The Wipptal is an Alpine valley in Tyrol, Austria and in South Tyrol, running between Innsbruck and Franzensfeste. The Brenner Pass at the Austro-Italian border divides it into the northern, Austrian Unteres Wipptal and the southern, Italian Oberes Wipptal; the Unteres Wipptal extends along the river Sill southward from Innsbruck, where the Sill meets the larger river Inn, up to the Brenner Pass. South of the border, the Oberes Wipptal stretches along the Eisack river by way of Sterzing to Franzensfeste, it forms the Wipptal District of the province of South Tyrol. The Brenner Autobahn passes beginning with the Europabrücke near Innsbruck, it is an important road connection across the Alps, forming part of the connection between Munich and Verona. The inhabitants of the Wipptal have been complaining for years about the volume of traffic; the Brenner railway runs through the valley. The proposed Brenner Base Tunnel would remove all long-distance trains from the valley. Media related to Wipptal at Wikimedia Commons
Martell, South Tyrol
Martell is a valley and comune in South Tyrol in northern Italy. It is located in the Martell Valley of the 28.5-kilometre long river Plima, about 45 kilometres west of Bolzano. The commune reaches from an elevation of 957 metres up to the 3,757 metres of the Zufallspitze which towers over the southeastern end of the valley; as of 30 November 2010, it had a population of 884 and an area of 143.7 square kilometres. Martell borders to the municipality of Latsch at the bottom of the valley. Other neighbors based in the Vinschgau of the Adige are Stilfs and Schlanders. Ulten is in the neighboring valley to the East, while Peio and Valfurva are to the south. Apart from the main village of Gand, the municipality of Martell contains the frazioni of Ennetal, Gand and Sonnenberg, as well as several farms and hotels; the emblem shows two-headed sable eagle, with an or halo, placed on argent mountain and azure background. The two colors means. According to legend, the right to adorn the city arms with the imperial eagle was recognized for the courage showed, from the residents, in the Battle of Schanzen nearby Colorano.
The emblem was adopted in 1969. According to the 2011 census, 100% of the population speak German as first language. Homepage of the municipality Media related to Martell at Wikimedia Commons
Sarntal is a valley and a comune in South Tyrol in northern Italy, located about 15 kilometres north of the city of Bolzano. The municipality comprises several villages; the largest one, seat of the mayor and council, is Sarnthein. Sarntal borders the following municipalities: Hafling, Klausen, Franzensfeste, Mölten, Ritten, Jenesien, St. Leonhard in Passeier, Vahrn, Vöran and Villanders; the Durnholzer See is located in the municipal territory. The valley contains some beautiful landscapes with flat space as well; the main river is the Talfer. The village of Sarnthein was first mentioned in 1211; the emblem represents an or deer’s head on azure. The insignia looks like that of the various Lords who administered the territory since 1315, but since 1681 they were named Counts of Sarnthein living in the Kellerburg Castle; the emblem was adopted in 1967. According to the 2011 census, 98.07% of the population speak German, 1.82% Italian and 0.10% Ladin as first language. Official website Media related to Sarntal at Wikimedia Commons
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
Austria the Republic of Austria, is a country in Central Europe comprising 9 federated states. Its capital, largest city and one of nine states is Vienna. Austria has an area of 83,879 km2, a population of nearly 9 million people and a nominal GDP of $477 billion, it is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north and Slovakia to the east and Italy to the south, Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. The terrain is mountainous, lying within the Alps; the majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects as their native language, German in its standard form is the country's official language. Other regional languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, Slovene. Austria played a central role in European History from the late 18th to the early 20th century, it emerged as a margraviate around 976 and developed into a duchy and archduchy. In the 16th century, Austria started serving as the heart of the Habsburg Monarchy and the junior branch of the House of Habsburg – one of the most influential royal houses in history.
As archduchy, it was a major component and administrative centre of the Holy Roman Empire. Following the Holy Roman Empire's dissolution, Austria founded its own empire in the 19th century, which became a great power and the leading force of the German Confederation. Subsequent to the Austro-Prussian War and the establishment of a union with Hungary, the Austro-Hungarian Empire was created. Austria was involved in both world wars. Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy with a President as head of state and a Chancellor as head of government. Major urban areas of Austria include Graz, Linz and Innsbruck. Austria is ranked as one of the richest countries in the world by per capita GDP terms; the country has developed a high standard of living and in 2018 was ranked 20th in the world for its Human Development Index. The republic declared its perpetual neutrality in foreign political affairs in 1955. Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955 and joined the European Union in 1995.
It is a founding member of the OECD and Interpol. Austria signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995, adopted the euro currency in 1999; the German name for Austria, Österreich, derives from the Old High German Ostarrîchi, which meant "eastern realm" and which first appeared in the "Ostarrîchi document" of 996. This word is a translation of Medieval Latin Marchia orientalis into a local dialect. Another theory says that this name comes from the local name of the mountain whose original Slovenian name is "Ostravica" - because it is steep on both sides. Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in 976; the word "Austria" was first recorded in the 12th century. At the time, the Danube basin of Austria was the easternmost extent of Bavaria; the Central European land, now Austria was settled in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes. The Celtic kingdom of Noricum was claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province. Present-day Petronell-Carnuntum in eastern Austria was an important army camp turned capital city in what became known as the Upper Pannonia province.
Carnuntum was home for 50,000 people for nearly 400 years. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the area was invaded by Bavarians and Avars. Charlemagne, King of the Franks, conquered the area in AD 788, encouraged colonization, introduced Christianity; as part of Eastern Francia, the core areas that now encompass Austria were bequeathed to the house of Babenberg. The area was known as the marchia Orientalis and was given to Leopold of Babenberg in 976; the first record showing the name Austria is from 996, where it is written as Ostarrîchi, referring to the territory of the Babenberg March. In 1156, the Privilegium Minus elevated Austria to the status of a duchy. In 1192, the Babenbergs acquired the Duchy of Styria. With the death of Frederick II in 1246, the line of the Babenbergs was extinguished; as a result, Ottokar II of Bohemia assumed control of the duchies of Austria and Carinthia. His reign came to an end with his defeat at Dürnkrut at the hands of Rudolph I of Germany in 1278. Thereafter, until World War I, Austria's history was that of its ruling dynasty, the Habsburgs.
In the 14th and 15th centuries, the Habsburgs began to accumulate other provinces in the vicinity of the Duchy of Austria. In 1438, Duke Albert V of Austria was chosen as the successor to his father-in-law, Emperor Sigismund. Although Albert himself only reigned for a year, henceforth every emperor of the Holy Roman Empire was a Habsburg, with only one exception; the Habsburgs began to accumulate territory far from the hereditary lands. In 1477, Archduke Maximilian, only son of Emperor Frederick III, married the heiress Maria of Burgundy, thus acquiring most of the Netherlands for the family. In 1496, his son Philip the Fair married Joanna the Mad, the heiress of Castile and Aragon, thus acquiring Spain and its Italian and New World appendages for the Habsburgs. In 1526, following the Battle of Mohács, Bohemia and the part of Hungary not occupied by the Ottomans came under Austrian rule. Ottoman expansion into Hungary led to frequent conflicts between the two empires evident in the Long War of 1593 to 1606.
The Turks made incursions into Styria nearly 20 times, of which some are c
The Vinschgau or Vinschgau Valley is the upper part of the Adige or Etsch river valley, in the western part of the province of South Tyrol, Italy. The German name Vinschgau, like Italian Val Venosta, is derived from the Celtic Venostes tribes mentioned on the ancient Tropaeum Alpium. A Frankish Gau was established under Charlemagne in 772; the Vinschgau Valley runs in a west-east orientation, from the Merano basin at Partschins up the Adige river to Reschen Pass in the northwest. The Ötztal Alps in the north, part of the Alpine crest, separate it from the upper Inn Valley; the Adige valley is further confined by the Sesvenna Alps in the west and the Ortler Alps in the south. It comprises several side valleys, such as the Matscher Tal, or the Schnalstal. Due to the insular location within the Central Eastern Alps, a rather warm climate and a lack of rain, fields and apple orchards are irrigated. Viticulture is common. According to the 2001 census, 96.51% of the population of the valley speak German, 3.41% Italian and 0.08% Ladin as first language.
The Vinschgau District was established in 1962. The district covers the largest part of the Vinschgau region and its side valleys, in which 13 municipalities cooperate: Kastelbell-Tschars Graun im Vinschgau Glurns Latsch Laas Mals Martell Prad am Stilfserjoch Schlanders Schluderns Schnals Stilfs Taufers im Münstertal The municipalities of Naturns and Partschins geographically belong to the lower Vinschgau region, though politically they are affiliated with the neighbouring Burggrafenamt district. Media related to Vinschgau at Wikimedia Commons Vinschgau District
The Val Badia is the valley of the Gran Ega river in South Tyrol, Italy. It stretches from the Sella massif northwards to the Puster Valley; the villages in the Val Badia, whose population are predominantly Ladin-speaking, belong to the following municipalities: Badia, Corvara, La Val and San Martin de Tor. The upper part of the valley, starting from the village San Linêrt and including Badia, Corvara and La Val, is called in German Abteital; the same area is under the name Alta Badia a renowned ski resort. Media related to Val Badia at Wikimedia Commons