New Mexico is a state in the Southwestern region of the United States of America. It is one of the Mountain States and shares the Four Corners region with Utah and Arizona. With a population around two million, New Mexico is the 36th state by population. With a total area of 121,592 sq mi, it is the fifth-largest and sixth-least densely populated of the 50 states. Due to their geographic locations and eastern New Mexico exhibit a colder, alpine climate, while western and southern New Mexico exhibit a warmer, arid climate; the economy of New Mexico is dependent on oil drilling, mineral extraction, dryland farming, cattle ranching, lumber milling, retail trade. As of 2016–2017, its total gross domestic product was $95 billion with a GDP per capita of $45,465. New Mexico's status as a tax haven yields low to moderate personal income taxes on residents and military personnel, gives tax credits and exemptions to favorable industries; because of this, its film industry contributed $1.23 billion to its overall economy.
Due to its large area and economic climate, New Mexico has a large U. S. military presence marked notably with the White Sands Missile Range. Various U. S. national security agencies base their research and testing arms in New Mexico such as the Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories. During the 1940s, Project Y of the Manhattan Project developed and built the country's first atomic bomb and nuclear test, Trinity. Inhabited by Native Americans for many thousands of years before European exploration, it was colonized by the Spanish in 1598 as part of the Imperial Spanish viceroyalty of New Spain. In 1563, it was named Nuevo México after the Aztec Valley of Mexico by Spanish settlers, more than 250 years before the establishment and naming of the present-day country of Mexico. After Mexican independence in 1824, New Mexico became a Mexican territory with considerable autonomy; this autonomy was threatened, however, by the centralizing tendencies of the Mexican government from the 1830s onward, with rising tensions leading to the Revolt of 1837.
At the same time, the region became more economically dependent on the United States. At the conclusion of the Mexican–American War in 1848, the United States annexed New Mexico as the U. S. New Mexico Territory, it was admitted to the Union as the 47th state on January 6, 1912. Its history has given New Mexico the highest percentage of Hispanic and Latino Americans, the second-highest percentage of Native Americans as a population proportion. New Mexico is home to part of the Navajo Nation, 19 federally recognized Pueblo communities of Puebloan peoples, three different federally recognized Apache tribes. In prehistoric times, the area was home to Ancestral Puebloans and the modern extant Comanche and Utes inhabited the state; the largest Hispanic and Latino groups represented include the Hispanos of New Mexico and Mexican Americans. The flag of New Mexico features the state's Spanish origins with the same scarlet and gold coloration as Spain's Cross of Burgundy, along with the ancient sun symbol of the Zia, a Puebloan tribe.
These indigenous, Mexican and American frontier roots are reflected in the eponymous New Mexican cuisine and the New Mexico music genre. New Mexico received its name long before the present-day nation of Mexico won independence from Spain and adopted that name in 1821. Though the name “Mexico” itself derives from Nahuatl, in that language it referred to the heartland of the Empire of the Mexicas in the Valley of Mexico far from the area of New Mexico, Spanish explorers used the term “Mexico” to name the region of New Mexico in 1563. In 1581, the Chamuscado and Rodríguez Expedition named the region north of the Rio Grande "San Felipe del Nuevo México"; the Spaniards had hoped to find wealthy indigenous Mexica cultures there similar to those of the Aztec Empire of the Valley of Mexico. The indigenous cultures of New Mexico, proved to be unrelated to the Mexicas, they were not wealthy, but the name persisted. Before statehood, the name "New Mexico" was applied to various configurations of the U.
S. territory, to a Mexican state, to a province of New Spain, all in the same general area, but of varying extensions. With a total area of 121,699 square miles, the state is the fifth-largest state of the US, larger than British Isles. New Mexico's eastern border lies along 103°W longitude with the state of Oklahoma, 2.2 miles west of 103°W longitude with Texas. On the southern border, Texas makes up the eastern two-thirds, while the Mexican states of Chihuahua and Sonora make up the western third, with Chihuahua making up about 90% of that; the western border with Arizona runs along the 109° 03'W longitude. The southwestern corner of the state is known as the Bootheel; the 37°N parallel forms the northern boundary with Colorado. The states of New Mexico, Colorado and Utah come together at the Four Corners in New Mexico's northwestern corner. New Mexico has no natural water sources
Christopher Houston Carson, better known as Kit Carson, was an American frontiersman. He was a mountain man, wilderness guide, Indian agent, U. S. Army officer. Carson became a frontier legend in his own lifetime via biographies and news articles. Exaggerated versions of his exploits were the subject of dime novels, his understated nature belied confirmed reports of his fearlessness, combat skills and profound effect on the westward expansion of the United States. Carson left home in rural present-day Missouri at age 16 to become a mountain man and trapper in the West. In the 1830s, he accompanied Ewing Young on an expedition to Mexican California and joined fur-trapping expeditions into the Rocky Mountains, he married into the Arapaho and Cheyenne tribes. In the 1840s, Carson was hired as a guide by John C. Frémont. Frémont's expeditions covered much of California and the Great Basin area. Frémont mapped and wrote reports and commentaries on the Oregon Trail to assist and encourage westward-bound American pioneers.
Carson achieved national fame through Frémont's accounts of his expeditions. Under Frémont's command, Carson participated in the conquest of Mexican California at the beginning of the Mexican–American War. In the war, Carson was a scout and courier, celebrated for his rescue mission after the Battle of San Pasqual and for his coast-to-coast journey from California to Washington, D. C. to deliver news of the conflict in California to the U. S. government. In the 1850s, he was appointed as the Indian agent to the Jicarilla Apaches. During the American Civil War, Carson led a regiment of Hispanic volunteers from New Mexico on the side of the Union at the Battle of Valverde in 1862; when the Confederate threat to New Mexico was eliminated, Carson led forces to suppress the Navajo, Mescalero Apache, the Kiowa and Comanche peoples by destroying their food sources. Carson took command of Fort Garland, Colorado, he was there only briefly: poor health forced him to retire from military life. Carson had ten children.
The Carson home was in New Mexico. Carson died at Fort Lyon, Colorado, of an aortic aneurysm on May 23, 1868, he is buried in New Mexico, next to his third wife, Josefa Jaramillo. Carson was born in Kentucky on Christmas Eve, 1809, his parents were his second wife, Rebecca Robinson. Lindsay had had five children by his first wife Lucy Bradley, ten more children by Rebecca. Kit was their sixth. Lindsay Carson had a Scots-Irish Presbyterian background, he was a farmer, a cabin builder, a veteran of the American Revolutionary War and the War of 1812. He fought Indians on the American frontier, losing two fingers on his left hand in a battle with the Fox and Sauk Indians; the Carson family moved to Boone's Lick, Howard County, when Kit was about one year old. The family settled on a tract of land owned by the sons of Daniel Boone, who had purchased the land from the Spanish; the Boone and Carson families became good friends and socializing together, intermarrying. Lindsay's oldest son William married Boone's grand-niece, Millie Boone, in 1810.
Their daughter Adaline became Kit's favorite playmate. Missouri was the frontier of American expansionism west; as men worked in the fields, sentries were posted with weapons. These men were ready to kill any Indian. Carson wrote in his Memoirs: "For two or three years after our arrival, we had to remain forted and it was necessary to have men stationed at the extremities of the fields for the protection of those that were laboring."In 1818 Lindsay Carson died when a tree limb fell on him while he was clearing a field. Kit was about 8 years old. Despite being penniless, his mother took care of her children alone for four years, she married Joseph Martin, a widower with several children. Kit did not get along with his stepfather; the decision was made to apprentice him to a saddler in Franklin, Missouri. Kit wrote in his Memoirs that Workman was "a good man, I recall the kind treatment I received."Franklin was situated at the eastern end of the Santa Fe Trail, which had opened two years earlier. Many of the customers at the saddle shop were trappers and traders, from whom Carson heard stirring tales of the West.
Carson found work in the saddlery not to his taste: he once stated "the business did not suit me, I concluded to leave". In August 1826, against his mother's wishes, Kit ran away from his apprenticeship, he went west with a caravan of fur trappers. They made their trek over the Santa Fe Trail to Santa Fe, the capital of Santa Fe de Nuevo México, reaching their destination in November 1826. Kit settled in Taos. Carson lived with Mathew Kinkead, a trapper and explorer who had served with Carson's older brothers during the War of 1812. Carson was mentored by Kinkead in learning the skills of a trapper, while learning the necessary languages for trade, he became fluent in Spanish and several Indian languages. Workman put an advertisement in a local newspaper back in Missouri, he wrote. No one claimed the reward, it was a bit of a joke. The advertisement featured the first printed description of Carson: "Christopher Carson, a boy about 16 years old, small of his age, but thick set.
Mission San Diego de Alcalá
Mission Basilica San Diego de Alcalá was the first Franciscan mission in The Californias, a province of New Spain. Located in present-day San Diego, California, it was founded on July 16, 1769, by Spanish friar Junípero Serra in an area long inhabited by the Kumeyaay people; the mission and the surrounding area were named for the Catholic Didacus of Alcalá, a Spaniard more known as San Diego. The mission was the site of the first Christian burial in Alta California. San Diego is generally regarded as the site of the region's first public execution, in 1778. Father Luis Jayme, California's first Christian martyr, lies entombed beneath the chancel floor; the current church, built in the early 19th century, is the fifth to stand on this location. The mission site is a National Historic Landmark; the former Spanish settlement at the Kumeyaay Nipawai lies within that area occupied during the late Paleoindian period and continuing on into the present day by the Native society known as the Diegueño. Much is known about the native inhabitants in recent centuries, thanks in part to the efforts of Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, who explored the coast in the service of Spain.
He documented his observations of life in the coastal villages he encountered along the Southern California coast in October 1542. Cabrillo was the first European to set foot in what is now the state of California and the first to encounter San Diego Bay. On the evening of September 28, 1542, the ships San Salvador and Victoria sailed into the harbor, whereupon Cabrillo christened it "San Miguel." During that expedition a landing party went ashore and interacted with a small group of natives. Some sixty years another Spanish explorer, Sebastián Vizcaíno, made landfall some ten miles from the present Mission site. Under Vizcaíno's command the San Diego, Santo Tomás, frigate Tres Reyes dropped anchor on November 10, 1602, the port was renamed "San Diego de Alcalá." It would be another 167 years. Since the voyages of Christopher Columbus, the Kingdom of Spain sought to establish missions to convert the pagans in Nueva España to Roman Catholicism to save souls and to facilitate colonization of these lands.
However, it was not until 1741—the time of the Vitus Bering expedition, when the territorial ambitions of Tsarist Russia towards North America became known—that King Philip V felt such installations were necessary in Upper California. In 1769, Visitador General José de Gálvez sent the expedition of Junípero Serra and Gaspar de Portolà to found missions and presidios at San Diego and Monterey, thereby securing Spain's claim to the Pacific Coast harbors recommended by Cabrillo and Vizcaino. Two groups traveled from Lower California on foot, while a pair of packet ships traveled up the coast from the Baja California Peninsula. On August 9, 1834, Governor Figueroa issued his "Decree of Confiscation." The missions were offered for sale to citizens, who were unable to come up with the price, so all mission property was broken up into ranchos and given to ex-military officers who had fought in the War of Independence against Spain. On June 8, 1846, Mission San Diego de Alcalá was given to Santiago Argüello by Governor Pío Pico "...for services rendered to the government."
After the United States annexed California, the Mission was used by the military from 1846 to 1862. President Abraham Lincoln signed a proclamation on May 23, 1862, that restored ownership of the Mission proper to the Roman Catholic Church; when Mission San Diego de Alcalá was granted back to the Church, it was in ruins. In the 1880s Father Anthony Ubach began to restore the old Mission buildings. Father Ubach died in 1907 and restoration work ceased until 1931. In 1941, the Mission once again became a parish church, in what is still an active parish serving the Diocese of San Diego. In 1976, Pope Paul VI designated the Mission church as a minor basilica. Mission San Diego de Alcalá is located within San Diego city limits, near the intersection of Interstate 8 and Interstate 15, one mile east of SDCCU Stadium; the parish is funded by a gift shop, self-guided tours of the grounds and buildings are available to the public for a small donation. California Historical Landmark #242 California Historical Landmark #784 – El Camino Real City of San Diego Historic Designation #113 The goal of the missions was, above all, to become self-sufficient in short order.
Farming, was the most important industry of any mission. Prior to the establishment of the missions, the native peoples knew how to utilize bone, seashells and wood for building, tool making and much more; the missionaries discovered that the Indians, who regarded labor as degrading to men, had to be taught industry in order to learn how to be self-supportive. The result was the establishment of a manual training school that comprised agriculture, the mechanical arts, the raising and care of livestock. Everything consumed and otherwise utilized by the natives was produced at the missions under the supervision of the padres. Wheat, wine grapes, beans, cattle and sheep were the major crops at San Diego. In 1795, construction on a system of aqueducts was begun to bring water to the fields and the Mission; the building manager was Fray Pedro Panto, poisoned by his Indian cook Nazario before the project was completed. In his testimony, in t
Americans are nationals and citizens of the United States of America. Although nationals and citizens make up the majority of Americans, some dual citizens and permanent residents may claim American nationality; the United States is home to people of many different ethnic origins. As a result, American culture and law does not equate nationality with race or ethnicity, but with citizenship and permanent allegiance. English-speakers, speakers of many other languages use the term "American" to mean people of the United States; the word "American" can refer to people from the Americas in general. The majority of Americans or their ancestors immigrated to America or are descended from people who were brought as slaves within the past five centuries, with the exception of the Native American population and people from Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the Philippine Islands, who became American through expansion of the country in the 19th century, additionally America expanded into American Samoa, the U. S. Virgin Islands and Northern Mariana Islands in the 20th century.
Despite its multi-ethnic composition, the culture of the United States held in common by most Americans can be referred to as mainstream American culture, a Western culture derived from the traditions of Northern and Western European colonists and immigrants. It includes influences of African-American culture. Westward expansion integrated the Creoles and Cajuns of Louisiana and the Hispanos of the Southwest and brought close contact with the culture of Mexico. Large-scale immigration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from Southern and Eastern Europe introduced a variety of elements. Immigration from Asia and Latin America has had impact. A cultural melting pot, or pluralistic salad bowl, describes the way in which generations of Americans have celebrated and exchanged distinctive cultural characteristics. In addition to the United States and people of American descent can be found internationally; as many as seven million Americans are estimated to be living abroad, make up the American diaspora.
The United States of America is a diverse country and ethnically. Six races are recognized by the U. S. Census Bureau for statistical purposes: White, American Indian and Alaska Native, Black or African American, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, people of two or more races. "Some other race" is an option in the census and other surveys. The United States Census Bureau classifies Americans as "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino", which identifies Hispanic and Latino Americans as a racially diverse ethnicity that comprises the largest minority group in the nation. People of European descent, or White Americans, constitute the majority of the 308 million people living in the United States, with 72.4% of the population in the 2010 United States Census. They are considered people who trace their ancestry to the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, North Africa. Of those reporting to be White American, 7,487,133 reported to be Multiracial. Additionally, there are Latinos.
Non-Hispanic Whites are the majority in 46 states. There are four minority-majority states: California, New Mexico, Hawaii. In addition, the District of Columbia has a non-white majority; the state with the highest percentage of non-Hispanic White Americans is Maine. The largest continental ancestral group of Americans are that of Europeans who have origins in any of the original peoples of Europe; this includes people via African, North American, Central American or South American and Oceanian nations that have a large European descended population. The Spanish were some of the first Europeans to establish a continuous presence in what is now the United States in 1565. Martín de Argüelles born 1566, San Agustín, La Florida a part of New Spain, was the first person of European descent born in what is now the United States. Twenty-one years Virginia Dare born 1587 Roanoke Island in present-day North Carolina, was the first child born in the original Thirteen Colonies to English parents. In the 2017 American Community Survey, German Americans, Irish Americans, English Americans and Italian Americans were the four largest self-reported European ancestry groups in the United States forming 35.1% of the total population.
However, the English Americans and British Americans demography is considered a serious under-count as they tend to self-report and identify as "Americans" due to the length of time they have inhabited America. This is over-represented in the Upland South, a region, settled by the British. Overall, as the largest group, European Americans have the lowest poverty rate and the second highest educational attainment levels, median household income, median personal income of any racial demographic in the nation. According to the American Jewish Archives and the Arab American National Museum, some of the first Middle Easterners and North Africans arrived in the Americas between the late 15th and mid-16th centuries. Many were fleeing ethnic or ethnoreligious persecution during the Spanish Inquisition, a few were taken to the Americas as slaves. In 2014, The United States Census Bureau began finalizing the ethnic classification of MENA populations. According to the Arab American Institute, Arab
The Kumeyaay known as Tipai-Ipai Kamia or Diegueño, are Native American people of the extreme southwestern United States and northwest Mexico. They live in the states of California in the Baja California in Mexico. In Spanish, the name is spelled Kumiai; the Kumeyaay consist of the Ipai and Tipai. The two coastal groups' traditional homelands were separated by the San Diego River: the northern Ipai and the southern Tipai. Nomenclature and tribal distinctions are not agreed upon; the general scholarly consensus recognizes three separate languages: Ipai, Kumeyaay proper, Tipai in northern Baja California. Other authorities see only two: Tipai. However, this notion is not supported by speakers of the language who contend that within their territory, all Kumeyaay can understand and speak to each other, at least after a brief acclimatization period. All three languages belong to the Delta–California branch of the Yuman language family, to which several other linguistically distinct but related groups belong, including the Cocopa, Quechan and Kiliwa.
The term Kumeyaay means "those who face the water from a cliff". It may come from the Kiliwa word kumeey meaning "man" or "people." Both Ipai/Iipay and Tipai mean "man" or "people." Some Kumeyaay in the southern areas refer to themselves as MuttTipi, which means "people of the earth."Linguist Margaret Langdon is credited with doing much of the early work on documenting the language. Evidence of settlement in what is today considered Kumeyaay territory may go back 12,000 years. 7000 BCE marked the emergence of two cultural traditions: the California Coast and Valley tradition and the Desert tradition. The Kumeyaay had land along the Pacific Ocean from present Oceanside, California in the north to south of Ensenada and extending east to the Colorado River; the Cuyamaca complex, a late Holocene complex in San Diego County is related to the Kumeyaay peoples. The Kumeyaay tribe used to inhabit what is now a popular state park, known as Torrey Pines State Natural Reserve. One view holds that historic Tipai-Ipai emerged around 1000 years ago, though a "proto-Tipai-Ipai culture" had been established by about 5000 BCE.
Katherine Luomola suggests that the "nucleus of Tipai-Ipai groups" came together around AD 1000. The Kumeyaay themselves believe. At the time of European contact, Kumeyaay comprised several autonomous bands with 30 patrilineal clans. Spaniards entered Tipai-Ipai territory in the late 18th century, bringing with them non-native, invasive flora, domestic animals, which brought about degradation to local ecology. Under the Spanish Mission system, bands living near Mission San Diego de Alcalá, established in 1769, were called Diegueños. After Mexico took over the lands from Spain, they secularized the missions in 1834, Ipai and Tipais lost their lands. From 1870 to 1910, American settlers seized lands, including native gathering lands. In 1875, President Ulysses S. Grant created reservations in the area, additional lands were placed under trust patent status after the passage of the 1891 Act for the Relief of Mission Indians; the reservations lacked adequate water supplies. Kumeyaay people supported themselves by farming and agricultural wage labor.
For their common welfare, several reservations formed Inc.. The Kumeyaay Community College was created by the Sycuan Band to serve the Kumeyaay-Diegueño Nation, describes its mission as "to support cultural identity and self-determination while meeting the needs of native and non-Native students." The college's focus is on "Kumeyaay History, Kumeyaay Ethnobotany and traditional Indigenous arts." It "serves and relies on resources from the thirteen reservations of the Kumeyaay Nation situated in San Diego county." In the fall of 2016, Cuyamaca College began offering an associate degree in Kumeyaay Studies with courses at its Rancho San Diego campus, as well as at Kumeyaay Community College on the Sycuan reservation. Estimates for the pre-contact populations of most native groups in California have varied substantially. In 1925, Alfred L. Kroeber proposed that the population of the Kumeyaay in the San Diego region in 1770 had been about 3,000. More Katharine Luomala points out that this estimate depended on calculations of rates of baptisms at the Mission, as such "ignores the unbaptized."
She suggests. Florence C. Shipek goes further. In the late eighteenth century, it is estimated that the Kumeyaay population was between 3,000 and 9,000. In 1828, 1,711 Kumeyaay were recorded by the missions; the 1860 federal census recorded 1,571 Kumeyaay living in 24 villages. The Bureau of Indian Affairs recorded 1,322 Kumeyaay in 1968, with 435 living on reservations. By 1990, an estimated 1,200 lived on reservation lands; the Kumeyaay live on 13 reservations in San Diego County, California in the United States and are enrolled in the following federally recognized tribes: Campo Band of Diegueno Mission Indians of the Campo Indian Reservation Capitan Grande Band of Diegueno Mission Indians of California: Barona Group of Capitan Grande Band of Missi
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
Philip St. George Cooke
Philip St. George Cooke was a career United States Army cavalry officer who served as a Union General in the American Civil War, he is noted for his authorship of an Army cavalry manual, is sometimes called the "Father of the U. S. Cavalry." His service in the Civil War was significant, but was eclipsed in prominence by the contributions made by his famous son in law, J. E. B. Stuart, to the Confederate States Army. Cooke was born in Leesburg, June 13, 1809, he graduated from the United States Military Academy in 1827 and was commissioned a brevet second lieutenant in the infantry. He served at a variety of installations in the Black Hawk War. In 1833 he was promoted to first lieutenant in the newly formed 1st U. S. Dragoons. Cooke went on numerous trips of exploration into the Far West with the Dragoons; as Captain in command of 200 Dragoons, he disarmed and arrested Colonel Jacob Snively's Republic of Texas company of about 100 men, who were attempting to disrupt trade along the Santa Fe Trail, in what was described as the Second Texas Santa Fe Expedition.
During the Mexican–American War he led the Mormon Battalion from Santa Fe to California, establishing what became known as Cooke's Wagon Road to become the southern route to California during the California Gold Rush. He received a brevet promotion to lieutenant colonel for his service in California. In command of 2nd U. S. Dragoons, he defeated the Jicarilla Apache in Ojo Caliente, New Mexico in 1854, was in the 1855 Battle of Ash Hollow against the Sioux, was sent to keep the peace in Bleeding Kansas in 1856–1857. Acquainted with Brigham Young, Cooke took part in the Utah expedition of 1857–58, after which he was promoted to colonel and assigned command of the 2nd U. S. Dragoons, he was an observer for the U. S. Army in the Crimean War and commanded the Department of Utah from 1860 until 1861; the issue of secession divided Cooke's family. Cooke himself remained loyal to the Union, but his son, John Rogers Cooke, became an infantry brigade commander in the Army of Northern Virginia. J. E. B. Stuart, the famous Confederate cavalry commander, was Cooke's son-in-law.
Cooke and Stuart never spoke again, Stuart saying, "He will regret it only once, that will be continually." At the start of the American Civil War, the U. S. Army had five mounted regiments. Cooke commanded the 2nd Dragoons, redesignated the 2nd U. S. Cavalry; as they prepared to ride into their first battles, they had the potential opportunity to learn from the two-volume manual on cavalry tactics written by Cooke in 1858, but not published until 1862. It was a controversial work at the time and the War Department chose not to make it the basis for official doctrine. Cooke espoused the value of mounted attacks as the primary purpose for cavalry forces; those who agreed that cavalry charges retained some value found reasons to disagree with Cooke. A prominent theory of cavalry charges at the time, endorsed by future generals Henry W. Halleck and George B. McClellan, was that the cavalry should be deployed in double ranks, which would increase the shock effect of the charge by providing an immediate follow-up attack.
Cooke's manual called for a single-rank formation in which a battalion of four companies would form a single line and two squadrons of two companies each would cover the flanks. A third battalion would be placed in reserve a few hundred yards to the rear. Cook believed that the double-rank offensive promoted disorder of the horses in the ranks and would be difficult to control. Cooke was appointed brigadier general, U. S. Army, on November 21, 1861, to rank from November 12, 1861. President Abraham Lincoln nominated Cooke for the appointment on December 21, 1861 and the U. S. Senate confirmed it on March 7, 1862, he commanded a brigade of regular army cavalry within the defenses of Washington, D. C. For the Peninsula Campaign, he was selected by McClellan to command the Cavalry Reserve, a division-sized force, of the Army of the Potomac; when Confederate forces evacuated the city of Yorktown, Cooke was sent along with Major General George Stoneman in pursuit and his cavalry was roughed up in an assault ordered by Stoneman against Fort Magruder.
He saw subsequent action at the battles of Williamsburg, Gaines' Mill, White Oak Swamp. Cooke ordered an ill-fated charge of the 5th U. S. Cavalry at Gaines' Mill during the Seven Days Battles, sacrificing nearly an entire regiment of regulars. After the Peninsula, Cooke left active field service. One proximate reason was the embarrassment he suffered when his son-in-law, Jeb Stuart, humiliated the Union cavalry by encircling the Army of the Potomac in his celebrated raid. Cooke served on boards of court-martial, commanded the District of Baton Rouge, was superintendent of Army recruiting for the Adjutant General's office. On July 17, 1866, President Andrew Johnson nominated Cooke for appointment to the brevet grade of major general in the regular army, to rank from March 13, 1865, the U. S. Senate confirmed the appointment on July 23, 1866. Cooke commanded the Department of the Platte from 1866 to 1867, the Department of the Cumberland from 1869 to 1870, the Department of the Lakes, he retired from the Army with 50 years service on October 29, 1873, as a brigadier general.
Cooke was a member of the Michigan Commandery of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States. Cooke is the author of a variety of memoirs of his service: Notes of a Military Reconnaissance, from Fort Leavenworth, in Missouri, to S