Frank Vincent Zappa was an American musician, composer and filmmaker. His work is characterized by nonconformity, free-form improvisation, sound experiments, musical virtuosity, satire of American culture. In a career spanning more than 30 years, Zappa composed rock, jazz, jazz fusion and musique concrète works, produced all of the 60-plus albums that he released with his band the Mothers of Invention and as a solo artist. Zappa directed feature-length films and music videos, designed album covers, he is considered one of the stylistically diverse rock musicians of his era. As a self-taught composer and performer, Zappa's diverse musical influences led him to create music, sometimes difficult to categorize. While in his teens, he acquired a taste for 20th-century classical composers such as Edgard Varèse, Igor Stravinsky, Anton Webern, Halim El-Dabh, along with 1950s rhythm and blues and doo-wop music, he began writing classical music in high school, while at the same time playing drums in rhythm and blues bands switching to electric guitar.
His 1966 debut album with the Mothers of Invention, Freak Out!, combined songs in conventional rock and roll format with collective improvisations and studio-generated sound collages. He continued this eclectic and experimental approach, irrespective of whether the fundamental format was rock, jazz or classical. Zappa's output is unified by a conceptual continuity he termed "Project/Object", with numerous musical phrases and characters reappearing across his albums, his lyrics reflected his iconoclastic views of established social and political processes and movements humorously so, he has been described as the "godfather" of comedy rock. He was a strident critic of mainstream education and organized religion, a forthright and passionate advocate for freedom of speech, self-education, political participation and the abolition of censorship. Unlike many other rock musicians of his generation, he disapproved of drugs, but supported their decriminalization and regulation. During Zappa's lifetime, he was a productive and prolific artist with a controversial critical standing.
He had some commercial success in Europe, worked as an independent artist for most of his career. He remains a major influence on composers, his honors include his 1995 induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and the 1997 Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award. In 2000, he was ranked number 36 on VH1's 100 Greatest Artists of Hard Rock. In 2004, Rolling Stone magazine ranked him at number 71 on its list of the "100 Greatest Artists of All Time", in 2011 at number 22 on its list of the "100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time". Zappa was born on December 1940 in Baltimore, Maryland, his mother, Rosemarie was of French ancestry. Frank, the eldest of four children, was raised in an Italian-American household where Italian was spoken by his grandparents; the family moved because his father, a chemist and mathematician, worked in the defense industry. After a time in Florida in the 1940s, the family returned to Maryland, where Zappa's father worked at the Edgewood Arsenal chemical warfare facility of the Aberdeen Proving Ground run by the U.
S. Army. Due to their home's proximity to the arsenal, which stored mustard gas, gas masks were kept in the home in case of an accident; this living arrangement had a profound effect on Zappa, references to germs, germ warfare and the defense industry occur throughout his work. Zappa was sick as a child, suffering from asthma and sinus problems. A doctor treated his sinusitis by inserting a pellet of radium into each of Zappa's nostrils. At the time, little was known about the potential dangers of small amounts of therapeutic radiation, although it has since been claimed that nasal radium treatment has causal connections to cancer, no studies have provided significant enough evidence to confirm this. Nasal imagery and references appear in his music and lyrics, as well as in the collage album covers created by his long-time collaborator Cal Schenkel. Zappa believed his childhood diseases might have been due to exposure to mustard gas, released by the nearby chemical warfare facility, his health worsened when he lived in Baltimore.
In 1952, his family relocated for reasons of health to Monterey, where his father taught metallurgy at the Naval Postgraduate School. They soon moved to Claremont, to El Cajon, before settling in San Diego. Zappa joined his first band at Mission Bay High School in San Diego as the drummer. At about the same time, his parents bought a phonograph, which allowed him to develop his interest in music, to begin building his record collection. R&B singles were early purchases, he was interested in sounds for their own sake the sounds of drums and other percussion instruments. By age 12, he began learning the basics of orchestral percussion. Zappa's deep interest in modern classical music began when he read a LOOK magazine article about the Sam Goody record store chain that lauded its ability to sell an LP as obscure as The Complete Works of Edgard Varèse, Volume One; the article described Varèse's percussion composition Ionisation, produced by EMS Record
Valley Girl (1983 film)
Valley Girl is a 1983 American romantic comedy film directed by Martha Coolidge and starring Nicolas Cage, Deborah Foreman, Michelle Meyrink, Elizabeth Daily, Cameron Dye and Michael Bowen. The American release of Valley Girl was April 29, 1983; the plot is loosely based on Juliet. Julie Richman is a Valley girl who seems to have it all: good looks, a handsome Valley dude boyfriend, but she is having second thoughts about her relationship with the arrogant and selfish Tommy. At the end of a shopping trip with her friends, Loryn and Suzi, Julie runs into Tommy and breaks up with him; that day at the beach, Julie trades shy glances with a young man in the distance. That night, at a party at Suzi's house, Julie locks eyes with Randy, a Hollywood punk who has crashed the party with his friend, Fred, they hit it off after Julie learns Randy was the young man at the beach. Tommy is jealous, tries to bed Loryn, he gets his cronies to eject Randy and Fred from the party. Undaunted, Randy sneaks back into the house, hides in an upstairs bathroom shower.
Randy waits in the shower for Julie to enter the bathroom as various partygoers come and go, talking about and trying to have sex, doing drugs. When Julie enters, Randy convinces her to leave the party with him. Julie brings a reluctant Stacey along for the ride with Fred. While at Randy's favorite Hollywood nightclub and Randy grow closer as Stacey continually rebuffs Fred's advances. Julie's friends, dismayed by her relationship with Randy, pressure her to get back together with Tommy. Julie asks her father for advice, he kindly tells her she should follow her heart. Despite this, Julie reconciles with Tommy and dumps Randy. A heartbroken Randy gets drunk, makes out with his ex-girlfriend, nearly gets into a fight with a gang of low riders before Fred saves him. Fred chides Randy for moping over Julie, but tells him he needs to fight if he wants her back. After Randy flits about the Valley for the next few days just so he can get a glimpse at Julie, Fred says he has a plan that will both reunite Randy with Julie and get revenge against Tommy.
A subplot involves Suzi and her stepmother, vying for the attention of a boy named Skip. At her party, Suzi tells Beth, chaperoning, about Skip, whom she likes and hopes will show up; when Skip arrives, Beth is attracted to him. Skip is attracted to Beth and goes out of his way to go to see her without Suzi finding out. One day, Skip enters Suzi's house looking for Beth, he finds a woman in the shower in Beth's bedroom. Skip and this woman, whose face is not shown, are shown making love. Another woman goes upstairs; the bedroom door opens, Beth enters, only it is shown Suzi was in the shower and in bed with Skip. Skip and Suzi go to the prom together; as the girls make prom decorations and Loryn chat over their post-prom plans. Stacey reveals Tommy made a reservation at the Valley Sheraton Hotel as an after-prom "surprise" for Julie. Tommy and Julie ride to the prom in a rented stretch limousine. Randy becomes annoyed with watching the Valley High kids dance, but Fred assures him all is going according to plan.
Julie and Tommy are escorted waiting to be introduced as king and queen of the prom. Randy confronts Tommy, the two begin to brawl; when the prom king and queen are announced, the curtain pulls back to reveal Randy beating up Tommy. Randy knocks Tommy out escorts a thrilled Julie from the stage through the crowd. Tommy recovers and storms through the crowd towards Randy and Julie, who start a food fight to slow Tommy down and facilitate their escape from the venue in Tommy's rented limousine; as the happy couple ride into the night towards the Valley Sheraton, Julie removes Tommy's I. D. bracelet, a sign of the relationship between the two during the entire film, throws it out the window. The scene, which echoes the final scene of the film The Graduate, pans to the overview of the Valley, while the limo turns past the Sherman Oaks Galleria glowing in the night; the film was conceived as a teen exploitation film to capitalize on the valley girl fad inspired by the Frank and Moon Unit Zappa song "Valley Girl."
Zappa himself explored the possibility of making a "Valley Girl" film and received inquiries from several studios, though nothing materialized. Zappa unsuccessfully sued to stop production of the film, claiming it infringed on his trademark. Cage and Foreman found it difficult to do the breakup scene at Julie's front door because it was shot late in the filming, when Cage and Foreman were dating, it took a lot of some counseling by Martha Coolidge. She told Foreman to think of another guy. Valley Girl was opened in 442 theaters. In the opening weekend, it grossed $1,856,780 at #4; the final domestic gross reached $17,343,596. The film garnered positive reviews; the soundtrack features a host of new wave recording artists including the Plimsouls and Josie Cotton, both of whom appeared in the film. Songs by Bonnie Hayes, Modern English, the Payolas were featured prominently. Many of the songs used were minor chart hits in 1982–83. Josie Cotton's "Johnny Are You Queer?" was a regional hit in Southern California in 1981, placing #5 on KROQ-FM's Top 106 songs of the year and "He Could Be the On
California English collectively refers to American English in California an emerging variety associated with youthful white speakers of urban and coastal California. California is home to a diverse population and an emergent vowel shift only first noted by linguists in the 1980s, most researched in Southern California and the San Francisco Bay Area of Northern California. Since that time, unique California speech has been associated in American popular culture with adolescent and young-adult speakers of coastal California. Other documented California English includes a "country" accent associated with rural and inland white Californians as well as unique California varieties of Chicano English associated with Mexican Americans. Research has shown there to be a linguistic boundary perceived by Californians themselves between Northern and Southern California; when a collapse in commodity prices followed the First World War, many bankrupted farmers migrated to California from Nebraska, Illinois and Iowa, contributing to a new homogenized speech in urban sprawl, where teachers stigmatized "ain't",'awl', "ahll".
Subsequently, incoming groups with differing speech, such as the speakers of Highland Southern during the 1930s, have been absorbed within a generation. The Great Depression's Dust Bowl migration re-introduced a purer Southwestern accent to the West Coast in the 1920s and 30s. A California accent with notable Southern features is still spoken by some Californians of the Central Valley around Kern County, an area associated with California "Okies."California's status as a young state is significant in that it has not had centuries for regional patterns to emerge and grow. Linguists who studied English as spoken in California before and in the period after World War II tended to find few, if any, patterns unique to the region. However, with a more settled population and continued immigration from all over the globe in the late century onward, a noteworthy set of emerging characteristics of California English began to attract notice by linguists; as more people moved into the state, all those groups, ranging from a diverse variety of backgrounds, began to pick up different elements of spoken language from one another.
California English aligns to typical American speech, most Californians speaking with a Western American accent. The following vowel diagram represents the relative positions of the stressed pure vowels of the accent, based on nine speakers from southern California in the 1990s. Notable is the absence of /ɔ/, which has merged with /ɑ/, as in most of the Western United States, as well as the open quality of /ɪ/ due to the California vowel shift discussed below. A few phonological processes have been identified as being particular to California English. However, these vowel changes are by no means universal in Californian speech, any single Californian's speech may only have some or none of the changes identified below; these sounds might be found in the speech of some people from areas outside of California. Front vowels are raised before /ŋ/, so that the traditional "short a" /æ/ and "short i" /ɪ/ sounds are raised to the "long a" and "long ee" sounds when before the ng sound /ŋ/; this change makes for minimal pairs such as king and keen, both having the same vowel, though this pronunciation is not spread evenly and the more common American pronunciation still exists in many areas of California.
In other contexts, /ɪ/ has a open pronunciation, as indicated in the vowel chart here. A word like rang will have the same vowel as rain in California English, rather than the same vowel as ran. Before / n / or / m /, / æ / is diphthongized to or. Elsewhere, /æ/ is lowered in the direction of, as a result of the California vowel shift. Most California speakers do not distinguish between /ɔ/ and /ɑ/, characteristic of the cot–caught merger; the pin–pen merger has been reported in parts of inland California from Bakersfield to Trinity County. The rise of uptalk in Southern Californian English. One topic that has begun to receive much attention from scholars in recent decades has been the emergence of a vowel-based chain shift in California; this image on the right illustrates the California vowel shift. The vowel space of the image is a cross-section; as with other vowel shifts, several vowels may be seen moving in a chain shift around the mouth. As one vowel encroaches upon the space of another, the adjacent vowel in turn experiences a movement in order to maximize phonemic differentiation.
For convenience, California English will be compared with a "typical" General American English, abbreviated "GA". /ɛ/ is pulled towards, is pulled towards, /ɑ/ towards. Other vowel changes, not
Stereotypes of South Asians
Stereotypes of South Asians are broadly believed impressions about individuals of South Asian origin that are inconsistent with reality. While the impressions are wrongly presumed to be universally true for all people of South Asian origin, these stereotypes adversely affect the South Asians as well as the acculturation process. With 20th century immigration of South Asians around the world to the United Kingdom and the United States, ethnic stereotyping of South Asians has become common place; these stereotypes have been found by scholars to be dehumanizing, making South Asians more prone to mistreatment and crime, a constraint on their ability to productively contribute, as well as a cause of depression and ill health. Ethnic stereotypes of South Asians have included Orientalism and Romanticism as well as scientific racism; these stereotypes are applied in both an unrealistically ideal way and sometimes an unrealistically negative way. South Asians are stereotyped around the world in ways that are dehumanizing, in some cases it can lead to depression and mental health issues.
Stereotypes included cultural prejudices related to the South Asian predilection for certain professions, such as medicine and computing, or their presence in service industries as motel owners or cab drivers. As South Asians continue to assimilate, more positive perceptions prevail South Asians are stereotyped as belonging to two socioeconomic groups, they are stereotyped either as convenience store or restaurant owners, cab drivers or motel operators who are uneducated, with large families and live in crowded homes. Alternatively, they are stereotyped as snobbish, upwardly mobile software programmers and doctors, who lack English-speaking fluency and are willing to take a lower salary; these stereotypes are built, claim scholars, by media shows such as the Bangladeshi store owners represented as Sirajul and Mujibur in David Letterman's show, or by the character Apu in The Simpsons, or Babu Bhatt character in the Seinfeld show, or the British TV show The Kumars at No. 42. This contrasts with the reality that South Asians are active, in various levels of prominence and service, in every profession.
Along with East Asian people, South Asians are stereotyped as model minorities with certain expected behavior. These stereotypes are encouraged by media stories such an article by Forbes Magazine entitled "Indian Americans: The New Model Minority". Richwine claims, "The success of Indian Americans is ascribed to the culture they bring with them, which places strong – some would say obsessive – emphasis on academic achievement"; the article highlights how Indian American children win spelling bee contests, but the article does not mention that some Indian-American immigrant children struggle to learn fluent English as a second language. While Asian Indians in the United States have among the highest percentage of college degrees as well as highest income among all ethnic and racial groups, for every South Asian who has a degree with high income, there is another South Asian who struggles to gain job skills and become trained to be gainfully employed. In a 1993 study of stereotypes held by midwives in British National Health Service, several stereotypes were found to be prevalent against women of South Asian descent.
One, the South Asian mothers were stereotyped as abusing the social service and failing to take recommended treatment. Second, they were stereotyped as those. Third, they were stereotyped as lacking'normal maternal instinct'; the study found communication difficulties to be part of the problem among women who were Muslim South Asians with Urdu as their first language. Further, the study found experimenter's bias in a population wide study that included native British people, people of South Asian descent and people from other parts of the world. Contrary to the stereotypes, comparative analysis revealed that the rate of health care service use, rate of diligent treatment and follow up, as well as'maternal instinct' behavior was no different among South Asian women than natives or other ethnic groups. Two conflicting but prevailing stereotypes in Europe and North America relate to alienation and assimilation by people of South Asian origins. Hernandez, for example, in her analysis of Richard Rodriguez – the Anisfield-Wolf Book Award winner – and V.
S. Naipaul – the Nobel laureate in literature of Indo-Caribbean origin – quotes Albert Memmi's classic, illustrating the stereotype. Memmi claims they make every effort to look Western, in the hope; these people are stereotyped as old fashioned, weird in their customs, servile to their ethnic habits, lacking all sense of individuality, not eager to learn and grow, not speaking or adopting local language, not wanting to assimilate and be a part of the melting pot. Some stereotype them as betraying a past, others as betraying the future; these stereotypes reflect innate discomfort, confusion and a struggle with rejection by those who stereotype as well as those who are being stereotyped. Hernandez notes, for Naipaul, after a start in a humble family background and professional success could only be achieved through learning and assimilation; this conflicting stereotype is not unique to South Asians. As Hernandez outlines, the same stereoty
Sherman Oaks Galleria
Sherman Oaks Galleria is a shopping and business center located in the Sherman Oaks neighborhood of Los Angeles, United States, at the corner of Ventura and Sepulveda Boulevards in the San Fernando Valley. The teenage mall culture which formed around it and nearby malls formed the basis of the 1982 satirical song "Valley Girl" by Frank Zappa and daughter Moon Zappa; the mall has been a shooting location for many films, most notably the seminal 1982 film Fast Times at Ridgemont High as well as the 1983 film Valley Girl, both of which focused on the early 1980s San Fernando Valley youth culture. The three-level mall was built on the site of Moses Sherman's original 1911 thousand-acre investment in the area, at the present-day intersection of Ventura and Sepulveda boulevards, it opened in 1980 with two department stores. Pacific Theatres' Pacific 4 occupied the uppermost level of the mall; the mall became famous in the early 1980s as being the center of the teenage mall culture and a well-known teenage hangout.
The Galleria and nearby malls formed the basis of the Frank Zappa/Moon Unit Zappa 1982 satirical single "Valley Girl" from Zappa's album Ship Arriving Too Late To Save A Drowning Witch. Following on the popularity of the song, the TV show Real People hosted an Ultimate Valley Girl competition, at the Galleria. In 1993, Robinsons and May Company merged, forming Robinsons-May - both stores in the mall were converted to Robinsons-May, the north store becoming a Men's and Home store, the south store becoming a Women's and Children's store; the next decade saw business at the Galleria decline. In January 1994, the mall closed for 11 days for repairs following the Northridge earthquake. Although the mall reopened Robinson-May didn't re-open its south wing store for four years following the earthquake, many smaller stores on that floor closed. During that closure, the mall suffered due to having only one main anchor store. Mall management sued to evict Robinson-May in 1998, alleging that the delay was a lease violation and caused the store closures, but R-M countersued, claiming that poor mall promotion and management were the cause.
Closures continued through the 1990s until a gift and jewelry shop was one of the few remaining stores in 1999. The mall closed in April 1999 for a major renovation and reopened in 2002 as an open-air center, quite different from its previous incarnation; the new layout was termed "mixed-use". The only remnant of the original mall is the court where the Pacific 16 Theatres is located, which are on the uppermost of what was the southern Robinsons-May store; the majority of the remaining mall was turned into offices. Warner Brothers set up offices in. Several mortgage companies and financial services providers are headquartered within the center. Additional tenants include 24 Hour Fitness, Burke Williams Day Spa, the Paul Mitchell School, as well as several major restaurant chains; the remodeling and new construction was designed by Gensler and built by Peck/Jones Construction, which in 2005 filed Chapter 7 bankruptcy. On Monday, June 4, 2007 the Pacific Galleria 16 Theaters changed into an ArcLight Cinema, as the Pacific Theaters own the ArcLight brand.
The transformation began with re-branding at the start, renovation throughout the summer of 2007. The theater was closed for three months to complete the process; the Galleria was featured in scenes in several films. Fast Times at Ridgemont High, Valley Girl, Night of the Comet, Back to the Future Part II, Albert Brooks' Mother,Terminator 2: Judgment Day,Phantom of the Mall: Eric's Revenge, Walk Like a Man and Chopping Mall were filmed at the Galleria, as were scenes for the 2011 release Crazy, Love. Official website of Sherman Oaks Galleria Deadmalls.com writeup on the mall
In the United States, Poor White is the historical classification for an American sociocultural group, of Western and/or Northern European descent, with origins in the Southern United States and in Appalachia. They first were classified as a social caste in the Antebellum South, consisting of white, economically disadvantaged laborers or squatters, who owned neither land nor slaves. In certain contemporary contexts the term is still used to pertain to their descendants. While similar to other White Americans in ancestry, the Poor Whites differ notably in regard to their history and culture. Throughout American history the Poor Whites have been referred to by various terms, they have been known as "rednecks", "hillbillies" in Appalachia, "crackers" in Georgia and Florida, "poor white trash". In the past the use of the term "Poor White" by the white Southern elite, who considered it an oxymoron, was to distance themselves from elements of society they viewed as "undesirable", "lesser" or "antisocial."
It denoted a separation, reflective of a social hierarchy, with "poor" used to demonstrate a low position, while "white" was used to subjugate rather than to classify. Author Wayne Flynt in his book, Dixie's Forgotten People: The South's Poor Whites, argues that "one difficulty in defining poor whites stems from the diverse ways in which the phrase has been used, it has been applied to economic and social classes as well to cultural and ethical values." While other regions of the United States have white people who are poor, this does not have the same meaning as the Poor White in the South. In context, the Poor White refers to a distinct sociocultural group, with members who belong to families with a history of multi-generational poverty and cultural divergence. Much of the character and condition of Poor Whites is rooted in the institution of slavery. Rather than provide wealth as it had for the Southern elite, in stark contrast, slavery hindered progress of whites who did not own slaves by exerting a crowding-out effect, eliminating free labor in the region.
This effect, compounded by the area's widespread lack of public education and its general practice of endogamy, prevented low-income and low-wealth free laborers from moving to the middle class. Many fictional depictions in literature used poor whites as foils in reflecting the positive traits of the protagonist against their perceived "savage" traits. In her novel Dred, Harriet Beecher Stowe illustrates a held stereotype that marriage to them results in generic degradation and barbarism of the better class. During the American Civil War, the Poor White comprised a majority of the combatants in the Confederate Army. During the nadir of American race relations at the turn of the 20th century, intense violence, defense of honor and white supremacy flourished in a region suffering from a lack of public education and competition for resources. Southern politicians of the day built on conflict between Poor Whites and African Americans in a form of Political Opportunism; as John T. Campbell summarizes in The Broad Ax in 1906: In the past, white men have hated white men quite as much as some of them hate the Negro, have vented their hatred with as much savagery as they have against the Negro.
The best educated people have the least race prejudice. In the United States the poor white were encouraged to hate the Negroes because they could be used to help hold the Negroes in slavery; the Negroes were taught to show contempt for the poor white because this would increase the hatred between them and each side could be used by the master to control the other. The real interest of the poor whites and the Negroes were the same, that of resisting the oppression of the master class, but ignorance stood in the way. This race hatred was at first used to perpetuate white supremacy in politics in the South; the poor whites are injured by it as are the Negroes. Further evidence of the hostility of the ruling class towards the Poor White is found in the enactment by several southern states of a poll tax, which required an annual payment of $1.00, to vote, in some cases, or at least payment before voting. The poll tax excluded not only African Americans, but the many Poor Whites, from voting, as they lived in a barter economy and were cash poor.
In the early 20th century, the image of the Poor White was a prominent stereotype in American media. Sherwood Anderson's novel Poor White explored how a poor white youth from Missouri tried to adjust to a middle-class world by moving to the Midwest; the American eugenics movement encouraged the legalization of forced sterilizations. In practice, individuals who came from Poor White backgrounds were targeted institutionalized individuals and fertile women; the drafting and recruitment of physically fit individuals in the First World War revealed the first practical comparisons between the Appalachian region, the South, the rest of the country. The Poor Whites were unequal in terms of income and medical treatment than other White Americans. New Deal rural life programs such as the Resettlement Administration, the Farm Security Administration and the Tennessee Valley Authority helped create new jobs for the rural poor during the Great Depression in the South. In the late 1960s under the President Lyndon B. Johnson administration, the Appalachian Regional Commission was founded to deal with persistent poverty in the region.
The Second World War led to new e
Clueless is a 1995 American coming-of-age romantic comedy film written and directed by Amy Heckerling. It stars Stacey Dash, Paul Rudd and Brittany Murphy. Clueless was produced by Robert Lawrence, it is loosely based on Jane Austen's 1815 novel, with a modern-day setting of Beverly Hills. The plot centers on a high school student, who befriends a new student named Tai. Clueless was filmed in California over a 40-day filming schedule; the film's director, studied real Beverly Hills high school students to learn the lingo and to understand how real teens in the 1990s talked. The famous quote "as if!" came from Heckerling's study of these teens. The film grossed $56.1 million in the United States. It has received positive reviews from critics and is considered to be one of the best teen films of all time. Clueless has a continuing legacy; the film was followed by a spin-off television sitcom, series of books, Paramount Studios has announced that they are producing a remake. Cher Horowitz lives in a Beverly Hills mansion with a $500-an-hour litigator.
Cher is attractive and wealthy. She attends Bronson Alcott High School. Cher's best friend is Dionne Davenport, wealthy and beautiful. Dionne has a long-term relationship with popular student Murray. Josh, Cher's conscious ex-stepbrother, visits her during a break from college. Josh and Cher spar continually but playfully, she mocks his idealism, while he teases her for being selfish and superficial, says that her only direction in life is "toward the mall". Cher plays matchmaker for two hard-grading teachers at Mr. Hall and Miss Geist, she facilitates the relationship between the teachers in order to make them relax their grading standards so she can renegotiate a bad grade on her report card. But after she sees their newfound happiness, she realizes. Cher decides to give back to the community by "adopting" a "tragically unhip" new girl at school, Tai Frasier. Cher and Dionne give Tai a makeover, which gives Tai a sense of style. Cher tries to extinguish the attraction between Tai and Travis Birkenstock, an amiable skateboarding slacker, to steer her towards Elton, a popular and wealthy student.
Elton rejects Tai and unsuccessfully attempts to seduce Cher. A handsome new student at their school named. Murray explains to Dionne that Christian is gay. Despite the failure of this endeavor, Cher remains on friendly terms with Christian due to her admiration of his taste in art and fashion. Matters take a turn for the worse. Cher's frustration escalates when she can not change the result; when Cher returns home, Tai confesses her fancy for Josh. Tai wants Cher's help in pursuing Josh. Cher says Tai is not right for Josh and they quarrel. Cher and Tai's disagreement ends with Tai calling Cher a "virgin who can't drive". Feeling "totally clueless", Cher reflects on her priorities and her repeated failures to understand or appreciate the people in her life. After thinking about why she is bothered by Tai's interest in Josh, Cher realizes that she loves Josh, she begins making awkward but sincere efforts to live a more purposeful life, including captaining the school's Pismo Beach disaster relief effort.
Cher and Josh admit their feelings for one another, culminating in a tender kiss. Mr. Hall and Miss Geist wed, she embraces Josh and they kiss. Principal photography for the film took place between November 21-December 31, 1994; the film had a 40-day filming schedule. Producers sat in on classes at Beverly Hills High School to get a feel for the student culture. Herb Hall, the real drama teacher at Beverly Hills High School, played the principal in the film. Scenes depicting the high school campus, including the tennis courts, the outdoor cafeteria, the quad, various classrooms were filmed at Occidental College in Los Angeles; the mall scenes were filmed at Westfield Fashion Square in Sherman Oaks, CA. Clueless opened theatrically in 1,653 theaters on July 19, 1995; that year, it was released on VHS and Laserdisc on December 19, 1995 by Paramount Home Video. The film was first released to DVD on October 19, 1999; the film was reissued in a special 10th anniversary DVD "Whatever! Edition" on August 30, 2005.
The new issue included featurettes and cast interviews, including:The Class of'95, Creative Writing, Fashion 101, Language Arts and Blow, Driver's Ed, We're History, two theatrical trailers. The film was released on Blu-ray Disc for the first time on May 1, 2012. Special features were carried over from the "Whatever!" Edition of 2005, included a new trivia track. The film became a surprise sleeper hit of 1995; the film grossed $10,612,443 on its opening weekend, which lead to a ranking of second behind Apollo 13. The film grossed $56,631,572 during its theatrical run, becoming the 32nd highest-grossing film of 1995. T