the third-largest volcano in the world from its base. On the island, the Macizo de Anaga has been a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve since 2015, it has the largest number of endemic species in Europe. The island's indigenous people, the Guanche Berbers, referred to the island as Achinet or Chenet in their language. According to Pliny the Younger, Berber king Juba II sent an expedition to the Canary Islands and Madeira.
Juba II and Ancient Romans referred to the island of Tenerife as Nivaria, derived from the Latin word nix, meaning snow, referring to the snow-covered peak of the Teide volcano. Maps dating to the 14th and 15th century, by mapmakers such as Bontier and Le Verrier, refer to the island as Isla del Infierno meaning "Island of Hell," referring to the volcanic activity and eruptions of Mount Teide; the Benahoaritas are said to have named the island, deriving it from the words ife. After colonisation, the Hispanisation of the name resulted in adding the letter "r" to unite both words, producing Tenerife. However, throughout history there have been other explanations to reveal the origin of the name of the island. For example, the 18th-century historians Juan Núñez de la Peña and Tomás Arias Marín de Cubas, among others, state that the island was named by natives for the legendary Guanche king, nicknamed "the Great." He ruled the entire island in the days before the conquest of the Canary Islands by Castilla.
The formal demonym used to refer to the people of Tenerife is Tinerfeño/a. In modern society, the latter term is applied only to inhabitants of the capital, Santa Cruz; the term "chicharrero" was once a derogatory term used by the people of La Laguna when it was the capital, to refer to the poorer inhabitants and fishermen of Santa Cruz. The fishermen caught mackerel and other residents ate potatoes, assumed to be of low quality by the elite of La Laguna; as Santa Cruz grew in commerce and status, it replaced La Laguna as capital of Tenerife in 1833 during the reign of Fernando VII. The inhabitants of Santa Cruz used the former insult to identify as residents of the new capital, at La Laguna's expense; the earliest known human settlement in the islands date to around 200 BC, by Berbers known as the Guanches. However, the Cave of the Guanches in the municipality of Icod de los Vinos in the north of Tenerife, has provided the oldest chronologies of the Canary Islands, with dates around the sixth century BC.
Regarding the technological level, the Guanches can be framed among the peoples of the Stone Age, although this terminology is rejected due to the ambiguity that it presents. The Guanche culture is characterized by an advanced cultural development related to the Berber cultural features imported from North Africa and a poor technological development, determined by the scarcity of raw materials minerals that allow the extraction of metals; the main activity was grazing, although the population were engaged in agriculture, as well as fishing and the collection of shellfish from the shore or using fishing craft. As for beliefs, the Guanche religion was polytheistic. Beside him there was an animistic religiosity that sacralized certain places rocks and mountains. Among the main Guanche gods could be highlighted. Singular was the cult to the dead, practi
Aragon is an autonomous community in Spain, coextensive with the medieval Kingdom of Aragon. Located in northeastern Spain, the Aragonese autonomous community comprises three provinces: Huesca and Teruel, its capital is Zaragoza. The current Statute of Autonomy declares Aragon a historic nationality of Spain. Covering an area of 47720 km2, the region's terrain ranges diversely from permanent glaciers to verdant valleys, rich pasture lands and orchards, through to the arid steppe plains of the central lowlands. Aragon is home to many rivers—most notably, the river Ebro, Spain's largest river in volume, which runs west-east across the entire region through the province of Zaragoza, it is home to the highest mountains of the Pyrenees. As of January 2016, the population of Aragon was 1308563, with over half of it living in its capital city, Zaragoza. During the same year, the economy of Aragon generates a GDP of €34687 million, which represents 3.1% of Spain's national GDP, is 6th in per capita production behind Madrid, Basque Country, Catalonia and La Rioja.
In addition to its three provinces, Aragon is subdivided into counties. All comarcas of Aragon have a rich geopolitical and cultural history from its pre-Roman and Roman days, four centuries of Islamic period as Marca Superior of Al-Andalus or kingdom of Saraqusta, as lands that once belonged to the Frankish Marca Hispanica, counties that formed the Kingdom of Aragon and the Crown of Aragon; the current coat of arms of Aragon is composed of the four barracks and is attested for the first time in 1499, consolidating since the Early Modern Ages to take root decisively in the 19th century and be approved, according to precept, by the Real Academia de la Historia in 1921. The first quartering appears at the end of the 15th century and commemorates, according to traditional interpretation, the legendary kingdom of Sobrarbe; this emblem of gules and gold was used in seals, banners and standards indistinctly, not being but a familiar emblem that denoted the authority as King of Aragon until, with the birth of Modern State, began to be a territorial symbol.
The current flag was approved in 1984, with the provisions of Article 3 of the Statute of Autonomy of Aragon, the flag is the traditional of the four horizontal red bars on a yellow background with the coat of arms of Aragon shifted towards the flagpole. The bars of Aragon, common historic element of the current four autonomous communities that once were integrated into the Crown of Aragon, present in the third quartering of the coat of arms of Spain; the anthem of Aragon was regulated in 1989 with music by the Aragonese composer Antón García Abril that combines the old Aragonese musical tradition with popular musical elements within a modern conception. The lyrics were elaborated by the Aragonese poets Ildefonso Manuel Gil, Ángel Guinda, Rosendo Tello and Manuel Vilas and highlights within its poetic framework, values such as freedom, reason, open land... that represent the expression of Aragon as a people. The Day of Aragon is celebrated on April 23 and commemorates Saint George, patron of the Kingdom of Aragon since the 15th century.
It appears in Article 3 of the Statute of Autonomy of Aragon since 1984. Institutional acts such as the delivery of the Aragon Awards by the Government of Aragon or the composition of a flag of Aragon of flowers, with the collaboration of citizens, in the Plaza de Aragón square of Zaragoza; the area of Aragon is 47720 km2 of which 15636 km2 belong to the province of Huesca, 17275 km2 to the province of Zaragoza and 14810 km2 to the province of Teruel. The total represents a 9.43% of the surface of Spain, being thus the fourth autonomous community in size behind Castile and León, Castile-La Mancha. It is located in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula, at a latitude between 39º and 43º'N in the temperate zone of the Earth, its boundaries and borders are in the north with France, the regions of, in the west with the autonomous communities of Castile-La Mancha, Castile and León, La Rioja and Navarre and in the east with the autonomous communities of Catalonia and Valencian Community. The orography of the community has as central axis the Ebro valley which tr