Gonzalo Molina is an Argentine male BMX rider, representing his nation in international competitions. He competed in the time trial event at the 2015 UCI BMX World Championships. Molina was selected as part of the British cycling team for the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro, competing in the men's BMX race. After he grabbed a twenty-eighth seed on the opening round with a time of 36.860 and finished fourth in the quarterfinals, Molina scored a total of 16 placing points to take the sixth spot in his semifinal heat, thus missing out on a chance to compete for the medals at the final race. Profile at Sports-result.org
Valledupar is a city and municipality in northeastern Colombia. It is the capital of Cesar Department, its name, Valle de Upar, was established in honor of the Amerindian cacique. The city lies between the mountains of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta and the Serranía del Perijá to the borders of the Guatapurí and Cesar rivers. Valledupar is an important agricultural, cattle raising, coal mining and agro-industrial center for the region between the Departments of Cesar and southern municipalities of La Guajira Department known as the Padilla Province. Valledupar is notable as the cradle of vallenato music, representative of the Colombian culture; the city hosts the Vallenato Legend Festival. During the 1980s, 1990s and early 2000s, the city suffered during the Colombian Armed Conflict, with numerous kidnappings, thousands of people forced out and failure to control crime. Valledupar has one of Colombia's most modern maximum security prisons; the municipality of Valledupar is located southeast of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, 10 degrees, 29 minutes, of north latitude and 73 degrees 15 minutes longitude to the west of the Greenwich Meridian.
Valledupar's average temperature is 28 °C. Because of its high altitude but proximity to the equator, this municipality possesses a variety of environments, from warm heat to perpetual snow; the most important heights are the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta's peaks. Many rivers descend from its snowy lagoons; the Municipality of Valledupar is bordered on the north with the municipalities of Riohacha and San Juan del Cesar in the department of La Guajira. To the south are the municipalities of El Paso and Los Robles La Paz in the department of Cesar; the municipality has an area of about 4,977.96 km², from which 72,660 km² pertain to the Arhuacos Indian Reserve, 399.52 km² to the Kogui and Wiwa Indian Reserve, 425.60 km² to the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta National Park. The municipality is home to numerous endemic species living in the ecosystem of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta and Serrania del Perijá mountains, one of the most biodiverse places in the World; the most discovered species of bees was found in rural areas of Valledupar and named Stelis vallenata in tribute to the local Vallenato music.
The city's symbolic bird is the Turpial. Other notable birds that inhabit the region are the parrots that flock the fruit trees year round. During the colonial period, Spaniards introduced invasive European fauna into the region, such as dogs, rats, cattle, mules, goats y gallineta africana, among others. Spaniards introduced numerous species of flora from all over the World into the region, most notably mango trees, which have become the most popular tree in the city and municipality. However, the symbolic trees of the city are two types of Yellow Tabebuia, colloquially called "Cañaguate" and Puy; these trees cover the region with their notorious yellow blossom flowers during the dry season. The entities in charge of protecting and controlling the fauna and flora in the region are the Colombian Ministry of Environment, the local descentralized agency Corpocesar, under the Governor of the Cesar Department and Environmental Police of the Colombian National Police. Other non-profit organizations collaborate with these entities.
Climate in the municipality of Valledupar is determined by altitude. Half of the region is mountainous and the rest is plains in between the mountain ranges of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta and the Serrania del Perijá. Throughout the year, the region has two dry seasons and two rainy seasons affected by El Niño and La Niña phenomena; the peaks of the mountainous region gets snow during the rainy season and much cooler days and depending on the weather, the entire regions gets hit by hailstorms and thunderstorms. The regions is affected by the annual Caribbean hurricane season; the levels of rivers and bodies of water increase in the rainy season, vegetation grows green and bushy. During the dry season, vegetations dries and turns yellow, while bodies of water decrease in volume. In 2013, Valledupar was classified in average as the hottest place in Colombia, according to the Colombian Meteorological Institute, IDEAM; the Spanish named the Valle de Upar after a legendary local Amerindian cacique, leader of the indigenous Chimila.
The region was first explored by Pedro de Badillo. It was conquered in 1532 by the German Ambrosius Ehinger, governor of Venezuela, who invaded the area belonging to the government of Santa Marta; the city was founded in 1550 by Captain Hernando de Santana, who named it. The Catholic Church referred to the city as Ciudad de los Santos Reyes de Valle de Upar because it was founded on the 6th day of January, the day the three kings visited the infant Jesus; the name was modified to Valle Dupar and to Valledupar. Since the colonization period, the region has been a center for imports from the Caribbean area and distribution to the inland. Spaniards traveled through the area and established extensive farming rearing imported European cattle and agriculture. Much of the population of the Chimila Nation died from epidemics of new infectious diseases carried by the Europeans.
National Festival of the Dividivi
The National Festival of the Dividivi is a festival in the Department of La Guajira, Colombia. The festival was created in 1969 by mandate of mayor of Riohacha, Ernestina Serrano; the National Festival of the Dividivi is named after the Dividivi tree, considered a symbol of the Department of La Guajira. The festival is celebrated every year from June 29 to July 1, the last day celebrating the creation of the Department of La Guajira. List of festivals in La Guajira Festivals in Colombia
Rafael Calixto Escalona Martinez was a Colombian composer and troubadour. He was known for being one of the most prominent vallenato music composers and troubadours of the genre and for being the co-founder of the Vallenato Legend Festival, along with Consuelo Araújo and Alfonso López Michelsen, he was a long-time friend of Gabriel García Márquez, who included him in his stories and once told him that his own masterpiece novel, 100 years of solitude, was just a 350-page Vallenato. Escalona's songs compile the history and stories of the Magdalena Department of the past 20th century. Escalona was an atypical music composer: he does not play any instruments or sing so his songs can in some ways be difficult to analyze, his songs constitute a legacy of a past generation of Colombians in his memory, a pictorial collage, full of grace, that narrates stories and gossips from his region. He left a legacy of his loves and pains and poetry. In 1991 Caracol TV produced, he was born on May 26, 1926 to Colonel Clemente Escalona Labarces, veteran of Thousand Days War and Margarita Martinez Celedon in Patillal.
Because Patillal was a village in a rural area surrounded by farms, it was small and there wasn't that much to do after school, other than play with other kids and make up games. He had a happy childhood, dreamed of becoming a painter or cartoonist drawing funny depictions of classmates and teachers, but his all time friend and classmate, Jaime Molina was better at drawing than him, something that drove him instead, to read poetry and songs. He grew up listening to peasants and troubadours of the region that passed by the village bringing news from Valledupar and other regions, since there was no post office or other source of news that arrived at this isolated place, he moved to Valledupar to attend high school at The Loperena National High School where he composed his first song at the age of fifteen in 1943 called "El profe Castañeda". He wrote the song in honor and sadness of his favourite teacher being transferred to a school in Riohacha, his natural reaction was to dedicate a song to "el viejo Pedro" as he called him, since he grew up listening to local troubadours.
His classmates, who were saddened over the teacher's departure, embraced his song. From on, he saw himself doing something that he was good at, started writing songs whenever a situation merged. In 1945, feeling bored and short of motivation for school, Escalona was transferred to a school in Barranquilla for a short period and to the Celedon Lyceum High School in Santa Marta, where he composed "El Hambre del Liceo", complaining about the poor food quality that the school offered. Tired of school he went back to Valledupar. In Valledupar he devoted his time to learning about agriculture, he started planting rice. He tried to break into the illegal coffee trade by bringing contraband from Aruba with a friend named "Pipe" Socarras, he became a heavy drinker of whiskey and rum. He started courting many women at once. On April 14, 1951 he got married to Marina Arzuaga Mejía known as "La Maye", who would give him six of his presently suspected thirty six children.. By the 1950s he had become a renowned composer and befriended with local political leaders in "parrandas".
He always departed with people from Patillal including husband of Consuelo Araújo. By the 1960s, when former President of Colombia Alfonso López Michelsen became governor of the newly created Department of Cesar, Lopez was invited to live in Hernando Molina's house. In this "vallenato parrandas" or parties, Consuelo Araújo and Lopez decided to create a Vallenato Festival. López invited them in many occasions to Bogotá, where he organized vallenato parrandas and introduced them to Colombia's political leaders. In 1968 the first Vallenato Legend Festival took place, he died on the afternoon May 2009 in Bogotá, Colombia due to heart failure. He had been interned for two weeks in the Santa Fe Clinic in Bogotá and had been on a medical ventilator and unconscious earlier that day. Before he died Escalona received a visit from the Colombian Ex-President Álvaro Uribe. "El Hambre del Liceo" "La casa en el aire" "Elegía a Jaime Molina" "La vieja sara" "El Almirante Padilla" "La patillalera" "La custodia de Badillo" "El villanuevero" "El general Dangond" "La historia" "Honda herida" "La brasilera" "El arco iris" "El perro de Pavajeau" "EL jerre jerre" "La Privincia" "El testamento" "El Bachiller" "Maria Tere" Guillermo Buitrago Julio César Bovea Rafael Escalona - Daily Telegraph obituary
Barranquilla's Carnival is one of Colombia's most important folkloric celebrations, one of the biggest carnival in the world. The carnival has traditions. Four days before Holy Month, Barranquilla decks itself out to receive national and foreign tourists and joins together with the city's inhabitants to enjoy four days of intense festivities. During the carnival, Barranquilla's normal activities are paralyzed because the city gets busy with street dances and masquerade parades. Barranquilla's Carnival includes dances such as the Spanish paloteo, African congo, indigenous mico y micas. Many styles of Colombian music are performed, most prominently cumbia, instruments include drums and wind ensembles; the Carnival of Barranquilla was proclaimed a Cultural Masterpiece of the Nation by Colombia's National Congress in 2002. The UNESCO, in Paris on November 7, 2003, declared it one of the Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity, it was during Olga Lucia Rodriquez Carnival Queen starts on the Saturday before the Ash Wednesday with the Battle of the Flowers, considered one of the main activities.
The Great Parade on Sunday and Monday is marked by an Orchestra Festival with Caribbean and Latin bands. Tuesday signals the end of the carnival, announced by the burial of Joselito Carnaval, mourned by everyone; the Barranquilla Carnival has been claimed to be the second largest carnival in the world, surpassed only by Rio de Janeiro. Barranquilla's Carnival slogan is: Those. Little is known about how and why this carnival began. There are many theories; the carnival originates from a combination of pagan ceremonies, catholic beliefs and ethnic diversity and is a mixture of the European and Indian traditions and music. It was at first a holiday for slaves, grew to be a celebration of the region. Local beliefs date it back seven centuries and it is known that a great deal of the traditions were brought to America by the Spanish and Portuguese; the first notable date in the Carnival's history is 1888, when a figure known as King Momo appeared in the documented history of the Carnival. In 1903, the first known battle of the flowers was recorded to recover a long lost carnival tradition and, fifteen years the first Barranquilla's Carnival's queen was chosen to preside over the festivities of the carnival, institutionalised in 1923.
In the years that followed the carnival grew and so did the traditions, including the integration of the great parade. 1888: King Momo emerged as one of the main characters. 1899: The first President of the Carnival and the first Board of directors were elected. 1903: The first Battle of Flowers parade 1918: Alicia Lafaurie Roncallo elected as the first Carnival Queen. 1923: The Carnival was institutionalised, since the queen contest had been cancelled for the 5 previous years. 1967: The Great Parade event was introduced. It now takes place on the second day of the carnival on Sundays. 1969: The Orchestra Festival was created, a musical competition ranging over various genres. 1974: The first Guacherna took place due to Esther Forero's initiative. The Guacherna is now celebrated on the previous week Friday. 2002: The Carnival was declared as a National Culture Heritage by the Colombian Senate 2003: The Carnival was proclaimed by UNESCO on November 7, as one of the Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.
The festivities, which are presided over by both the carnival queen and the Momo King elected the previous year, starts non-officially just after the New Year's Eve. The pre-carnival events begins with the Lectura del Bando, followed by la toma de la ciudad, the crowning of the Carnival Queen and the Momo King, the children parade, the gay parade and La Guacherna, a nocturnal parade regarded as the most important pre-carnival event; the reading of the Carnival Proclamation is one of the most important Barranquilla's pre-Carnival events, because it marks the beginning of the pre-Carnivals. In this act, which takes place traditionally at La Paz Square, the current Barranquilla mayor symbolically grants the keys of the city to the carnival queen, hence "ceding" their power to her for as long as the carnival season lasts; this proclamation may be seen as a "decree" divided into paragraphs that explains what is permitted and what is forbidden for the attendants during the period of celebration.
Each paragraph includes gripping happenings of the city that incentivise the revelry. It is read publicly by the queen during a folkloric act accompanied by the Momo King, the children kings and displays of folkloric dance groups, it is carried out on the previous Thursday to the Battle of flowers parade. During this show, the previous carnival queen crowns the current carnival queen, amid a party with full of dancing and music, it is held at the Romelio Martinez Stadium. The crowning act dates back from 1918 when the first carnival queen, Alicia Lafaurie Roncallo, was crowned at the disappeared Barranquilla Club. Since the tradition of electing the carnival queen among upper-class young women of the city to preside
Festival Folclórico y Reinado Nacional del Bambuco
The Bambuco Pageant and Folkloric Festival is the largest and most important celebration in Huila Department and one of the most important celebrations in southern Colombia. It is celebrated annually in the city of Neiva during the Feast of Saints Peter and Paul and attracts a considerable number of Colombian and foreign tourists; the festival was declared National Cultural heritage by the Congress of Colombia in 2006. The Festivity is formed by three events, the Folkloric Festival, the Bambuco Pageant and the International Folklore Exposition; the Festival celebrates Bambuco music. Since the 18th century, locals celebrated obedience to the Spanish monarch in the months of June and July, as well as the Feast of Saint Peter and Saint John. At the time, Saint John's Feast was a rural festivity while Saint Peter's was celebrated in the cities. In 1960, the festivities were officialized and the Festival Folclórico y Reinado Nacional del Bambuco were established; the Reinado Nacional del Bambuco is a contest similar to beauty pageants in which contestants, each representing a Colombian Department, are judged on six parameters: Performance of Sanjuanero dance, general knowledge, popularity and performance of regional dance.
Of these, the performance of the Sanjuanero dance grants the most points, followed by beauty. The contests' winner is declared as the National Bambuco Queen, it has been made in 57 uninterrupted editions from 1961 to 2017, the first winning department was Huila while the most recent and current winner of the title is Huila as well. In the 57 editions a total of 21 territorial entities have obtained at least one crown, the department that has won the most is the host department, with a total of 7 crowns, followed by Atlántico with 6, Meta and Caquetá both with 5 and Valle del Cauca with 4, the information of all the winning departments with their respective years is shown below: "Anselmo Durán Plazas" National Music Performing Contest. "Jorge Villamil Cordovez" National Music Composition Contest. "Inés García de Durán" National and International Dance Encounter. Media related to Festival Folclórico y Reinado Nacional del Bambuco at Wikimedia Commons Ferias & Fiestas que no te puedes Perder, Colombia
Paz Sin Fronteras
Paz sin Fronteras refers to a series of free outdoor concerts lead by the Colombian singer Juanes along with other internationally recognized artists. The first string of concerts took place in 2008 along the Colombia-Venezuela border on the Simón Bolivar International Bridge; the second took place in 2009 in Cuba’s Plaza de la Revolución and a third was planned for Caracas, Venezuela in 2013. The purpose of the first concert was to reaffirm the nonviolence message that Colombians and Ecuadorians are South American brothers, independent of the relation between the political orientation of shifting governments, it was organized by Juanes. It took place March 16, 2008 between 1:35 pm and 5:40 pm on the Simón Bolivar International Bridge, on the Colombia-Venezuela border located between the city of Cúcuta and the town of San Antonio del Táchira. Paz sin Fronteras began as an initiative against the 2008 Andean diplomatic crisis that held Ecuador and Venezuela, since Colombian forces invaded Ecuadorian territory in the Santa Rosa Bombardment of 2008.
This bombardment took place as a result of the failure of Raul Reyes, second in command of the Colombian Revolutionary Armed Forces. These border violations of the neighboring country generated a crisis that included the movement of Venezuelan and Ecuadorian troops to the borders; this crisis ended with the Rio Group meeting on March 7, 2008 in the Dominican Republic. The artists that participated in the first concert were Alejandro Sanz, Juan Fernando Velasco, Carlos Vives, Juan Luis Guerra, Miguel Bosé, Ricardo Montaner, in addition to Juanes. None of the artists or the individuals in charge of the concert received any payment for their services, as the event was a free outdoor concert with the purpose of serving as a symbol of peace in the region. According to the calculations, more than 300,000 people attended Paz sin Fronteras; the second concert took place in the Havana on the stage of La Plaza de la Revolución in front of more than 1,150,000 people. The audience was made up of Cubans, with foreigners including tourists and students.
In an unprecedented figure for this kind of show and his guests closed the historic concert of Paz Sin Fronteras Project in the Havana. The artists who attended: Juanes, Olga Tañón, Danny Rivera, Miguel Bose, Victor Manuelle, Luis Eduardo Aute, Juan Fernando Velasco, Amaury Pérez, Silvio Rodríguez, Carlos Varela, X-Alfonso, Cucu Diamantes, Yerba Buena and Los Van Van ended with excitement, singing in a grand chorus for peace, in the second concert of Paz sin Fronteras; the artistic performance, which exceeded five hours has become since an unprecedented historic success, both for the number of people who attended and for the international repercussion. In the words of Olga Tañón, this day surpassed “all the expectations of my life. Thank the people of Cuba for it” Her fellow Puerto Rican, Danny Rivera, was inspired and his declarations made up these verses: “This concert is the seed that grows in the ground, the marvel of the human being transforms into rain, into water, into wind so that the new dream of the human being germinates.”
Miguel Bosé Juan Luis Guerra Juanes – "Me Enamora", "A Dios le Pido", "La Camisa Negra" Ricardo Montaner Alejandro Sanz – "Corazón Partio" Juan Fernando Velasco Carlos Vives The concert was broadcast live on several television networks throughout the Americas. It was broadcast on Caracol and RCN in Colombia and on Venevisión, RCTV Internacional and Globovisión in Venezuela, it was broadcast on A&E in Latin America and on Univisión in the United States. Colombian president Álvaro Uribe cancelled his attendance at the concert by request of Fernán Martínez, Juanes' manager, who communicated to his office that the concert was intended to have a neutral agenda instead of a political one. Colombian singer-songwriter Shakira was invited to perform at the concert, but she could not attend because of a busy schedule. However, she stated a press release saying that she would wear white on March 16 as a form to demonstrate her sympathy for Paz Sin Fronteras; the message of the concert, according to U. S. representative Jim McGovern, was to circumvent politicians, using the medium of music, speak directly to young people and encourage them to think in fresh ways — to change their way of thinking — and leave behind the old politics, the old hatreds and national enmities that have locked too many people into patterns of conflict, violence and despair, dividing them from one another.
It was an attempt to ask people to join in common purpose. Headliner: Juanes The concert was transmitted live on the Hispanic Information and Telecommunications Network and was acknowledged by U. S. representative Jim McGovern in the House of Representatives during morning-hour debate on September 22, 2009, broadcast on C-SPAN. "We are here for the music and it is a message of peace and unity, not only for Cuba, but for the entire region." Many of the 1.5 million patrons wore white to symbolize peace. The BBC's Michael Voss, at the five-and-a-half hour concert, said there was a mood of excitement as many residents of the isolated, music-loving island had never seen anything like it before. "My understanding is. He puts on a good concert. I don't think it hurts U. S.-Cuban relations, these kinds of cultural exchanges." Both the United States and Cuban governments helped facilitate the concert, including providing Juanes and his company of 15 international and Cuban artists full control over message and stagi