Phthiotis is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the administrative region of Central Greece; the capital is the city of Lamia. It is bordered by the Malian Gulf to the east, Boeotia in the south, Phocis in the south, Aetolia-Acarnania in the southwest, Evrytania in the west, Karditsa regional unit in the north, Larissa regional unit in the north, Magnesia in the northeast; the name dates back to ancient times. It is best known as the home of Achilles. Phthiotis covers the northern and southern shorelines of the Malian Gulf, an inlet of the Aegean Sea, it stretches inland towards the west along the valley of the river Spercheios. In the south it covers the upper part of the Cephissus valley. There are several mountain ranges in Phthiotis, including the Othrys in the northeast, the Tymfristos in the west, the Vardousia in the southwest, Oeta in the south and the Kallidromo in the southeast. "Phthiotis" means "the region of Phthia", the southernmost region of ancient Thessaly around Pharsalus and home of Achilles.
In Classical times, it referred to the region of Achaea Phthiotis, which bordered on Thessalian Phthiotis to the south and east. Achaea Phthiotis covered the northern part of the present regional unit Phthiotis and the southern part of present Magnesia; the southeastern part of present Phthiotis was covered by the ancient region Locris, the southwestern part was ancient Malis and Ainis. E65, S, Cen. NE Greek National Road 1/E75, SE, E, Cen. NE Greek National Road 3, SE, S, Cen. N Greek National Road 27, S, Cen. Greek National Road 38, W, Cen; the regional unit Phthiotis is subdivided into 7 municipalities. These are: Amfikleia-Elateia Domokos Lamia Lokroi Makrakomi Molos-Agios Konstantinos Stylida The prefecture Phthiotis and Phocis was created in 1845. In 1947 this prefecture was split into the northern part Phthiotis; as a part of the 2011 Kallikratis government reform, the regional unit Phthiotis was created out of the former prefecture Phthiotis. The prefecture had the same territory as the present regional unit.
At the same time, the municipalities were reorganised, according to the table below. Province of Domokos - Domokos Province of Phthiotis - Lamia Province of Locris - AtalantiNote: Provinces no longer hold any legal status in Greece. Thanos Livaditis Dimitrios Holevas Lamia F. C. Ionikos Lamias BC List of traditional Greek place names List of settlements in Phthiotis Media related to Phthiotis at Wikimedia Commons
The province of Attica was one of the provinces of Attica, Greece. It consisted of parts of the East West Attica prefectures, its territory corresponded with that of the current municipalities Acharnes, Kropia, Marathon, Markopoulo Mesogaias, Paiania, Rafina-Pikermi, Spata-Artemida and Fyli. It was abolished in 2006
Chalkidiki spelt Chalkidike, Khalkidhiki or Halkidike, is a peninsula and regional unit of Greece, part of the Region of Central Macedonia in Northern Greece. The autonomous Mount Athos region constitutes the easternmost part of the peninsula, but not of the regional unit; the capital of Chalkidiki is the main town of Polygyros, located in the centre of the peninsula. Chalkidiki is a popular summer tourist destination; the Cholomontas mountains lie in the north-central part of Chalkidiki. Chalkidiki consists of a large peninsula in the northwestern Aegean Sea, resembling a hand with three "fingers" – Pallene and Agion Oros, which contains Mount Athos and its monasteries. Chalkidiki borders on the regional unit of Thessaloniki to the north, its largest towns are Nea Kallikrateia and the capital town of Polygyros. There are several summer resorts on the beaches of all three fingers where other minor towns and villages are located, such as at Yerakini, Neos Marmaras, Nikiti, Psakoudia and more. Chalcidice, Chalkidiki, or Chalkidike, is the name given to this peninsula by a group of people native to this region, the Chalcideans, since ancient times.
The area was a colony of the ancient Greek city-state of Chalkis. The first Greek settlers in this area came from Chalcis and Eretria, cities in Euboea, around the 8th century BC who founded cities such as Mende and Scione a second wave came from Andros in the 6th century BC who founded cities such as Akanthos; the ancient city of Stageira was the birthplace of the great philosopher Aristotle. Chalkidiki was an important theatre of war during the Peloponnesian War between Sparta; the Greek colonies of the peninsula were conquered by Philip II of Macedon and Chalkidiki became part of Macedonia. After the end of the wars between the Macedonians and the Romans, the region became part of the Roman Empire, along with the rest of Greece. At the end of the Roman Republic a Roman colony was settled in Cassandreia, resettled by Augustus. During the following centuries, Chalkidiki was part of the Byzantine Empire. On a chrysobull of Emperor Basil I, dated 885, the Holy Mountain was proclaimed a place of monks, no laymen or farmers or cattle-breeders were allowed to be settled there.
With the support of Nikephoros II Phokas, the Great Lavra monastery was founded soon afterwards. Today, over 2,000 monks from Greece and many other Eastern Orthodox countries, such as Romania, Georgia, Bulgaria and Russia, live an ascetic life in Athos, isolated from the rest of the world. Athos with its monasteries has been self-governing since. After a short period of domination by the Latin Kingdom of Thessalonica, the area became again Byzantine until its conquest by the Ottomans in 1430. During the Ottoman period, the peninsula was important for its gold mining. In 1821, the Greek War of Independence started and the Greeks of Chalkidiki revolted under the command of Emmanouel Pappas, a member of Filiki Eteria, other local fighters; the revolt was progressing and unsystematically. The insurrection was confined to the peninsulas of Mount Kassandra. One of the main goals was to restrain and detain the coming of the Ottoman army from Istanbul, until the revolution in the south became stable; the revolt resulted in a decisive Ottoman victory at Kassandra.
The survivors, among them Papas, were rescued by the Psarian fleet, which took them to Skiathos and Skyros. The Ottomans proceeded in retaliation and many villages were burnt; the peninsula was incorporated into the Greek Kingdom in 1912 after the Balkan Wars. In June 2003, at the holiday resort of Porto Carras located in Neos Marmaras, leaders of the European Union presented the first draft of the European Constitution. Acanthus Acrothoi Aege Alapta Aphytis Apollonia Charadrus Cleonae Galepsus Mekyberna Mende Neapolis, Chalcidice Olophyxus Olynthus Palaiochori "Neposi" castle Polichne Potidaea Scione Scolus Sermylia Stageira Spartolus Thyssus Torone Treasury of the Acanthians Xerxes Canal The peninsula is notable for its olive oil and olive production. Various types of wine are produced. Chalkidiki has been a popular summer tourist destination since the late 1950s when people from Thessaloniki started spending their summer holidays in the coastal villages. In the beginning tourists rented rooms in the houses of locals.
By the 1960s, tourists from Austria and Germany started to visit Chalkidiki more frequently. Since the start of the big tourist boom in the 1970s, the whole region has been captured by tourism. In the region there is a golf course, with plans for four others in the future. Gold was mined in the region during antiquity by Philip II of the next rulers. Since 2013, a revival of mining for gold and other minerals was underway with a number of concessions having been granted to Eldorado Gold of Canada. However, critics claim that mining would adversely affect the environment; the regional unit Chalkidiki is subdivided into five municipalities. These are: Aristotelis Kassandra Nea Propontida Polygyros Sithonia As a part of the 2011 Kallikratis government reform, the regional unit Chalkidiki was created out of the former prefecture Chalk
Attica Region is an administrative region of Greece, that encompasses the entire metropolitan area of Athens, the country's capital and largest city. The region is coextensive with the former Attica Prefecture of Central Greece, but covers a greater area than the historical region of Attica. Located on the eastern edge of Central Greece, Attica covers about 3,808 square kilometers. In addition to Athens, it contains within its area the cities of Eleusis, Megara and Marathon, as well as a small part of the Peloponnese peninsula and the islands of Salamis, Angistri, Hydra, Spetses and Antikythera. About 3,750,000 people live in the region, of whom more than 95% are inhabitants of the Athens metropolitan area; the region was established in the 1987 administrative reform, until 2010 it comprised the 4 prefectures of Athens, East Attica and West Attica. With the 2010 Kallikratis plan, the region's powers and authority were redefined and extended. Since 1 January 2011, the region represents the second-level local administration.
While being supervised by the Decentralized Administration of Attica, it is now an independent self-governing body with powers and a budget comparable to the former prefectures. The region is subdivided into eight subordinate regional units: The region's governor is Rena Dourou, who on 1 September 2014 succeeded Giannis Sgouros following the 2014 local elections; the Attica region consists of five electoral districts: Athens A, Athens B, Piraeus A, Piraeus B and Attica. List of municipalities and communities in Attica List of settlements in Attica Attica is the only region in Greece with a GDP per capita higher than the average of the European Union. Despite that, the unemployment rate stood at 21.6% in 2017. The main roads and highways of Attica are: Motorway 1 Motorway 6 Motorway 8 Motorway 62 Motorway 64 Motorway 65 Motorway 642 Greek National Road 1 Greek National Road 3 Greek National Road 8 Greek National Road 79 Greek National Road 83 Greek National Road 89 Greek National Road 91 Numerous ferry lines, both normal ferries and the "flying dolphins", connect the port of Piraeus with the islands of the region.
Athens Mass Transit System Athens Metro Athens Tram Proastiakos Transit System Official website
Prefectures of Greece
During the first administrative division of independent Greece in 1833–1836 and again from 1845 until their abolition with the Kallikratis reform in 2010, the prefectures were the country's main administrative unit. They are now defunct, have been replaced by regional units, they are called departments in ISO 3166-2:GR and by the United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names. The prefectures were the second-degree organization of local government, grouped into 13 regions or 10 geographical departments, in turn divided into provinces and comprising a number of communities and municipalities; the prefectures became self-governing entities in 1994, when the first prefectural-level elections took place. The prefects were appointed by the government. By 2010, their number had risen to 51, of which one, the Attica Prefecture, where more than a third of the country's population resided, was further subdivided into four prefecture-level administrations. In addition, there were three super-prefectures controlling two or more prefectures.
With the Kallikratis reform, which entered into force on 1 January 2011, the prefectures were abolished. Many in the mainland, were retained in the form of regional units within the empowered regions, which took over the prefectures' administrative role; the current "Prefectural Self-Governments" were formed in 1994 and replaced the previous prefectures, whose councils and prefects were appointed by the government. Prefectures are governed by a Prefectural Council made up of 21 to 37 members, led by the Prefect and presided by a Council President. Other organs of the prefectures are: The Prefectural Committee, consisted of the Prefect or an assistant appointed by him and 4 to 6 members, elected by the Prefectural Council; the Provincial Council and The Eparchos. Super-prefectures have their own organs. Prefectural councillors are elected via public election every four years. Three-fifths of all seats go to the combination winning a majority and two-fifths of the seats go to remaining parties based on a proportional system.
Prefect becomes the president of the victorious electoral combination. Electoral is a combination which attains more than 42% in the first round of the prefectural elections. If no combination passes this threshold, a second round takes place between the two combinations that took the most votes in the first round The State oversees the actions of local governments, including the prefectures, but the Constitution of Greece and the Code of Prefectural Self-Government still provide communities and municipalities with legal control over the administration of their designated areas; the Code of Prefectural Self-Government does not include a non-restrictive list of prefectural duties, but a general rule, according to which the newly formed Prefectural Self-Governments have all the duties of the previous prefectures, which are related to their local affairs. Nonetheless, the affairs of " state administration" belonging to the prefects before 1994 are now exerted by the Presidents of the Regions.
The current Prefectural Self-Governments have kept the "local affairs of prefectureal level" not belonging to the " state administration". With certain laws specific affairs of certain ministries were transferred to the Prefectural Self-Governments; the following prefectures have been part of the Greek state since independence: Notes: Many of the prefectures were combined in pairs: Attica and Boeotia formed the Attica and Boeotia Prefecture Phthiotis Prefecture and Phocis Prefecture formed the Phthiotis and Phocis Prefecture Corinthia Prefecture and Argolis Prefecture formed Argolis and Corinthia Prefecture Achaea Prefecture and Elis Prefecture formed the Achaea and Elis Prefecture Aetolia-Acarnania also included Evrytania. Unlike the rest mentioned above, the prefecture never broke up into two prefectures, thus being the only one left with a composite appellation. Messenia included the southern half of what is now Elis. Laconia included the southern-eastern half of what is now Messinia. Euboea included the Sporades, which now belong to Magnesia.
The territory of Phthiotis Prefecture did not include the Domokos Province, part of Thessaly. The area constituting the Domokos Province of the Fthiotis Prefecture only became a part of the Greek state in general, of Phthiotis in particular, after the annexation of Thessaly to Greece in 1881. Arcadia Prefecture and the Cyclades Prefecture are the only prefectures to have their borders unchanged since independence; the capital of Argolis Prefecture, Nafplion was the first capital of the modern Greek state, before the move of the capital to Athens by King Otto. There were several short-lived prefectures in areas of present Albania and Turkey, during the Greek occupation of those areas during World War I and the Greco-Turkish War respectively: Argyrokastron, in Northern Epirus Korytsa, in Northern Epirus Adrianople, in Eastern Thrace Kallipolis, in Eastern Thrace Rhaedestos, in Eastern Thrace Saranta Ekklisies, in Eastern Thrace ISO 3166-2:GR Map of Greece at Archive.today "Nomarchy". New International Encyclop
Visaltia is a municipality in the Serres regional unit, Greece. The seat of the municipality is in Nigrita, it was named after the ancient region Bisaltia. The ancient city of Berge is located here; the municipality Visaltia was formed at the 2011 local government reform by the merger of the following 4 former municipalities, that became municipal units: Achinos Nigrita Tragilos VisaltiaThe municipality has an area of 658.333 km2, the municipal unit 144.255 km2. The province of Visaltia was one of the provinces of the Serres Prefecture, its territory corresponded with that of the current municipality Visaltia, part of the municipal unit Strymoniko. It was abolished in 2006
Edessa Province was one of the three provinces of Pella Prefecture of Greece. Its territory corresponded with that of the current municipalities Skydra, it was abolished in 2006