The Arabah, or Arava / Aravah, as it is known by its respective Arabic and Hebrew names, is a geographic area south of the Dead Sea basin, which forms part of the border between Israel to the west and Jordan to the east. The old meaning, in use up to the early 20th century, covered the entire length of what today is called the Jordan Rift Valley, running in a north-south orientation between the southern end of the Sea of Galilee and the northern tip of the Gulf of Aqaba at Aqaba/ Eilat; this included the Jordan River Valley between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea, the Dead Sea itself, what today is called the Arava Valley. The contemporary use of the term is restricted to this southern section alone; the Arabah is 166 km in length, from the Gulf of Aqaba to the southern shore of the Dead Sea. Topographically, the region is divided into three sections. From the Gulf of Aqaba northward, the land rises over a distance of 77 km, reaches a height of 230 m above sea level, which represents the watershed divide between the Dead Sea and the Red Sea.
From this crest, the land slopes northward over the next 74 km to a point 15 km south of the Dead Sea. In the last section, the Arabah drops steeply to the Dead Sea, 417 m below sea level; the Arabah is scenic with sharp-topped mountains. The southern Arabah is hot and dry and without rain. There are numerous species of fauna in the Aravah Valley. Notably the caracal is found on the valley's savanna areas. In Biblical times, the Arava was a center of copper production; the Arabah its eastern part, was part of the realm of the Edomites. The eastern Arabah became the domain of the Nabateans, the builders of the city of Petra; the Israel–Jordan Peace Treaty was signed in the Arava on October 26, 1994. The governments of Jordan and Israel are promoting development of the region. There is a plan to bring sea water from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea through a canal, which follows along the Arabah; this project was once an issue of dispute between Jordan and Israel, but it was agreed that the project shall be constructed on and by the Jordanian side.
In 2004, the Jordanian administrative district of Wadi Araba had a population of 6,775. Five major tribes comprise eight settlements on the Jordanian side: Al-S'eediyeen, Al-Ihewat, Al-Ammareen, Al-Rashaideh, Al-Azazmeh, as well as smaller tribes of the Al-Oseifat, Al-Rawajfeh, Al-Manaja'h, Al-Marzaqa, among others; the main economic activities for these Arabah residents revolve around herding sheep, agriculture and the Jordanian Army. Timna Valley Park is notable for its prehistoric rock carvings, some of the oldest copper mines in the world, a convoluted cliff called King Solomon's pillars. On the Jordanian side is the famous Wadi Rum, famous among rock climbers, hikers and lovers of the outdoors. In Jordan is the copper mining area of Wadi Feynan, including the site of Khirbat en-Nahas, corresponding to the one from Timna Valley in the west. Feynan Ecolodge was opened in Wadi Feynan by the Royal Society for the Conservation of Nature in 2005. Below is a list of Jordanian population clusters in Wadi Araba: The total Jordanian population in the region is 103,000, of whom 96,000 live in Aqaba.
Below is a list of Israeli localities in the Arava, from north to south. The Israeli population of the region is 52,000, of whom 47,500 live in Eilat, just over 5,000 live in 20 small towns north of Eilat, the largest of, Yotvata, with a population of 610; the Israeli residents of the region are Jewish. Arava Institute for Environmental Studies, academic program in Israel Nahal HaArava, a wadi in the northern part of the Arava Negev Sands of Samar, an expanse of sand dunes in the southern Arava Southern District Wadi Araba Crossing, southernmost border crossing between Jordan and Israel WadiFeynan Eco-Lodge The Arava Institute for Environmental Studies Royal Society for the Conservation of Nature Wadi Araba Archaeological Research Project: Integrating Investigations of the Cultural Landscape of Wadi Araba since 1996. For Publications, see http://wadiaraba.tripod.com/waarpubs.htm Wadi Arabah Project: Crossing the Rift French Institute of Oriental Archaeology
Ammon was an ancient Semitic-speaking nation occupying the east of the Jordan River, between the torrent valleys of Arnon and Jabbok, in present-day Jordan. The chief city of the country was Rabbah or Rabbath Ammon, site of the modern city of Amman, Jordan's capital. Milcom and Molech are named in the Hebrew Bible as the gods of Ammon; the people of this kingdom are called "Children of Ammon" or "Ammonites". The Ammonites occupied the northern Central Trans-Jordanian Plateau from the latter part of the second millennium BC to at least the second century CE. Ammon maintained its independence from the Neo-Assyrian Empire through tribute to the Assyrian king, at a time when nearby kingdoms were being raided or conquered; the Kurkh Monolith lists the Ammonite king Baasha ben Ruhubi's army as fighting alongside Ahab of Israel and Syrian allies against Shalmaneser III at the Battle of Qarqar in 853 BC as vassals of Hadadezer, the Aramaean king of Damascus. In 734 BC the Ammonite king Sanipu was a vassal of Tiglath-Pileser III, Sanipu's successor Pudu-ilu held the same position under Sennacherib and Esarhaddon.
An Assyrian tribute-list exists from this period, showing that Ammon paid one-fifth as much tribute as Judah did. Somewhat the Ammonite king Amminadab I was among the tributaries who suffered in the course of the great Arabian campaign of Assurbanipal. Other kings attested to in contemporary sources are Barachel and Hissalel, the latter of whom reigned about 620 BCE. Hissalel is mentioned in an inscription on a bottle found at Tel Siran, Jordan along with his son, King Amminadab II, who reigned around 600 BCE. Archaeology and history indicate; this contradicts the view, dominant for decades, that Transjordan was either destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar II, or suffered a rapid decline following Judah's destruction by that king. Newer evidence suggests. Little mention is made of the Ammonites through the Persian and early Hellenistic periods, their name appears, during the time of the Maccabees. The Ammonites, with some of the neighboring tribes, did their utmost to resist and check the revival of the Jewish power under Judas Maccabaeus.
The Hasmonean dynast Hyrcanus founded Qasr Al Abd, was a descendant of the Seleucid Tobiad dynasty of Tobiah, mentioned by Nehemiah as an Ammonite from the east-Jordanian district. The last notice of the Ammonites is in Justin Martyr's Dialogue with Trypho, in the second century, where it is affirmed that they were still a numerous people; the first mention of the Ammonites in the Bible is in Genesis 19:37-38. It is stated there that they descended from Ben-Ammi, a son of Lot through with his younger daughter who plotted with her sister to intoxicate Lot and in his inebriated state, have relations to become pregnant. Ben-Ammi means "son of my people". After the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, the daughters of Lot wanted to have a child and carried out a plot to intoxicate him and had relations, resulting in Ammon and his half brother, being conceived and born; this narrative has traditionally been considered literal fact, but is now interpreted as recording a gross popular irony by which the Israelites expressed their loathing of the morality of the Moabites and Ammonites, although it is doubtful that the Israelites would have directed such irony to Lot himself.
The Ammonites settled to the east of the Jordan, invading the Rephaim lands east of Jordan, between the Jabbok and Arnon, dispossessing them and dwelling in their place. Their territory comprising all from the Jordan to the wilderness, from the River Jabbok south to the River Arnon, it was accounted a land of giants. Shortly before the Israelite Exodus, the Amorites west of Jordan, under King Sihon and occupied a large portion of the territory of Moab and Ammon; the Ammonites were driven from the rich lands near the Jordan and retreated to the mountains and valleys to the east. The invasion of the Amorites separated the two kingdoms of Ammon and Moab. Throughout the Bible, the Ammonites and Israelites are portrayed as mutual antagonists. During the Exodus, the Israelites were prohibited by the Ammonites from passing through their lands; the Ammonites soon allied themselves with Eglon of Moab in attacking Israel. The Ammonites maintained their claim to part of Transjordan, after it was occupied by the Israelites who obtained it from Sihon.
During the days of Jephthah, the Ammonites occupied the lands east of the River Jordan and started to invade Israelite lands west of the river. Jephthah became the leader in resisting these incursions; the constant harassment of the Israelite communities east of the Jordan by the Ammonites was the impetus behind the unification of the tribes under Saul. King Nahash of Ammon lay siege to Jabesh-Gilead; this led to an alliance with Saul and The Israelites, led by Saul relieved the siege and defeated the Ammonite king resulting in the formation of the Israelite Kingdom. During the reign of King David, the Ammonites humiliated David's messengers, hired the Aramean armies to attack Israel; this ended in a war and a year-long siege of Rabbah, the capital of Ammon. The war ended with all the Ammonite cities being conquered and plundered, the inhabitants being killed or put to forced labor at David's command; when the Arameans of Damascus city-state deprived the Kingdom of Israel of their possessions east of the Jordan, the Ammon
The Book of Psalms referred to as Psalms or "the Psalms", is the first book of the Ketuvim, the third section of the Hebrew Bible, thus a book of the Christian Old Testament. The title is derived from the Greek translation, ψαλμοί, meaning "instrumental music" and, by extension, "the words accompanying the music"; the book is an anthology of individual psalms, with 150 in the Jewish and Western Christian tradition and more in the Eastern Christian churches. Many are linked to the name of David; the Book of Psalms is divided into five sections, each closing with a doxology —these divisions were introduced by the final editors to imitate the five-fold division of the Torah: Book 1 Book 2 Book 3 Book 4 Book 5 Many psalms have individual superscriptions, ranging from lengthy comments to a single word. Over a third appear to be musical directions, addressed to the "leader" or "choirmaster", including such statements as "with stringed instruments" and "according to lilies". Others appear to be references to types of musical composition, such as "A psalm" and "Song", or directions regarding the occasion for using the psalm.
Many carry the names of individuals, the most common being of David, thirteen of these relate explicitly to incidents in the king's life. Others named include Asaph, the sons of Korah, Moses, Ethan the Ezrahite, Heman the Ezrahite; the LXX, the Peshitta, the Latin Vulgate each associate several Psalms with Haggai and Zechariah. The LXX attributes several Psalms to Ezekiel and to Jeremiah. Psalms are identified by a sequence number preceded by the abbreviation "Ps." Numbering of the Psalms differs -- by one, see table -- between Greek manuscripts. Protestant translations use the Hebrew numbering, but other Christian traditions vary: Catholic official liturgical texts follow the Hebrew numbering since 1969; the variance between Massorah and Septuagint texts in this numeration is enough due to a gradual neglect of the original poetic form of the Psalms. It is admitted that Pss. 9 and 10 were a single acrostic poem. Pss. 42 and 43 are shown by identity of subject, of metrical structure and of refrain, to be three strophes of one and the same poem.
The Hebrew text is correct in counting as one Ps. 146 and Ps. 147. Liturgical usage would seem to have split up these and several other psalms. Zenner combines into. 1, 2, 3, 4. A choral ode would seem to have been the original form of Pss. 14 and 70. The two strophes and the epode are Ps. 14. It is noteworthy that, on the breaking up of the original ode, each portion crept twice into the Psalter: Ps. 14 = 53, Ps. 70 = 40:14–18. Other such duplicated portions of psalms are Ps. 108:2–6 = Ps. 57:8–12. This loss of the original form of some of the psalms is allowed by the Biblical Commission to have been due to liturgical practices, neglect by copyists, or other causes; the Septuagint, present in Eastern Orthodox churches, includes a Psalm 151. Some versions of the Peshitta include Psalms 152–155. There are the Psalms of Solomon, which are a further 18 psalms of Jewish origin originally written in Hebrew, but surviving only in Greek and Syriac translation; these and other indications suggest that the current Western Christian and Jewish collection of 150 psalms were selected from a wider set.
Hermann Gunkel's pioneering form-critical work on the psalms sought to provide a new and meaningful context in which to interpret individual psalms—not by looking at their literary context within the Psalter, but by bringing together psalms of the same genre from throughout the Psalter. Gunkel divided the psalms into five primary types: Hymns, songs of praise for God's work in creation or history, they open with a call to praise, describe the motivation for praise, conclude with a repetition of the call. Two sub-categories are "enthronement psalms", celebrating the enthronement of Yahweh as king, Zion psalms, glorifying Mount Zion, God's dwelling-place in Jerusalem. Gunkel described a special subset of "eschatological hymns" which includes themes of future restoration or of judgment. Communal laments. Both communal and individual laments but not always include the following elements: address to God, description of suffering, cursing of the party responsib
Joab the son of Zeruiah, was the nephew of King David and the commander of his army, according to the Hebrew Bible. The name Joab is derived from Yahweh, the name of the God of Israel, the Hebrew word'av', meaning'father', it therefore means'Yahweh father'. Joab was the son of a sister of king David, who made him captain of his army, he had two brothers and Asahel. Asahel was killed by Abner in combat, for which Joab took revenge by murdering Abner in an ambush, against David's wishes and shortly after Abner and David had secured peace between the House of David and the House of Saul. After leading the assault on the fortress of Mount Zion, Joab was promoted to the rank of General, he led the army against Aram, Ammon and Edom. He colluded with David in the death of Uriah. Joab played a pivotal role as the commander of David's forces during Absalom's rebellion. Absalom, one of David's sons, rallied much of Israel in rebellion against David, forced to flee with only his most trusted men. However, David could not bring himself to harm his son, ordered that none of his men should kill Absalom during the ensuing battle.
However, when a man reported that Absalom had been found, caught in a tree and his men killed him. Hearing of David's grief over the reported death of Absalom, Joab admonished David; the king followed Joab's advice to make a public appearance to encourage his troops. David replaced him as commander of the army with his nephew, Amasa. Joab killed Amasa. Joab and other commanders began questioning David's judgment; as David neared the end of his reign, Joab offered his allegiance to David's eldest son, Adonijah rather than to the promised king, Solomon. On the brink of death, David told Solomon to have Joab killed citing Joab's past betrayals and the blood that he was guilty of, for this Solomon ordered his death by the hand of Benaiah. Hearing this, Joab told Benaiah that he would die there. Benaiah, as ordered by King Solomon, killed Joab in the House of Yahweh and replaced him as commander of the army. Joab was buried in'the wilderness'. According to Josephus, Joab did not kill Abner out of revenge, because he had forgiven him for the death of his brother, since Abner had slain Asahel honorably in combat after he had twice warned Asahel and had no other choice but to kill him out of self-defense.
If this was the case, the reason Joab killed Abner may have been that he became a threat to his rank of general, since Abner had switched to the side of David and granted him control over the tribe of Benjamin. Yet the narrative explicitly states that Joab killed Abner "to avenge the blood of his brother Asahel"; the ATS Bible Dictionary describes Joab as "a valiant warrior, an able general. Ut as a man he was imperious and unscrupulous". Joab in Rabbinic Literature This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Easton, Matthew George. "article name needed". Easton's Bible Dictionary. T. Nelson and Sons
Amaziah of Judah
Amaziah of Judah, (pronounced, Hebrew: אֲמַצְיָהוּ, ʼĂmaṣyāhû, meaning "the strength of the Lord," "strengthened by Yahweh," or "Yahweh is mighty". His mother was Jehoaddan and his son was Uzziah, he took the throne at the age of 25, after the assassination of his father, reigned for 29 years, 24 years of which were with the co-regency of his son. The second Book of Kings and the second Book of Chronicles in the Hebrew Bible consider him a righteous king, but with some hesitation, he is praised for killing the assassins of his father only and sparing their children, as dictated by the law of Moses. Edwin R. Thiele dates his reign from 797/796 to 768/767 BCE. Thiele's chronology has his son, Uzziah becoming co-regent with Amaziah in the fifth year of Amaziah's reign, in 792/791 BCE, when Uzziah was 16 years old; as soon as his kingdom was established Amaziah executed the murderers of his father, but in obedience to the Mosaic laws permitted their children to live. Amaziah was the first to employ a mercenary army of 100,000 Israelite soldiers, which he did in his attempt to reconquer Edom, which had rebelled during the reign of Jehoram, his great-grandfather.
He was commanded by an unnamed prophet to send back the mercenaries, to whom he acquiesced, much to the annoyance of the mercenaries. His obedience to this command was followed by a decisive victory over the Edomites. Due to the Israelite mercenaries' anger at being excluded from the battle, they attacked and looted multiple towns in Judah. Afterward, Amaziah began to worship some of the idols. An unnamed prophet rebuked him for this, the king responded by threatening him that if he continues to admonish him, he will have him executed, his victory over Edom inflated his pride, he challenged to a combat Jehoash, grandson of Jehu, king of Israel. The latter's disdain and scorn for Amaziah are embodied in the stinging parable of the thistle and the cedar. In his resentment, Amaziah rushed into a disastrous battle at Beth-shemesh, a humiliating defeat overtook his army and the land; the king was captured, 400 cubits of the wall of Jerusalem was broken down, the city and palace were looted, hostages were carried to Samaria.
This is all considered in the Hebrew Bible as a punishment for Amaziah's turning away from God. His defeat was followed by a conspiracy. He, like his father, was the victim of assassins bent upon killing the one who had brought upon such dire disasters upon the land. Amaziah was slain at Lachish, to which he had fled, his body was brought to Jerusalem, where it was buried in the royal sepulcher. According to the Books of Kings, Amaziah "did what was right in the sight of the Lord", but did not meet the standard of righteousness set by King David; the writer of the Books of Chronicles considers that during the earlier part of his reign, "he did what was right in the sight of the Lord, but not with a loyal heart". The calendars for reckoning the years of kings in Judah and Israel were offset by six months, that of Judah starting in Tishri and that of Israel in Nisan. Cross-synchronizations between the two kingdoms therefore allow narrowing of the beginning and/or ending dates of a king to within a six-month range.
For Amaziah, the Scriptural data allow the narrowing of his accession to some time between Nisan 1 of 796 BCE and the day before Tishri 1 of the same BCE year. For calculation purposes, this should be taken as the Judean year beginning in Tishri of 797/796 BC, or more 797 BCE, his death occurred at some time between Nisan 1 and Tishri 1 of 767 BCE, i.e. in 768/767 by Judean reckoning, or more 768 BCE. Amatzia, Israel is named after him. Amoz This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Easton, Matthew George. "article name needed". Easton's Bible Dictionary. T. Nelson and Sons
Books of Chronicles
In the Christian Bible, the two Books of Chronicles follow the two Books of Kings and precede Ezra–Nehemiah, thus concluding the history-oriented books of the Old Testament. In the Hebrew Bible, Chronicles is a single book, called Diḇrê Hayyāmîm, is the final book of Ketuvim, the third and last part of the Tanakh. Chronicles was called I and II Paralipoménōn; the English name comes from the Latin name chronikon, given to the text by scholar Jerome in the 5th century. Chronicles starts with a genealogy from the first human being and passes into a biblical narrative of the history of ancient Judah and Israel until the proclamation of King Cyrus the Great; the Chronicles narrative begins with Adam and the story is carried forward entirely by genealogical lists, down to the founding of the first Kingdom of Israel. The bulk of the remainder of 1 Chronicles, after a brief account of Saul, is concerned with the reign of David; the next long section concerns David's son Solomon, the final part is concerned with the Kingdom of Judah with occasional references to the second kingdom of Israel.
In the last chapter Judah is destroyed and the people taken into exile in Babylon, in the final verses the Persian king Cyrus the Great conquers the Neo-Babylonian Empire, authorises the restoration of the Temple in Jerusalem, the return of the exiles. A single work, Chronicles was divided into two in the Septuagint, a Greek translation produced in the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC, it has three broad divisions: the genealogies in chapters 1–9 of 1 Chronicles. Within this broad structure there are signs that the author has used various other devices to structure his work, notably the drawing of parallels between David and Solomon; the last events in Chronicles take place in the reign of Cyrus the Great, the Persian king who conquered Babylon in 539 BC. It was composed between 400–250 BC, with the period 350–300 BC the most likely; the latest person mentioned in Chronicles is Anani, an eighth-generation descendant of King Jehoiachin according to the Masoretic Text. Anani's birth would have been sometime between 425 and 400 BC.
The Septuagint gives an additional five generations in the genealogy of Anani. For those scholars who side with the Septuagint's reading, Anani's date of birth is a century later. Chronicles appears to be the work of a single individual, with some additions and editing; the writer was male a Levite, from Jerusalem. He was well read, a skilled editor, a sophisticated theologian, his intention was to use Israel's past to convey religious messages to his peers, the literary and political elite of Jerusalem in the time of the Achaemenid Empire. Jewish and Christian tradition identified this author as the 5th century BC figure Ezra, who gives his name to the Book of Ezra. One of the most striking, although inconclusive, features of Chronicles is that its closing sentence is repeated as the opening of Ezra–Nehemiah; the latter half of the 20th century saw a radical reappraisal, many now regard it as improbable that the author of Chronicles was the author of the narrative portions of Ezra–Nehemiah. Much of the content of Chronicles is a repetition of material from other books of the Bible, from Genesis to Kings, so the usual scholarly view is that these books, or an early version of them, provided the author with the bulk of his material.
It is, possible that the situation was rather more complex, that books such as Genesis and Samuel should be regarded as contemporary with Chronicles, drawing on much of the same material, rather than a source for it. There is the question of whether the author of Chronicles used sources other than those found in the Bible: if such sources existed, it would bolster the Bible's case to be regarded as a reliable history. Despite much discussion of this issue, no agreement has been reached; the translators who created the Greek version of the Hebrew Bible called this book "Things Left Out", indicating that they thought of it as a supplement to another work Genesis-Kings, but the idea seems inappropriate, since much of Genesis-Kings has been copied without change. Some modern scholars proposed that Chronicles is a midrash, or traditional Jewish commentary, on Genesis-Kings, but again this is not accurate, since the author or authors do not comment on the older books so much as use them to create a new work.
Recent suggestions have been that it was intended as a clarification of the history in Genesis-Kings, or a replacement or alternative for it. The accepted message the author wished to give to his audience was this: God is active in history, the history of Israel; the faithfulness or sins of individual ki
The Septuagint is the earliest extant Greek translation of the Hebrew scriptures from the original Hebrew. It is estimated that the first five books of the Old Testament, known as the Torah or Pentateuch, were translated in the mid-3rd century BCE and the remaining texts were translated in the 2nd century BCE. Considered the primary Greek translation of the Old Testament, it is quoted a number of times in the New Testament,particularly in the Pauline epistles,by the Apostolic Fathers, by the Greek Church Fathers; the full title in Ancient Greek: Ἡ τῶν Ἑβδομήκοντα μετάφρασις "The Translation of the Seventy", derives from the story recorded in the Letter of Aristeas that the Septuagint was translated at the request of Ptolemy II Philadelphus by 70 Jewish scholars who independently produced identical translations. The miraculous character of the Aristeas legend is indicative of the esteem in which the translation was held in the ancient Jewish diaspora and early Christian circles, it is clear that a Greek translation was in circulation among the Alexandrian Jews who were not fluent in Hebrew, but in Greek.
The evidence of Egyptian papyri from the period have led most scholars to view as probable Aristeas's dating of the translation of the Pentateuch to the third century BCE. Whatever share the Ptolemaic court may have had in the translation, it satisfied a need felt by the Jewish community, among whom a knowledge of Hebrew was waning before the demands of every-day life." While there are other contemporaneous Greek versions of the Old Testament, most did not survive except as fragments. Modern critical editions of the Septuagint are based on the Codices Vaticanus and Alexandrinus; the Septuagint derives its name from the Latin versio septuaginta interpretum, "translation of the seventy interpreters", Greek: ἡ μετάφρασις τῶν ἑβδομήκοντα, hē metáphrasis tōn hebdomḗkonta, "translation of the seventy". However, it was not until the time of Augustine of Hippo that the Greek translation of the Jewish scriptures came to be called by the Latin term Septuaginta; the Roman numeral LXX is used as an abbreviation G or G. Seventy-two Jewish scholars were asked by the Greek King of Egypt Ptolemy II Philadelphus to translate the Torah from Biblical Hebrew into Greek, for inclusion in the Library of Alexandria.
This narrative is found in the pseudepigraphic Letter of Aristeas to his brother Philocrates, is repeated by Philo of Alexandria, Josephus and by various sources, including St. Augustine; the story is found in the Tractate Megillah of the Babylonian Talmud: King Ptolemy once gathered 72 Elders. He placed them in 72 chambers, each of them in a separate one, without revealing to them why they were summoned, he entered each one's room and said: "Write for me the Torah of Moshe, your teacher". God put it in the heart of each one to translate identically. Philo of Alexandria, who relied extensively on the Septuagint, says that the number of scholars was chosen by selecting six scholars from each of the twelve tribes of Israel. According to rabbinic tradition, the Septuagint was handed in to Ptolemy on the date of an annual fast and mourning for the Jewish people; the date of the 3rd century BCE is supported by a number of factors, including the Greek being representative of early Koine, citations beginning as early as the 2nd century BCE, early manuscripts datable to the 2nd century.
After the Torah, other books were translated over the next two to three centuries. It is not altogether clear, translated when, or where; the quality and style of the different translators varied from book to book, from the literal to paraphrasing to interpretative. The translation process of the Septuagint itself and from the Septuagint into other versions can be broken down into several distinct stages, during which the social milieu of the translators shifted from Hellenistic Judaism to Early Christianity; the translation of the Septuagint itself began in the 3rd century BCE and was completed by 132 BCE in Alexandria, but in time elsewhere as well. The Septuagint is the basis for the Old Latin, Syriac, Old Armenian, Old Georgian and Coptic versions of the Christian Old Testament; the Septuagint is written in Koine Greek. Some sections of the Septuagint may show Semiticisms, or idioms and phrases based on Semitic languages like Hebrew and Aramaic. Other books, such as Daniel and Proverbs, show Greek influence more strongly.
The Septuagint may elucidate pronunciation of pre-Masoretic Hebrew: many proper nouns are spelled out with Greek vowels in the translation, while contemporary Hebrew texts lacked vowel pointing. However, it is unlikely; as the work of translation progressed, the canon of the Greek Bible expanded. The Hebrew bible called Tanakh, has three divisions: the Torah, the Neviʾim, the Ketuvim; the Septuagint has four: law, history and prophets, with the books of the Apocrypha inserted where appropriate. The Torah has held pre-eminence as the basis of the canon.