Jerez de García Salinas
Jerez is a town and municipality in the Mexican state of Zacatecas. To distinguish the two, the town, is called Jerez de García Salinas to honor an 18th-century reformer; the town of Jerez is the local government of 128 other communities, a rural area noted for its production of fruit trees and dairy. The town was named a Pueblo Mágico to attract tourism, as it lies close the state capital of Zacatecas and offers handcrafts, traditional food and architecture; the town of Jerez is fifty seven km from the state capital of Zacatecas, located in a deep valley surrounded by forests and fruit orchards. The architecture and layout are distinct from the state capital; the town is centered on a main square called Jardín Rafel Páez, the site of the old traditional market. It is surrounded by a wrought iron fence and in the center there is a Moorish style kiosk made of metal with a sandstone base, it is a popular place on Sundays for men playing dominoes and for bands playing a local music called tamborazo, a type of band music with a distinctive rhythm.
On the south side of the square is the Portal Humboldt, which has two different types of arches, one in Romance style and the other in Arabic. To the north is the Portal Inguanzo, which dates from 1797, it is the exterior of. Today the building houses a café-ice cream shop; the Palacio Municipal or town government building is in a former two-story mansion, built between 1730 and 1745. The building has a Baroque facade done in sandstone, it was remodeled in the last decades of the 20th century but its original facade was meticulously preserved. Inside, there is a central courtyard surrounded by arches with two stairwells to connect the floors; the main one is on the east side and the south one has a portrait of Francisco García Salinas. The Sanctuary of Nuestra Señora de la Soledad dates from 1805, built over what was a hospital for the indigenous, it is said. The style is Neoclassic; the interior is dominated by the main altar which houses the image of the Virgin Mary after the death of Jesus. There are finely sculpted confession booths and pulpit.
This Virgin is a local icon, named a “General” by troops during the Mexican Revolution and is celebrated each year from January to February. The Edificio de la Torre was construction on the site Pantaleón de la Torre donated to promote education and culture in the municipality in 1894 as a school for girls; the architectural style is a mix of Romance and Moorish built by stonemason Dámaso Muñeton, who did the north tower of the Zacatecas Cathedral. Today the building houses the municipal library. An alley dedicated to local handcrafts is located alongside the Edificio de la Torre; these include wide cowboy hats and embroidered leather belts. Behind the Sanctuary of Nuestra Señora de la Soledad is the Jardín Hidalgo, in front of the Hinojosa Theater; the Theater is in Moorish style with arches and railings in groups of three and five, built between 1876 and 1890, promoted by local politician José María Hinojosa. Its stage is under a sandstone arch and its seats are carved from wood. For most of its history, the lighting was provided by carbide lamps, a large mirror in the back remains from that time.
It is said. Today it is used for live performances but in the past it was a movie theatre, a hall for social events, a library and a public school. On the side of the building, there is a Community Museum with items such as carpentry tools, archeological pieces, sewing machines and more from the area’s past; the Ramón López Velarde House Museum is located on the street, named after the most famous poet from the town. The house was the childhood home of López Velarde has its original furnishings from the 19th century, along with the poet’s personal items such as family photographs, copies of manuscripts of works such as Suave Patria, a work completed in 1921 to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the end of the Mexican War of Independence; the building was converted into a museum in 1951, in 2009 the space was renovated and recordings of Lopez Velarde’s verses were added to the original furnishings and many of the poet’s personal effects. The Inmaculada Concepción parish is made of white sandstone.
It was built in the 18th century with a Baroque facade. The arch of the main entrance is crowned by the keys of Saint Peter. Alongside, images of the Four Evangelists appear; the interior is Neoclassic with gold leaf accents on the columns. Away from the center of the town are a number of other landmarks; the Casa de Campesino is a construction from the 18th century, the home of various organizations for rural farmers. Today it is a multiuse building; the Chapel of Nuestra Señora de los Dolores was built at the beginning of the 19th century. The Portal de las Palomas is home to several traditional bars, fronted by a square called Plaza Tacuba; the Tizoc Bar is a store that sells antiques and handcrafts. The current town market is a building with arches on two sides; the market offers vegetables along with handcrafts and prepared food. Much of town life is still traditional, with businesses closing all or part of Saturday. Charrería and bullfighting are important to the heritage of the area. A major tradition for the town is the Burning of Judas on Holy Saturday, which signals the start of the Feria de Primavera.
On this day there is c
Jalpa is located in the Mexican state of Zacatecas, close to the border with Jalisco and Aguascalientes and about a two hours drive south of the capital city, Zacatecas. Jalpa is a colonial-style city, with cobble stone streets, narrow walkways, two main churches: El Señor de Jalpa and La Parroquia de San Antonio, two plazas. Jalpa was modeled by the French in the 19th century. In the middle of the plaza is a kiosk which remains in good shape today, after hundreds of years. Most houses are painted in bright colors just as in colonial times; the houses are made of most have flat roofs. The original indigenous natives were the Caxcan and Huichol people. Founded in the early 16th Century by Spanish explorers in search of gold and silver, Jalpa was spelled "Xalpa" by its native Caxcan and Huichole people. Conquered by the Spanish, the Indian population inter-mixed with Spanish and other European peoples to form today's mestizos. Mestizo is a term traditionally used in Latin America for people of mixed European and Native American heritage or descent.
The term originated as a racial category in the Casta system, in use during the Spanish empire's control of its American colonies. In the Casta system mestizos had fewer rights than European born persons called "Peninsulares", "Criollos" who were persons born in the new world of two European born parents. During the colonial period, mestizos became the majority group in much of what is today Latin America and the southwestern United States. In some Latin American countries, such as Mexico, the concept of the "mestizo" became central to the formation of a new independent identity, neither wholly Spanish nor wholly indigenous and the word mestizo acquired its current double meaning of mixed cultural heritage and actual racial descent; the population is between ten and twelve thousand with most living within the town and surrounding communities. The population continues to grow since Jalpa is a significant transportation hub between the cities of Guadalajara and Zacatecas. A large percentage of the population is older than 50 years.
This disproportion is because more males migrate to the United States, where as females stay. Much of the growth in Jalpa is fed by remittances in US dollars from former residents who have emigrated to the United States; every family has at least one member male, residing in the US. Most family members receive money from those living in the United States. There are no known factories in this town. Farming activity has been decreasing due to water table shortage in the region's aquifer. Most of Zacatecas lies within two high sierras, hence poor rain seasons. Many traditional plantations/farms that grow guayaba and sugar cane in the 70s, 80s, early 90s, have been now replaced with agave fields- since these plants require minimal water for growth. Other current farmed crops are: maize, sugar cane, alfalfa and wild cactus which gives a fruit called Tuna
Jesús González Ortega
Jesús González Ortega was a military man and Mexican politician. He is notable for defending the city of Puebla from the French army March 16, 1863 to May 16, 1863.. Ortega was born on January 20, 1822 in San Mateo, in Valparaíso, Zacatecas, he moved his residence to the city of Guadalajara, where he began his law studies, same as for family reasons could not conclude. While still young, he came to the town of San Juan Bautista of Teúl, where he served as a clerk at City Hall. Since his youth he was a fervent supporter of the Liberal Party. Although González Ortega was not a career soldier, he was head of the army of President Juarez in 1860. In March 1861, he was appointed Minister of War, but due to differences with some cabinet members, he resigned but remained in command of the division of Zacatecas. In August 8, 1861 the Battle of San Felipe del Obraje took place under his command. Following the 1861 murders of Melchor Ocampo, Santos Degollado and Leandro Valle, he returned to Mexico City and was appointed president of the Supreme Court of the Nation, a position that placed the holder as successor to the president of the republic.
When the French army invaded Mexico, the Eastern Army was in charge of General Ignacio Zaragoza, who defended the city of Puebla on May 5, 1862, González Ortega arrived in the city a day later. On the death of General Zaragoza, Jesús González Ortega was appointed by President Benito Juarez chief of the Eastern Army and instructed to defend the city of Puebla from the French army commanded by General Élie-Frédéric Forey again; the March 16, 1863, the French expeditionary army besieged the city, took place a battle that generated heavy losses for both sides, the battle lasted two months, was on May 16 of that year when the French army had no weapons or ammunition and their strength was reduced by the harsh battle, They surrendered to Ortega and his men of valor. In early 1881, he received a letter of recognition from President Manuel González Flores, shortly after he died at his residence on January 28, his remains were transferred in April of that year to Mexico City, deposited in the Rotonda de los Hombres Ilustres
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern and Great Lakes region of the United States. It has the fifth largest gross domestic product, the sixth largest population, the 25th largest land area of all U. S. states. Illinois is noted as a microcosm of the entire United States. With Chicago in northeastern Illinois, small industrial cities and immense agricultural productivity in the north and center of the state, natural resources such as coal and petroleum in the south, Illinois has a diverse economic base, is a major transportation hub. Chicagoland, Chicago's metropolitan area, encompasses over 65% of the state's population; the Port of Chicago connects the state to international ports via two main routes: from the Great Lakes, via the Saint Lawrence Seaway, to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River, via the Illinois Waterway to the Illinois River. The Mississippi River, the Ohio River, the Wabash River form parts of the boundaries of Illinois. For decades, Chicago's O'Hare International Airport has been ranked as one of the world's busiest airports.
Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and, through the 1980s, in politics. The capital of Illinois is Springfield, located in the central part of the state. Although today's Illinois' largest population center is in its northeast, the state's European population grew first in the west as the French settled the vast Mississippi of the Illinois Country of New France. Following the American Revolutionary War, American settlers began arriving from Kentucky in the 1780s via the Ohio River, the population grew from south to north. In 1818, Illinois achieved statehood. Following increased commercial activity in the Great Lakes after the construction of the Erie Canal, Chicago was founded in the 1830s on the banks of the Chicago River at one of the few natural harbors on the southern section of Lake Michigan. John Deere's invention of the self-scouring steel plow turned Illinois's rich prairie into some of the world's most productive and valuable farmland, attracting immigrant farmers from Germany and Sweden.
The Illinois and Michigan Canal made transportation between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River valley faster and cheaper, new railroads carried immigrants to new homes in the country's west and shipped commodity crops to the nation's east. The state became a transportation hub for the nation. By 1900, the growth of industrial jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe. Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars; the Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in the state, including Chicago, who founded the city's famous jazz and blues cultures. Chicago, the center of the Chicago Metropolitan Area, is now recognized as a global alpha-level city. Three U. S. presidents have been elected while living in Illinois: Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Barack Obama. Additionally, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was born and raised in the state.
Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official state slogan Land of Lincoln, displayed on its license plates since 1954. The state is the site of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum in Springfield and the future home of the Barack Obama Presidential Center in Chicago. "Illinois" is the modern spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers' name for the Illinois Native Americans, a name, spelled in many different ways in the early records. American scholars thought the name "Illinois" meant "man" or "men" in the Miami-Illinois language, with the original iliniwek transformed via French into Illinois; this etymology is not supported by the Illinois language, as the word for "man" is ireniwa, plural of "man" is ireniwaki. The name Illiniwek has been said to mean "tribe of superior men", a false etymology; the name "Illinois" derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa - "he speaks the regular way". This was taken into the Ojibwe language in the Ottawa dialect, modified into ilinwe·.
The French borrowed these forms, changing the /we/ ending to spell it as -ois, a transliteration for its pronunciation in French of that time. The current spelling form, began to appear in the early 1670s, when French colonists had settled in the western area; the Illinois's name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms. American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans; the Koster Site demonstrates 7,000 years of continuous habitation. Cahokia, the largest regional chiefdom and urban center of the Pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois, they built an urban complex of more than 100 platform and burial mounds, a 50-acre plaza larger than 35 football fields, a woodhenge of sacred cedar, all in a planned design expressing the culture's cosmology.
Monks Mound, the center of the site, is the largest Pre-Columbian structure north of the Valley of Mexico. It is 100 feet high, 951 feet long, 836 feet wide, covers 13.8 acres. It contains about 814,000 cubic yards of earth, it was topped by a structure thought to have measured about 105 feet in length and 48 feet in width, covered an area 5,000 square feet, been as much as 50 feet high, making its peak 150 feet above the level of the pl
Manuel Felguérez Barra is a prominent abstract artist of Mexico, part of the Generación de la Ruptura which broke with the muralist movement of Diego Rivera and others in the mid 20th century. Felguérez was born in Zacatecas in 1928, but political instability caused his family to lose their land there and move to Mexico City. In 1947, he had the chance to travel to Europe and impressed with the art there, decided to dedicate himself to the vocation. Unhappy with the education at the Academy of San Carlos in Mexico, he did most of his studies in France, where he specialized in abstract art, something, not accepted in Mexico at the time, his exhibitions were limited to galleries and the production of "sculpted murals" using materials such as scrap metals and sand. As attitudes in Mexico changed towards art, Felguérez found acceptance for his work and remains active at over eighty years of age. Manuel Felguérez was born on his family’s San Agustín del Vergel hacienda near Valparaíso, Zacatecas in 1928.
It was a turbulent time as Zacatecas was involved in the Cristero uprising and while the fighting began over religion, it become about land as well. His father owned the family hacienda, the great great grandson of landholders, but by the early 20th century, these landowners were despised by the general populace. Various of the hacienda’s workers demanded control of the land by force, with battles between loyalists and the insurgents on the property. In the 1930s, there were land expropriations under Lázaro Cárdenas, which took away most of the family’s holdings; the family decided to flee and completely abandon the hacienda in 1934 for Mexico City. Felguérez’s father hoped for compensation for the lost lands from the federal government, but he died after a year when Felguérez was only eight years old. Felguérez’s mother never returned to Zacatecas, warning her son that if he returned to Valparaíso, they would kill him, she preferred to be with her parents in the capital city. Felguérez would return about six decades to Zacatecas for the first time to open an art museum named after him.
Felguérez grew up with his mother and her family, which owned the Ideal Theater on Dolores Street in Mexico City. The change from rural farm life to city life was essential to his development; the family had a number of financial downturns, first losing the theatre losing a grocery store they opened after only two years, making the family poor. There was pressure to join gangs and rob, he liked to box and see lucha libre at the Arena México and tried marijuana in his youth. However, he received his primary and high school education through the Marists and was a Boy Scout from age eight to age twenty three with his best friend Jorge Ibargüengoitia; the Scouts encouraged him to read authors such as Dostoyevsky and G. K. Chesterton and took hiking trips including one to Iztaccíhuatl. Scouting gave him the opportunity to travel to Europe in 1947 just after the end of World War II when the cultural scene was recovering, his intention was to go with Ibargengoitia for a jamboree, but the trip cost 5000 pesos which he could not pay.
The two found a way for cheaper passage and got the France on their own, angering the Mexican Scout leadership, who expelled them. They decided to hitchhike around various countries including Italy, Switzerland and England, staying at houses of Scouting contacts and visiting museums. Although his mother wanted him to be a doctor, he was impressed by the European art he saw that of English painter William Turner and announced to Ibargengoitia that he would become an artist. Although Ibargengoitia laughed at the time, he write that he felt that this is when Felguérez’s vocation began, he entered the Academy of San Carlos in 1948, but lasted only four months as he did not like its conformity with the dominant artistic movement in Mexico called the Escuela Mexicana de Pintura. He decided to go back to Europe along with his friend Jorge Wilmot. To get the money, they went to other areas to find archeological pieces to sell. At that time, there was not the consciousness, he studied at the Grande Chaumière Academy in Paris, under French-Russian Cubist artist Ossip Zadkine, who became his mentor.
He returned to Mexico in 1950 for family reasons and between and 1954, he studied for a bachelors in anthropology and history as well as taking classes in modern art at Mascarones and studying the craft of terracotta at La Esmeralda with Francisco Zúñiga. He met his first wife, Ruth Rohde in 1951, their families would not let them marry. To appease the families, they married again in the Catholic Church, he tried to sell sculptures made in his workshop, without success, but did make some money making designing lamps for Enrique Anhalt. He and his first wife had a store selling handcrafts. In 1952, he obtained a scholarship from the French government to study again in Paris at the Colarossi Academy, he returned to France which his wife and daughter, with a large studio in the Casa de Mexico, where he met Lilia Carrillo, married to Ricardo Guerra. He soon afterwards married Carrillo, they remained married until Carrillo died in 1974, five years after a ruptured aneurism in her back left her paralyzed.
He married his current wife Mercedes Oteyza shortly after that. Over his lifetime he has done a variety of work in addition sometimes out of necessity, it includes taxidermist, artisan and teacher. He was a university professor, retiring after thirty years, never depended in art sales to live; as a teacher, his
Wheat is a grass cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain, a worldwide staple food. The many species of wheat together make up the genus Triticum; the archaeological record suggests that wheat was first cultivated in the regions of the Fertile Crescent around 9600 BCE. Botanically, the wheat kernel is a type of fruit called a caryopsis. Wheat is grown on more land area than any other food crop. World trade in wheat is greater than for all other crops combined. In 2016, world production of wheat was 749 million tonnes, making it the second most-produced cereal after maize. Since 1960, world production of wheat and other grain crops has tripled and is expected to grow further through the middle of the 21st century. Global demand for wheat is increasing due to the unique viscoelastic and adhesive properties of gluten proteins, which facilitate the production of processed foods, whose consumption is increasing as a result of the worldwide industrialization process and the westernization of the diet.
Wheat is an important source of carbohydrates. Globally, it is the leading source of vegetal protein in human food, having a protein content of about 13%, high compared to other major cereals but low in protein quality for supplying essential amino acids; when eaten as the whole grain, wheat is a source of dietary fiber. In a small part of the general population, gluten – the major part of wheat protein – can trigger coeliac disease, noncoeliac gluten sensitivity, gluten ataxia, dermatitis herpetiformis. Cultivation and repeated harvesting and sowing of the grains of wild grasses led to the creation of domestic strains, as mutant forms of wheat were preferentially chosen by farmers. In domesticated wheat, grains are larger, the seeds remain attached to the ear by a toughened rachis during harvesting. In wild strains, a more fragile rachis allows the ear to shatter and disperse the spikelets. Selection for these traits by farmers might not have been deliberately intended, but have occurred because these traits made gathering the seeds easier.
As the traits that improve wheat as a food source involve the loss of the plant's natural seed dispersal mechanisms domesticated strains of wheat cannot survive in the wild. Cultivation of wheat began to spread beyond the Fertile Crescent after about 8000 BCE. Jared Diamond traces the spread of cultivated emmer wheat starting in the Fertile Crescent sometime before 8800 BCE. Archaeological analysis of wild emmer indicates that it was first cultivated in the southern Levant, with finds dating back as far as 9600 BCE. Genetic analysis of wild einkorn wheat suggests that it was first grown in the Karacadag Mountains in southeastern Turkey. Dated archeological remains of einkorn wheat in settlement sites near this region, including those at Abu Hureyra in Syria, suggest the domestication of einkorn near the Karacadag Mountain Range. With the anomalous exception of two grains from Iraq ed-Dubb, the earliest carbon-14 date for einkorn wheat remains at Abu Hureyra is 7800 to 7500 years BCE. Remains of harvested emmer from several sites near the Karacadag Range have been dated to between 8600 and 8400 BCE, that is, in the Neolithic period.
With the exception of Iraq ed-Dubb, the earliest carbon-14 dated remains of domesticated emmer wheat were found in the earliest levels of Tell Aswad, in the Damascus basin, near Mount Hermon in Syria. These remains were dated by Willem van Zeist and his assistant Johanna Bakker-Heeres to 8800 BCE, they concluded that the settlers of Tell Aswad did not develop this form of emmer themselves, but brought the domesticated grains with them from an as yet unidentified location elsewhere. The cultivation of emmer reached Greece and Indian subcontinent by 6500 BCE, Egypt shortly after 6000 BCE, Germany and Spain by 5000 BCE. "The early Egyptians were developers of bread and the use of the oven and developed baking into one of the first large-scale food production industries." By 3000 BCE, wheat had reached Scandinavia. A millennium it reached China; the oldest evidence for hexaploid wheat has been confirmed through DNA analysis of wheat seeds, dating to around 6400-6200 BCE, recovered from Çatalhöyük.
The first identifiable bread wheat with sufficient gluten for yeasted breads has been identified using DNA analysis in samples from a granary dating to 1350 BCE at Assiros in Macedonia. From Asia, wheat continued to spread across Europe. In the British Isles, wheat straw was used for roofing in the Bronze Age, was in common use until the late 19th century. Technological advances in soil preparation and seed placement at planting time, use of crop rotation and fertilizers to improve plant growth, advances in harvesting methods have all combined to promote wheat as a viable crop; when the use of seed drills replaced broadcasting sowing of seed in the 18th century, another great increase in productivity occurred. Yields of pure wheat per unit area increased as methods of crop rotation were applied to long cultivated land, the use of fertilizers became widespread. Improved agricultural husbandry has more included threshing machines and reaping machines, tractor-drawn cultivators and planters, better varieties.
Great expansion of wheat production occurred as new arable land was farmed in the Americas and Australia in the 19th and 20th centuries. Leaves emerge from the shoot apical meristem in a telescoping fashion until the transition to reprod