Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence.
The western portion of Alta California was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA.
Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their organization with bands, villages. Trade and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years English explorer Francis Drake explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565
Jane Kim is an American civil rights attorney and politician, the first Korean American elected official in San Francisco. She represents San Franciscos District 6 on the Board of Supervisors, District 6 includes Union Square, Civic Center, Mid-Market, Cathedral Hill, South of Market, South Beach, Mission Bay, Treasure Island, Yerba Buena Island, and Alcatraz. Prior to her election to the Board of Supervisors, Kim served as member and her grandfather was a prominent prosecutor in Seoul, and her father served the District Attorneys office in New York as a prosecutor. Kim grew up learning both the English and Korean language, at age 14, Kim began studying taekwondo, eventually earning a black belt. She was involved with community activism, especially the issue of homelessness and she decided in high school to stop reciting the Pledge of Allegiance—she rejected the Pledge words with liberty and justice for all because that goal was not available to all Americans. Kim graduated from Stanford University with a degree in Political Science.
She settled in San Francisco in the late 1990s and in 2005 enrolled in the UC Berkeley School of Law, Kim earned a law degree, and was admitted to the State Bar of California in December 2009. After finishing her Stanford studies, Kim worked as an advocate at Greenlining Institute in Berkeley. She interviewed with Reverend Norman Fong, the leader of the Chinatown Community Development Center in 2000, Fong was doubtful she would fit the position of youth organizer, as she did not speak any Chinese. However, Kim successfully led an effort of San Francisco Chinatown youth cleaning up alleyways. Through her community organization efforts, she met power broker Rose Pak, in 2005 Kim was elected president of the San Francisco Peoples Organization, made up of many left-wing political groups. SFPO worked against several California ballot propositions in November 2005, and assisted with health care, in 2003 while campaigning for Green Party mayoral candidate Matt Gonzalez, Kim felt too few female Asian Americans were engaged in San Francisco politics.
In 2004, she decided to run for the San Francisco Board of Education, in 2006, Kim mounted a stronger campaign. She was endorsed by politicians, community groups and media. In 2007 when she was sworn in she became the first Korean American elected official in San Francisco, Kims election was part of a progressive shift in the school board. Fellow Green Mark Sanchez served as president and progressive Kim-Shree Maufas was elected. In 2006, the board took up the issue of whether to continue the 90-year-old Junior Reserve Officers Training Corps program in San Francisco high schools. The board voted to phase out the JROTC program over two years, in December 2006, previous to taking office, Kim learned about a death threat against her that was sent from a JROTC cadet to his friend on Facebook
Katy Tang is an American elected official in San Francisco, California. She serves as a member of the San Francisco Board of Supervisors representing Supervisorial District 4, District 4 includes the neighborhoods of Central Sunset, Outer Sunset, Outer Parkside, and Pine Lake Park. Tang was born in New York to immigrant parents from Taiwan and she grew up in the Sunset District, attended Lowell High School, and graduated from University of California, Davis with a double B. A. in 3 years. She is a graduate of the University of San Francisco School of Law, Tang was appointed to the Board of Supervisors in February 2013 and elected in two subsequent elections in November 2013 and November 2014. On the Board of Supervisors, Tang has advocated for supporting housing opportunities for middle-income families and she has worked with the city’s Shelter Monitoring Committee to prevent victims of domestic violence from being denied shelter services. As an animal advocate, Tang worked to ensure that the city will build a new animal shelter that will adequately serve the needs of the animals.
She hosts an event in her office each year in partnership with SF Animal Care & Control. In 2015, Tang sponsored legislation to ban the performance of wild or exotic animals in San Francisco for entertainment purposes, tang’s office hosts a District 4 Youth Job Fair each year to pair students with local Sunset businesses. History of the Chinese Americans in San Francisco Official website
San Francisco City Hall
San Francisco City Hall is the seat of government for the City and County of San Francisco, California. The structures dome is taller than that of the United States Capitol by 42 feet, the present building replaced an earlier City Hall that was destroyed during the 1906 earthquake, which was two blocks from the present one. It was bounded by Larkin Street, McAllister Street, and City Hall Avenue, largely where the current Public Library and U. N. Plaza stand today. The principal architect was Arthur Brown, Jr. of Bakewell & Brown, whose attention to the finishing details extended to the doorknobs, browns blueprints of the building are preserved at the Bancroft Library at the University of California, Berkeley. Brown designed the San Francisco War Memorial Opera House, Veterans Building, Temple Emanuel, Coit Tower, the buildings vast open space is more than 500,000 square feet and occupying two full city blocks. It is 390 ft between Van Ness Avenue and Polk Street, and 273 ft between Grove and McAllister Streets and its dome, which owes much to Mansarts Baroque domes of the Val-de-Grâce and Les Invalides in Paris, rises 307.5 ft above the Civic Center Historic District.
It is 19 ft higher than the United States Capitol, and has a diameter of 112 ft, resting upon 4 x 50 ton and 4 x 20 ton girders, each 9 ft deep and 60 ft. The building as a whole contains 7,900 tons of steel from the American Bridge Company of Ambridge. It is faced with Madera County granite on the exterior, and Indiana sandstone within, together with finish marbles from Alabama, Vermont, much of the statuary is by Henri Crenier. The Rotunda is a space and the upper levels are public. Opposite the grand staircase, on the floor, is the office of the Mayor. A bust of former county supervisor Harvey Milk, who was assassinated in the building was unveiled on May 22,2008, MAYOR1931 The words were written by the previous Mayor Edward Robeson Taylor, and dedicated by Mayor James Rolph. The medallions in the vaults of the Rotunda are of Equality, Strength, Learning and, as memorialized in the South Light Court display, Progress. The current City Hall building is a replacement for a building which was completed in 1899 after 27 years of planning.
The original city hall was a larger building which contained a smaller extension which contained the citys Hall of Records. The building was destroyed in the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, after Arthur Brown Juniors design was selected, construction started in 1913 and was completed by 1915, in time for the Exposition. The main rotunda had served as the location of prominent state funerals. General Fredrick Funston, hero of the Spanish–American War, Philippine–American War, joe DiMaggio and Marilyn Monroe were married at City Hall in 1954
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. The Democrats dominant worldview was once socially conservative and fiscally classical liberalism, especially in the rural South, since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social-liberal platform, supporting social justice. Today, the House Democratic caucus is composed mostly of progressives and centrists, the partys philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state. It seeks to provide government intervention and regulation in the economy, the party has united with smaller left-wing regional parties throughout the country, such as the Farmer–Labor Party in Minnesota and the Nonpartisan League in North Dakota. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business, the New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities.
After Franklin D. Roosevelts New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South, after the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most southern whites and many northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level. The once-powerful labor union element became smaller and less supportive after the 1970s, white Evangelicals and Southerners became heavily Republican at the state and local level in the 1990s. However, African Americans became a major Democratic element after 1964, after 2000, Hispanic and Latino Americans, Asian Americans, the LGBT community, single women and professional women moved towards the party as well. The Northeast and the West Coast became Democratic strongholds by 1990 after the Republicans stopped appealing to socially liberal voters there, the Democratic Party has retained a membership lead over its major rival the Republican Party. The most recent was the 44th president Barack Obama, who held the office from 2009 to 2017, in the 115th Congress, following the 2016 elections, Democrats are the opposition party, holding a minority of seats in both the House of Representatives and the Senate.
The party holds a minority of governorships, and state legislatures, though they do control the mayoralty of cities such as New York City, Los Angeles, Chicago and Washington, D. C. The Democratic Party traces its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and that party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party truly arose in the 1830s, since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has generally positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues. They have been liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy both parties changed position several times and that party, the Democratic-Republican Party, came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812 the Federalists virtually disappeared and the national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans. The Democratic-Republican party still had its own factions, however.
As Norton explains the transformation in 1828, Jacksonians believed the peoples will had finally prevailed, through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, and newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president
London Nicole Breed is an American elected official in San Francisco, California. She serves as a member of the San Francisco Board of Supervisors representing Supervisorial District 5, Breed was raised by her grandmother in public housing in the Western Addition. She is a graduate of Galileo High School, Breed earned a bachelors degree from the University of California Davis in 1997 and a masters degree in public administration from the University of San Francisco in 2012. Breed was named to the San Francisco Redevelopment Agency Commission in 2004, in 2010, Mayor Gavin Newsom appointed her to the San Francisco Fire Commission. She is Mayor Ed Lees closest ally on the Board of Supervisors, Breed authored legislation to allow the San Francisco City Attorney to pursue civil damages against graffiti taggers, instead of solely relying on criminal prosecutions to punish taggers. In 2016, City Attorney Dennis Herrera used these new penalties to win a civil judgment against serial tagger Terry Cozy that resulted in a $217,831.64 fine.
On January 8,2015 Breed was elected president of the San Francisco Board of Supervisors, defeating fellow supervisor David Campos and she was re-elected to another two year term as president on January 9,2017. After the shooting of Mario Woods by San Francisco police officers, Breed, in February 2016, Breed announced her re-election bid to represent District 5. The top issues she identified in her announcement were development, public safety, environmental health and she is running against Dean Preston, a tenant rights lawyer and advocate for affordable housing rights
Government of San Francisco
It is the only consolidated city-county in California, and one of only thirteen charter counties of California. The fiscal year 2007–08 city and county budget was approximately $6 billion, San Francisco utilizes the strong mayor form of mayoral/council government, composed of the mayor, Board of Supervisors, several elected officers, and numerous other entities. San Francisco voters use ranked-choice voting to elect the mayor, the Mayor of San Francisco is the head of the executive branch of the city and county government. The mayor serves a term and is limited to two successive terms. If the mayor dies or resigns, the President of the Board of Supervisors assumes the office, the Board of Supervisors is headed by a president and is responsible for passing laws and budgets. Proposition K - 2009-2034, Different formula for local streets and local and regional public transit, pursuant to its charter, San Francisco causes to be published several codified version of its ordinances and regulations, the San Francisco Municipal Codes.
Every act prohibited or declared unlawful, and every failure to perform an act required, by the ordinances are misdemeanor crimes, San Franciscans make use of direct ballot initiatives to pass legislation. In addition, several regional governmental units in San Francisco operate independently of the municipal government, there are several school districts that are co-extensive with San Francisco. The San Francisco Unified School District is governed by the elected seven-member San Francisco Board of Education, the community college district of the City College of San Francisco is governed by an elected seven-member Board of Trustees. Also notable are the independent police forces of the University of California, San Francisco and the Park Police of the Presidio Trust and the Golden Gate National Recreation Area. The San Francisco Democratic Central Committee, the body of the San Francisco Democratic Party, is a county central committee of the California Democratic Party for San Francisco. The SFDCC is elected from the two Assembly districts in San Francisco and consists of 24 members, with a 14/10 member split between the two Assembly districts based on number of registered Democrats
Aaron Peskin is an American elected official in San Francisco, California. He serves as a member of the San Francisco Board of Supervisors representing Supervisorial District 3 and he was elected in 2015, having previously served two terms in 2001–2009. In January 2005, his colleagues elected him president of the board and he was head of the San Francisco Democratic Party Central Committee from 2008 to 2012. District 3 includes the neighborhoods of North Beach, Telegraph Hill, North Waterfront, Financial District, Nob Hill, Union Square, Maiden Lane, Peskin was born and raised in Berkeley. His mother, Tsipora, an emigrant from Israel, taught at UC Berkeley, his father and he is married to land-use attorney Nancy Shanahan. Before entering politics, Peskin was an environmental activist and water-rights negotiator for an organization which brokered passage. He first came to notice as president of the Telegraph Hill Dwellers. He is a member of the South End Rowing Club and an avid outdoorsman, Peskin can be seen most mornings in his Speedo swimming in the San Francisco Bay.
He reassured San Franciscans after the 2007 Cosco Busan oil spill that the water was safe by stripping down to his Speedo and going for a dip in front of a local television news crew. As Supervisor he is mostly for siding with a self-described progressive majority on development issues, often being at odds with the policies of mayors Gavin Newsom. In office, Peskin wrote and won approval for 205 ordinances during his eight years on the San Francisco Board of Supervisors, Peskin was first elected in December 2000, along with other progressive neighborhood activists who had gained their first significant political experience on Tom Ammianos mayoral campaign. When he was sworn into office, he described District 3 as the room of San Francisco. In 2004, Peskin was unanimously elected President of the San Francisco Board of Supervisors and he served as a member of the San Francisco Bay Conservation and Development Commission, an agency responsible for regulating development in, on and immediately surrounding the San Francisco Bay.
When he came to the end of his term in 2008 he supported David Chius successful campaign for the District 3 seat on the Board of Supervisors. San Francisco restricts supervisors to a maxiumum of two consecutive terms and he was elected chair of the San Francisco Democratic Party Central Committee, the local partys governing board. Peskin held this seat until 2012, on March 30,2015, Peskin announced that he would be a candidate for his old District 3 Supervisors seat, challenging appointed incumbent Julie Christensen. While Peskin had previously served San Franciscos maximum of two terms as a supervisor from 2000 to 2008, the city code is silent on non-consecutive terms. Since his first days in office Peskin has been known as a neighborhood preservationist, in 2005, he prevented the conversion of hotel rooms by several San Francisco hotels into condominiums
San Francisco, officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural and financial center of Northern California. It is the birthplace of the United Nations, the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856, after three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was quickly rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater. Politically, the city votes strongly along liberal Democratic Party lines, San Francisco is the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Dolby, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Pinterest, Uber, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation, as of 2016, San Francisco is ranked high on world liveability rankings.
The earliest archaeological evidence of habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the system gradually ended, and its lands became privatized. In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, and the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7,1846, during the Mexican–American War, montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography. The California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers, with their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849.
The promise of fabulous riches was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor. Some of these approximately 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships and hotels, many were left to rot, by 1851 the harbor was extended out into the bay by wharves while buildings were erected on piles among the ships. By 1870 Yerba Buena Cove had been filled to create new land, buried ships are occasionally exposed when foundations are dug for new buildings. California was quickly granted statehood in 1850 and the U. S. military built Fort Point at the Golden Gate, silver discoveries, including the Comstock Lode in Nevada in 1859, further drove rapid population growth. With hordes of fortune seekers streaming through the city, lawlessness was common, and the Barbary Coast section of town gained notoriety as a haven for criminals, entrepreneurs sought to capitalize on the wealth generated by the Gold Rush