Södertälje Municipality is a municipality in Stockholm County in east central Sweden. Its seat is located in the city of Södertälje, it borders to Lake Mälaren in the north and the Baltic Sea in the south, within the Stockholm County to Nykvarn Municipality and Salem Municipality and border Södermanland County and its municipals Gnesta and Trosa. Södertälje has the fifth largest number of Finnish-speaking Sweden Finns in Sweden: 11,000, or around 13 per cent of the city population. Thus, taken together and Estimated 120,000 Assyrians in Sweden and account for 40 per cent of the inhabitants of the city; the municipality was created 1967–1971 through the amalgamation of the former City of Södertälje with large rural and suburban areas surrounding it. In 1999, it was split when a new entity, Nykvarn Municipality, was detached from Södertälje Municipality. Two big industries dominate Södertälje. Scania AB employed over 9,000 people. AstraZeneca is an international manufacturer of drugs employing over 3,000 people.
The municipal Södertälje itself employs over 5,600 people including teachers and people working with elderly people. Södertälje has a canal, Södertälje Canal, important for the ships who want to reach the big lake Mälaren from the Baltic Sea. On the 31st of December 2017 the number of people with a foreign background was 50 911, or 53.01% of the population. On the 31st of December 2002 the number of residents with a foreign background was 27 724, or 34.82% of the population. On 31 December 2017 there were 96 032 residents in Södertälje, of which 37 556 people were born in a country other than Sweden. Divided by country in the table below - the Nordic countries as well as the 12 most common countries of birth outside of Sweden for Swedish residents have been included, with other countries of birth bundled together by continent by Statistics Sweden. Björn Borg, former tennis player Johan Edlund and leader of the bands Tiamat and Lucyfire Tom Wandell, NHL Player Gnesta Hölö Järna Mölnbo Södertälje These are the local results of the Riksdag elections since the 1972 municipality reform.
The results of the Sweden Democrats were not published by SCB between 1988 and 1998 at a municipal level to the party's small nationwide size at the time. "Votes" denotes valid votes, whereas "Turnout" denotes blank and invalid votes. Blocs This lists the relative strength of the socialist and centre-right blocs since 1973, but parties not elected to the Riksdag are inserted as "other", including the Sweden Democrats results from 1988 to 2006, but the Christian Democrats pre-1991 and the Greens in 1982, 1985 and 1991; the sources are identical to the table above. The coalition or government mandate marked in bold formed the government after the election. New Democracy got elected in 1991 but are still listed as "other" due to the short lifespan of the party. "Elected" is the total number of percentage points from the municipality that went to parties who were elected to the Riksdag. The municipality is twinned with: Struer Municipality, Denmark Pärnu, Estonia Forssa, Finland Angers, France Sarpsborg, Norway Södertälje Municipality - Official site
Provinces of Sweden
The provinces of Sweden are historical and cultural regions. Sweden has 25 provinces and they have no administrative function, but remain historical legacies and the means of cultural identification. Dialects and folklore rather follows the provincial borders than the borders of the counties. Several of them were subdivisions of Sweden until 1634, when they were replaced by the counties of Sweden; some were conquered on from Denmark–Norway. Others, like the provinces of Finland, were lost. Lapland is the only province acquired through colonization. In some cases, the administrative counties correspond exactly to the provinces, as is Blekinge to Blekinge County and Gotland, a province, county and a municipality. While not corresponding with the province, Härjedalen Municipality is beside Gotland the only municipality named after a province. In other cases, they do not, which enhances the cultural importance of the provinces. In addition, the administrative units are subject to continuous changes–several new counties were for instance created in the 1990s–while the provinces have had their historical borders outlined for centuries.
Since 1884 all the provinces are ceremonial duchies, but as such have no administrative or political functions. The provinces of Sweden are still used in colloquial speech and cultural references, can therefore not be regarded as an archaic concept; the main exception is Lapland where the population see themselves as a part of Västerbotten or Norrbotten, based on the counties. Two other exceptions are Stockholm and Gothenburg, where the population see themselves as living in the city, not in a province, since both cities have province borders through them. English and other languages use Latin names as alternatives to the Swedish names; the name Scania for Skåne predominates in English. Some purely English exonyms, such as the Dales for Dalarna, East Gothland for Östergötland, Swedish Lapland for Lappland and West Bothnia for Västerbotten are common in English literature. Swedes writing in English have long used Swedish-language name forms only; the origins of the provincial divisions lay in the petty kingdoms that became more and more subjected to the rule of the Kings of Sweden during the consolidation of Sweden.
Until the country law of Magnus Ericson in 1350, each of these lands still had its own laws with its own assembly, in effect governed themselves. The historical provinces were considered duchies, but newly conquered provinces added to the kingdom either received the status of a duchy or a county, depending on their individual importance. After the separation from the Kalmar Union in 1523 the Kingdom incorporated only some of its new conquests as provinces; the most permanent acquisitions stemmed from the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658, in which the former Danish Scanian lands – the provinces of Skåne, Blekinge and Gotland – along with the Norwegian Bohuslän, Jämtland and Härjedalen, became Swedish and integrated. Other foreign territories were ruled as Swedish Dominions under the Swedish monarch, in some cases for two or three centuries. Norway, in personal union with Sweden from 1814 to 1905, never became an integral part of Sweden; the division of Västerbotten that took place with the cession of Finland caused Norrbotten to emerge as a county, to be recognized as a province in its own right.
It was granted a coat of arms as late as in 1995. Some scholars suggest. Sweden was seen as containing four "lands": Götaland Svealand Österland Norrland In the Viking age and earlier, Götaland and Svealand consisted of a number of petty kingdoms that were more or less independent; the leading tribe of Götaland in the Iron Age was the Geats. "Norrland" was the overall denomination for all of the unexplored northern parts, the outward boundaries of which and control by the Swedish king were weakly defined into the early modern age. Österland in southern and central Finland formed an integral part of Sweden. In 1809 Finland was annexed by Russia, reunited with some frontier counties annexed several decades earlier to form the Grand Duchy of Finland, becoming in 1917 the independent country of Finland; the borders of these regions have changed several times throughout history, adapting to changes in national borders, Norrland, Svealand and Götaland are only parts of Sweden and have never superseded the concept of the provinces.
At the funeral of King Gustav Vasa in 1560 some early versions of coats of arms for 23 of the provinces listed below were displayed together for the first time, most of them having been created for that particular occasion. Erik XIV of Sweden modeled the funeral processions for Gustav Vasa on the continental renaissance funerals of influential German dukes, who in turn may have styled their display of power on Charles V's funeral procession, where flags were used to represent each entry in the long list of titles of the dead. Having only three flags as a representation of the entities Svealand, Götaland and Wends mentioned in Vasa's title, "King of Sweden, the Goths and the Wends", would have been diminutive in comparison with the pompous displays of ducal power on the continent, so flags were promptly created to represent each of the provinces. At the funer
Danderyd Municipality is a municipality north of Stockholm in Stockholm County in east central Sweden. It is one of the smallest municipalities of the most affluent, its seat is located in Djursholm. The "old" rural municipality Danderyd was split up during the early 20th century, when Djursholm and Stocksund broke away in 1901 and 1910 respectively. Since 1971 Danderyd Municipality is reunified in the old boundaries; the four districts making up Danderyd are: Danderyd, Stocksund within Stockholm urban area and Enebyberg. The European route E18 stretches through the municipality, from the road bridge over the Stocksundet sea strait, north towards Norrtälje Municipality. Danderyd is served by the Stockholm public transport system through SL. There are two stations on the Stockholm metro red line: Mörby centrum. There are several stops on the narrow gauge Roslagsbanan suburban railway as well as an extensive bus network including a large bus interchange at Danderyds sjukhus; the population in Danderyd Municipality is among the most affluent in the country, having the highest median income per capita.
One of the reasons for this is the high price on real estate, which in turn is due to a restrictive policy on new developments by the municipality council. The high income of the population has enabled the municipality to maintain a low rate of taxation, but a government redistribution scheme intended to transfer money from municipalities with a better than average economic situation is one factor that has forced the local government to raise the municipal income tax somewhat in the last few years. Danderyd Municipality has the highest share of educated persons in the country. On the 31st of December 2017 the number of people with a foreign background was 6 402, or 19.47% of the population. On the 31st of December 2002 the number of residents with a foreign background was 4 512, or 15.16%. On 31 December 2017 there were 32 888 residents in Danderyd, of which 5 394 people were born in a country other than Sweden, divided by country in the table below - the Nordic countries as well as the 12 most common countries of birth outside of Sweden for Swedish residents have been included, with other countries of birth bundled together by continent by Statistics Sweden.
Ted Brithen, ice hockey player Hanna Stjärne, CEO, Sveriges Television Christian Lindberg and conductor Princess Sofia, Duchess of Värmland, former model and reality television contestant, wife of Prince Carl Philip, Duke of Värmland Prince Nicolas, Duke of Ångermanland, son of Princess Madeleine, Duchess of Hälsingland and Gästrikland and Christopher O'Neill Prince Alexander, Duke of Södermanland, son of Prince Carl Philip, Duke of Värmland and Princess Sofia, Duchess of Värmland Helge von Koch and pioneer in fractals Irina Björklund, Finnish actress, born in Danderyd Tove Lo pop musician Benjamin Ingrosso singer Danderyd municipal election, 2002 Danderyd Municipality - Official site
Täby Municipality is a municipality north of Stockholm in Stockholm County in east central Sweden. Its seat is located in the town of Täby. Täby Municipality can be characterized as a suburb of Stockholm; the municipality is one of few in Sweden which has the same size as the original entity created out of Täby parish, when the first local government acts came into force in 1863. It has not been amalgamated with other units. For statistical purposes the municipality is divided into two non-administrative urban areas; the southern built-up area constituted until 2014 the multimunicipal urban area Täby, situated in Danderyd Municipality. From 2015 it is considered part of Stockholm urban area The northern built-up area, is part of the bimunicipal Vallentuna urban area, of which the main part constitutes the seat of Vallentuna Municipality. On the 31st of December 2017 the number of people with a foreign background was 15 429, or 21.91% of the population. On the 31st of December 2002 the number of residents with a foreign background was 9 760, or 16.21% of the population.
On 31 December 2017 there were 70 405 residents in Täby, of which 12 183 people were born in a country other than Sweden. Divided by country in the table below - the Nordic countries as well as the 12 most common countries of birth outside of Sweden for Swedish residents have been included, with other countries of birth bundled together by continent by Statistics Sweden. Täby is one of the wealthiest municipalities in Sweden, with the 2nd highest median income per capita; the share of educated persons, according to Statistics Sweden's definition: persons with post-secondary education, three years or longer, is 43.9% and the 6th highest in the country. The municipality is served by the Stockholm public transport system through SL. There are twelve stops on all the three branches of the narrow gauge Roslagsbanan suburban railway. There is bus connection with the Stockholm metro as well as an extensive internal bus network. During the first millennium, Täby was part of the lands of the Svear, known as Svitjod.
Remains from this period can be found in more than 37 runestones found in the municipality. In the north of the municipality can be found, the remains of the 11th-century causeway known as Jarlabankes bro; the cross on Täby's coat of arms is found on the Risbylestenen, a runestone, in the northern part of the municipality. It is said. During the Middle Ages, Täby was part of the Attundaland region. Täby remained a rural community until the 19th century. Most of the land was owned by the noble families. During the 16th and 17th centuries, most of the land in eastern Täby was owned by the Brahe family of Rydboholm Manor. Other noble families owning land in Täby at different times during this period were Banér, Bååth, Sparre and Meijerfeldt; the latter two owned, at different times, Näsby Manor in the southeast of the municipality. By 1790 Täby had a population of 900 people, most of them living on one of the 36 farms. By the end of the 19th century the population had grown to 1,250. In 1885, the Roslagsbanan narrow-gauge railway was built, connecting Täby with the city of Stockholm.
Täby experienced a population expansion. People settled near the railway stations. In 1902 the wealthy engineer Carl Robert Lamm, acquired the burned down Näsby Manor and rebuilt it. Around the time of the First World War many city dwellers in Stockholm acquired small summer residences in the eastern part of Täby, what is now the district pof Näsbypark. By 1919 Täby's population had grown to 3,000; some years after Second World War Täby became a suburb of Stockholm, by 1947 the population had increased to 8,584, concentrated in the southern and eastern parts of the municipality. In 1948 Täby acquired the title of a "merchant town", valid until the reform of 1971; this was the beginning of the large scale development of Täby, led by the mayor Gustaf Berg. By 1975 the population had increased to 41,307 people. Today, Täby is considered an attractive suburb to Stockholm with one of the highest median incomes in Sweden. Täby has for a long period of time been run by a coalition of centre-right parties.
Filippa Reinfeldt, ex-wife of Fredrik Reinfeldt, had been mayor of Täby for a long time, until Jan Rosenberg, of the Moderate Party, became the current mayor of Täby Municipality. The slogan of the municipality is today in translation "Täby, the city on the countryside". Runestones: There are 37 identified runestones in Täby, their inscriptions have provided many interesting and useful insights into the life and destinies of the people of the Viking Age. Judging from the inscriptions of the runestones and legends, the most important man at that time was Jarlabanke Ingefastsson, he has given name to the remains of the Viking era causeway known as Jarlabankes bro. Näsby Manor: Originally built in the 1660s and designed by Nicodemus Tessin the Elder, Näsby Manor is located in the picturesque and natural setting of Näsbyviken shore; the manor was burned to the ground in 1897, but was rebuilt according to the original design on the initiative of Carl Robert and Dora Lamm who moved into the manor in 1905.
Parts of the old manor garden still are being well preserved. Taby Racecourse: Sweden's largest horse racing trac
Tyresö Municipality is a municipality in Stockholm County in east central Sweden on the coast of the Baltic Sea. Most of Tyresö Municipality lies within the Stockholm urban area; the first humans arrived in what today is Tyresö Municipality somewhere around the 30th century BC. It would not be until about the 7th century. There are other remnants left from this prehistoric time; the Tyresö estate has its origins in the 14th century. During the 17th century the estate was at its largest, covering nearly the entire current area of the municipality; the Tyresö Palace and Tyresö Church were built during this century. Tyresö was an important industrial centre in the Stockholm region between the 16th and 19th centuries, thanks to the watermills that could be built on the streams between the lakes; the waterwheels in the municipal arms represent the three hydropower facilities at Nyfors and Follbrinksströmmen. The industries included rolling mills, forges, paper mills, a brickworks. None of the watermills are left today.
The Uddby mill burned down in 1895, a hydroelectric power plant was built in its place, which still stands today and is the only such plant in the Stockholm area. During the early 20th century, the large land area of the Tyresö estate began to be divided into lots, summer cottages began to be built; some quite luxurious ones were built in the Brevik area. The rate of construction increased in the early decades of the century. From the 1950s onwards, the summer cottages began to be converted into year-round dwellings at a rapid pace. From the 1950s onwards, Bollmora experienced a huge expansion rate after the legislation Lex Bollmora in 1959 which allowed municipal real estate companies to operate in other municipalities than their own. A municipal centre formed in Bollmora, Bollmora Centrum, inaugurated in 1965; the Million Programme put its distinctive print on Tyresö as well Bollmora: many of the apartment building areas come from that programme. During the expansive phase from the 1950s onwards, the population of Tyresö has grown from about 5,000 to just over 44,000 at present.
The Bollmora Centrum was rebuilt in the early 1990s to be an enclosed shopping centre, renamed Tyresö Centrum. In August 1999 a large wildfire destroyed about 10% of the Tyresta National Park. There are no administrative subdivisions of Tyresö Municipality, but there are some other formal and less formal subdivisions. There are three main districts in Tyresö; this is a kind of everyday reference subdivision to refer to the different main parts of the municipality. Bollmora in the northwest — consisting of apartment buildings of about 2-8 stories high, terraced houses and detached houses and some industrial areas; the municipal centre, Tyresö centre, is located here. Trollbäcken in west — consisting of detached houses. Gamla Tyresö in the south; the eastern area consists of detached, semi–detached, terraced houses, summer cottages, a large part of which are being converted to year-round use. The Tyresö Palace and Tyresö Church from the 17th century are located here. In the south there is a large forest, containing about half of the Tyresta National Park on the Tyresö side.
Population of urban areas within municipal borders, as of 2000: Brevik peninsula: 1,556 Raksta: 537 Stockholm: 36,483 Number or inhabitants per residential area as of 2006: Bollmora: 14 861 Trollbäcken: 11 916 Krusboda: 3 773 Tyresö Strand: 3 517 Öringe: 2 536 Brevikshalvön: 2 101 Lindalen: 1 828 South/East Tyresö: 860 "Unspecified": 84 Total: 41,476 The vast bulk of Tyresö lies on the Södertörn peninsula, with some islands in the Baltic sea, of which Ägnö and Härsö are the largest ones. There are many lakes in Tyresö. In the south there is a large old forest of which a part is in the Tyresta national park, other large parts are in other nature reserves; the terrain is typical for low hills and valleys formed by the last ice age. The highest point is at 84 metres above sea level. Tyresö has a land border with Stockholm in the northwest, with Nacka in the north, with Haninge in the south, a lake border with Huddinge in the west, a sea border with Värmdö in the east and northeast. On the 31st of December 2017 the number of people with a foreign background was 10 283, or 21.74% of the population.
On the 31st of December 2002 the number of residents with a foreign background was 7 108, or 17.90% of the population. On 31 December 2017 there were 47 304 residents in Tyresö, of which 7 710 people were born in a country other than Sweden. Divided by country in the table below - the Nordic countries as well as the 12 most common countries of birth outside of Sweden for Swedish residents have been included, with other countries of birth bundled together by continent by Statistics Sweden. Tyresö is served by the county-wide public transport system operated by AB Storstockholms Lokaltrafik. Tyresö is one of the few municipalities in Stockholm County without rail connections. Most of the bus routes connect to the Stockholm Metro at Gullmarsplan, but there are buses running directly to and from central Stockholm. Tyresö is twinned with: Cēsis, Latvia Porvoo, Finland Savigny-le-Temple, France Wejherowo, Poland Ingvar Carlsson, politician — former Prime Minister of Sweden Tony Magnusson, professional skateboarder in the 1980s and 1990s.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the three-age Stone-Bronze-Iron system, as proposed in modern times by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen, for classifying and studying ancient societies. An ancient civilization is defined to be in the Bronze Age either by producing bronze by smelting its own copper and alloying with tin, arsenic, or other metals, or by trading for bronze from production areas elsewhere. Bronze itself is harder and more durable than other metals available at the time, allowing Bronze Age civilizations to gain a technological advantage. Copper-tin ores are rare, as reflected in the fact that there were no tin bronzes in Western Asia before trading in bronze began in the third millennium BC. Worldwide, the Bronze Age followed the Neolithic period, with the Chalcolithic serving as a transition. Although the Iron Age followed the Bronze Age, in some areas, the Iron Age intruded directly on the Neolithic.
Bronze Age cultures differed in their development of the first writing. According to archaeological evidence, cultures in Mesopotamia and Egypt developed the earliest viable writing systems; the overall period is characterized by widespread use of bronze, though the place and time of the introduction and development of bronze technology were not universally synchronous. Human-made tin bronze technology requires set production techniques. Tin must be mined and smelted separately added to molten copper to make bronze alloy; the Bronze Age was a time of developing trade networks. A 2013 report suggests that the earliest tin-alloy bronze dates to the mid-5th millennium BC in a Vinča culture site in Pločnik, although this culture is not conventionally considered part of the Bronze Age; the dating of the foil has been disputed. Western Asia and the Near East was the first region to enter the Bronze Age, which began with the rise of the Mesopotamian civilization of Sumer in the mid 4th millennium BC.
Cultures in the ancient Near East practiced intensive year-round agriculture, developed a writing system, invented the potter's wheel, created a centralized government, written law codes and nation states and empires, embarked on advanced architectural projects, introduced social stratification and civil administration and practiced organized warfare and religion. Societies in the region laid the foundations for astronomy and astrology. Dates are approximate, consult particular article for details The Ancient Near East Bronze Age can be divided as following: The Hittite Empire was established in Hattusa in northern Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite Kingdom was at its height, encompassing central Anatolia, southwestern Syria as far as Ugarit, upper Mesopotamia. After 1180 BC, amid general turmoil in the Levant conjectured to have been associated with the sudden arrival of the Sea Peoples, the kingdom disintegrated into several independent "Neo-Hittite" city-states, some of which survived until as late as the 8th century BC.
Arzawa in Western Anatolia during the second half of the second millennium BC extended along southern Anatolia in a belt that reaches from near the Turkish Lakes Region to the Aegean coast. Arzawa was the western neighbor – sometimes a rival and sometimes a vassal – of the Middle and New Hittite Kingdoms; the Assuwa league was a confederation of states in western Anatolia, defeated by the Hittites under an earlier Tudhaliya I, around 1400 BC. Arzawa has been associated with the much more obscure Assuwa located to its north, it bordered it, may be an alternative term for it. In Ancient Egypt the Bronze Age begins in the Protodynastic period, c. 3150 BC. The archaic early Bronze Age of Egypt, known as the Early Dynastic Period of Egypt follows the unification of Lower and Upper Egypt, c. 3100 BC. It is taken to include the First and Second Dynasties, lasting from the Protodynastic Period of Egypt until about 2686 BC, or the beginning of the Old Kingdom. With the First Dynasty, the capital moved from Abydos to Memphis with a unified Egypt ruled by an Egyptian god-king.
Abydos remained the major holy land in the south. The hallmarks of ancient Egyptian civilization, such as art and many aspects of religion, took shape during the Early Dynastic period. Memphis in the Early Bronze Age was the largest city of the time; the Old Kingdom of the regional Bronze Age is the name given to the period in the 3rd millennium BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilization in complexity and achievement – the first of three "Kingdom" periods, which mark the high points of civilization in the lower Nile Valley. The First Intermediate Period of Egypt described as a "dark period" in ancient Egyptian history, spanned about 100 years after the end of the Old Kingdom from about 2181 to 2055 BC. Little monumental evidence survives from this period from the early part of it; the First Intermediate Period was a dynamic time when the rule of Egypt was divided between two competing power bases: Heracleopolis in Lower Egypt and Thebes in Upper Egypt. These two kingdoms would come into conflict, with the Theban kings conquering the north, resulting in the reunification of Egypt under a single ruler during the second part of the 11th Dynasty.
The Middle Kingdom of Egypt laste
Sigtuna Municipality is a municipality in Stockholm County in east central Sweden. Its seat is located in the town of Märsta 37 km north of the Swedish capital, Stockholm; the municipality is a part of Metropolitan Stockholm. The municipality consists of several former local government units and was formed in 1971, it got its name from the small, but old, City of Sigtuna, but the seat was placed in the larger modern town of Märsta. The three towns of the municipality are Märsta and Rosersberg, of which Märsta is the municipal seat and Sigtuna with its old and important history is a popular tourist destination. On the 31st of December 2017 the number of people with a foreign background was 20 291, or 43.04% of the population. On the 31st of December 2002 the number of residents with a foreign background was 9 426, or 26.35% of the population. On 31 December 2017 there were 47 146 residents in Sigtuna, of which 15 268 people were born in a country other than Sweden. Divided by country in the table below - the Nordic countries as well as the 12 most common countries of birth outside of Sweden for Swedish residents have been included, with other countries of birth bundled together by continent by Statistics Sweden.
In the municipality lies the largest workplace in Sweden, the Arlanda Airport, with 13,000 employees in 200 companies. As a result, Siguna is travelled through by 18,300,000 visitors yearly, has the fourth most hotel stays, following to the commercial and regional centres Stockholm and Malmö. Swedavia, the Swedish airport management company, has its head office on the airport property. Scandinavian Airlines had its head office on the airport property; the municipality is twinned with: Sønderborg Municipality in Denmark Rakvere in Estonia Raisio in Finland Porsgrunn in Norway Official website